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Calvin, John. Calvin's "Institutes Book Review

… God has a plan for the world in terms of how it is structured, and God also has a plan for our ultimate salvation. Many very intelligent people forget their dependence upon God and are led astray: no human-generated creation can compare to the glory of God. We are not led down the path through the "bright lights" of literature, philosophy, and other human-generated ideas, but through God alone (Calvin 26). This notion is clearly tied to Calvin's conception of man as a uniquely fallen being: as fallen persons who must be completed by God, no great works of humanity can be seen as substitutes or comparable to the divine's actions.

Far from an egocentric philosophy that stresses the perfection of the 'elect,' chosen persons,…. [read more]

John Calvin the Theological Work Term Paper

… John Calvin

The theological work of John Calvin revolutionized the approach to Protestant Christianity, thoroughly examining it in a questioning and unflaggingly rational paradigm. Born Jean Chauvin in 1509 in Picardie to a French attorney, Calvin was sent to the University of Paris at a young age to be immersed in the study of humanities and the law. By 1532, he was serving as a Doctor of Law at Orlean's; his education endowed him with the clear sight of legal thought, which he applied not only to his own edition of Seneca's De Clementia, replete with commentary, but also to the changing seas of theology engaging Christian Europe. The power of his theological approach was not only the critical analysis he brought to the discussion,…. [read more]

Machiavelli John Calvin and Thomas Term Paper

… John Calvin, Thomas More & Niccolo Machiavelli

The Degree of Separation and Limits to Power of the Church and the State: Insights from John Calvin, Thomas More, and Niccolo Machiavelli

Religion has served an important function to human society for many civilizations and generations: it acts as a "social glue" that binds people together and unites them under one belief and set of values. While Marx also claimed that religion is a dysfunction in the society, in that it creates the illusion of the maintenance of the status quo, it cannot be denied that religion is an imperative feature of every society or culture because of its ability to create communities among people of diversity.

Moreover, people see their respective religions as "arbiters" wherein it…. [read more]

Luther and Calvin as Theologians Term Paper

… He also faced strong opposition from those in the middle, neither Catholic nor Protestant, and he outlived a major uprising in Geneva by these Perrinists, and then ordered almost all of them executed, which seems to go against his own teachings of Christianity. Later, he helped found the University of Geneva, and taught there almost until the day he died. Calvin died in May 1564 at the age of fifty-five. He wrote shortly before his death,

As concerns my doctrine: I have taught faithfully, and God has given me grace to write. I have done it with the utmost fidelity, and have not to my knowledge corrupted or twisted a single passage of the Scriptures; and when I could have drawn out a far-fetched meaning,…. [read more]

John Calvin Thesis

… John Calvin

Short Biography

John Calvin and the Reformation

Calvinism: History

The Five Points of Calvinism

Calvinism vs. Arminianism

Calvin's Doctrines: Predestination and Free Will


Evaluating Calvin and Calvinism

Calvin lives on

Why John Calvin is important


"God so led me about through different turnings and changes…"

John Calvin (quoted in Godfrey, p. 29).

Biography of John Calvin

In time, Jean Calvin later became known as John Calvin, the father of modern reformed theology. In the book, John Calvin: Pilgrim and Pastor, Robert W. Godfrey reported that the family name of Calvin evolved from the name, Cauvin. Godfrey described Calvin the way he continues to be known more than 500 years after he was born on July 10, 1509: "As controversial as…. [read more]

John Knox, the Scottish Reformer Term Paper

… They were formally betrothed in 1553 without the great approval of the rest of the family. In his relationship with his mother-in-law, Knox was able to show a side of himself that he was not always able to display in public life. With her he was compassionate and gentle as she took tentative steps in her journey of faith. It was also here that he was able to express his own doubts and fears. In public he was obliged to appear confident and zealous in his faith for the sake of his flock and his reformation work.6

From 1551 Knox began in earnest to attract high-profile attention. During the spring of this year he met John Willock in Newcastle. Here also, a number of fellow…. [read more]

Protestant Reformation Calvin vs. Luther Term Paper

… Calvin's stringent Protestant beliefs do not suggest however that good works serve no purpose. Like Luther Calvin does find purpose in good works, even though Luther suggests that good works are not necessary for salvation. Calvin suggests that good works were a sign that someone was making "the best of their life here on earth" and while that may suggest someone is more likely to go to heaven, there were no guarantees (Kreis, 1).

Calvin also suggested the notion of calling, that some people are called to perform certain duties while here on earth (Kreis, 1). Those whose calling included living a sober and meaningful life would acquire wealth, and rationalized the notion for wealth by suggesting that certain individuals had a spirit that enabled…. [read more]

John Calvin's Book Entitled the Institutes Term Paper

… ¶ … John Calvin's book entitled the Institutes of the Christian Religion. This paper will explore the doctrines and opinions of the greater reformer and offer a modern view of the works.

John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion is a monumental work that stands among the greatest works of Christian theology and Western literature. It ranks with works such as St. Augustine's Confessions and City of God in value, insight and significance. The Institutes have molded the church's understanding of Christian doctrine for generations and has had untold influence in the development of Western thought in both the religious and civil arenas. Calvin's Institutes represent his life work in teaching theology. They first appeared in 1536 and went through three significant revisions - each…. [read more]

Martin Luther John Calvin Pascal Essay

… Luther, Calvin, Pascal

The three main premises of Reformation theology include: 1) the sole authority of Scripture; 2) Justification by faith alone; and 3) the priesthood of the believer. These were also the three main premises that steered protestants away from the Catholic Church. In Martin Luther's text, he integrates these three elements to respond to one of the dominant theological questions of the sixteenth century, regarding how the Christian might be assured of God's favor.

In his text, for example, Luther goes to great lengths to emphasize that no outward signs of faith accomplishes anything beyond a show of faith in the eyes of people. Much like Jesus and the Apostle Paul after him, Luther notes that certain pieces of clothing or actions such…. [read more]

Erasmus vs. John Calvin Research Proposal

… Erasmus v. Calvin

An Analysis of the Theoretical Basis and Practical Effects of Education as Perceived by Erasmus and John Calvin and Subsequent generations

The roots of the public education systems in Europe and the United States of America are often though to lie in nineteenth century reform efforts, largely as an outgrowth of the Industrial Revolution and the sweeping societal changes wrought by the behemoth of progress. There is definitely a large degree of validity to this claim; the nineteenth century did see a massive growth in the number of public education institutions and a legal basis for their operations, including mandated attendance at public expense for many children who would otherwise have simply remained uneducated and illiterate for their entire lives. Changing literacy…. [read more]

Gospel of John Verses Thesis

… Gospel of John, Verses 1-5

The Gospel of John

The Prologue, Verses 1 -5

Throughout time the Gospel According to John has provoked both thought and controversy, especially concerning its enigmatic and problematic prologue. Many scholars have felt that it is out of place and does note flow with the rest of the epistle while others find it to be moving and ripe with imagery and ontology, not only concerning the nature of God, but the nature of man as well. There is also some speculation that the prologue was derived from a hymn and is not solely the work of John, but adapted by him for this introduction. There is also what many Biblical Scholars believe to be the obvious similarity with the opening…. [read more]

Martin Luther Ulrich Zwingli John Calvin Term Paper

… American Pastoral

Lutheranism originated as a 16th-century movement led by Martin Luther. Luther was a German Augustinian monk who also taught theology at the University of Wittenberg in Saxony. He is currently considered the first man who intended to reform the Western Christian church. The conflict with the orthodox belief lead to the excommunication of Luther and his followers by the pope. Despite that fact, Lutheranism managed to develop in various separate national and territorial churches, and announced the breakup of the organizational unity of Western Christendom.

The church Luther founded originally called itself the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession or simply the Evangelical Church. "Lutheranism" became a worldwide communion and the largest Protestant Christian denomination in the world, with about almost 100 million…. [read more]

Theology of John Calvin Term Paper

… ¶ … Wilhelm Niesel's book entitled the Theology of Calvin. This paper will explore the doctrines and opinions of the greater reformer and offer a modern view of the works.

Wilhem Niesel's book explores the many issues that Calvin's Theology brings to light. This book can be described as having a great range and sweep of covering the theology that has been rarely comprehensively presented in one work. This is an important book for Calvinists and religious scholars worldwide. It is essential work to the Reform church.

Niesel does not waste time in exploring the vital core elements of theology. He devotes Chapter Two to Theology and the Holy Scripture. Calvin presents the problem of Scripture as we try to understand it, what we see…. [read more]

Deity of Christ Research Paper

… Dissection here would rather imply murder, as the divinity is inseparable (Moule, 1977)."

Many authors have interpreted "Son of God" in a much wider context of the Gospel of John. According to Pink (1975), one proof of the Jesus' divinity was his baptizing in the Holy Spirit. In response to John 1:48, Robertson (1916) wrote that he might be aware of the Baptist regarding Jesus and thus he proclaims Jesus to be the King of Israel, as well as acknowledging his Deity. Moreover, Even Jenson (1997) rejected that the particular status given to Jesus of Son was much more than just meaning a Messiah: "You're the son of the One that is blessed? In consideration of this context, God's Son cannot be understood as consisting…. [read more]

Religion Christianity Started Essay

… Luther's edicts had established an emerging faction of Christianity that denied vehemently the papal authority. With the denial of Papal authority came the avowal of a new type of worship and new vision of Christianity. In accordance with Protestant theory, the individual believer can come to know God without the intervention of a priest. Scripture is to be read and studied by the individual, regardless of Papal authority.

The Reformation had a more significant impact on the social and political affairs of Europe than on its theological life. Disavowal of Church authority paved the way for the Enlightenment and the age of humanism. Religion had a stranglehold on European social life for centuries. The people demanded a more egalitarian state of affairs with a worldview…. [read more]

Revelation Our Senses Are so Feeble Thesis

… Revelation

Our senses are so feeble that we could never understand single word that God says to us unless we are illumined by his Holy Spirit for carnal men cannot comprehend heavenly things"

John Calvin (1509-1564).

Introducing John Calvin; Donald G. Bloesch

John Calvin argued that the Christian scriptures must be literally read. "Anything not contained explicitly and literally in these scriptures was to be rejected; on the other hand, anything that was contained explicitly and literally in these scriptures was to be followed unwaveringly."

Known as a fierce and imposing reformer, Calvin, a lawyer who became a preacher, dedicated his efforts to reform of the church. His opportunity occurred during the 1520's when the citizens of Geneva revolted against their rulers. Today, Calvin, some…. [read more]

Justification and Sanctification Thesis

… Justification and Sanctification

"Because God chose it [the Bible]

to be this unique instrument and witness, it has always been since its inception a unique authority to which Christians turn for guidance and correction, and by which they measure all truth claims about God and salvation."

Perceptions Calvin and Bloesch Promote

Since the Bible's inception, Donald G. Bloesch, born 1928, Professor of Theology Emeritus University of Dubuque Theological Seminary in Dubuque, Iowa from 1957-1992; a prolific contemporary writer, and John Calvin,

a French reformer and theologian, who lived from 1509-1564, also a prolific writer during his time, concur that the Bible serves to guide, correct and measure all truth claims about God and salvation."

Bloesch and Calvin, albeit do not always agree regarding" truth claims"…. [read more]

Eucharist in Catholicism and Calvinism Term Paper

… Aquinas answers the objection "whether bread can be converted into the body of Christ" by stating that:

this is done by Divine power in this sacrament; for the whole substance of the bread is changed into the whole substance of Christ's body, and the whole substance of the wine into the whole substance of Christ's blood. Hence this is not a formal, but a substantial conversion; nor is it a kind of natural movement: but, with a name of its own, it can be called "transubstantiation." (Summa III.75 Article 4)

As to what this actually means -- surely each Eucharistic wafer cannot individually be transformed into the totality of Christ's actual body -- Aquinas propounds the doctrine of the Real Presence, which

For the body…. [read more]

Providence Debate According to J Research Paper

… Calvin rejected the traditional theology in favor of Protestant simplification.

Arminius was more cautious: he recognized the need for further study, and intimated a return to the doctrine of the Church Fathers.

Finding an Alternative: A Reconciliation of the Two Views through Scripture

The operation of Providence in man's daily life has been duly noted in Divine Scripture. As Leslie Walker observes, "Man tills the ground (Genesis 3:17 sq.; 4:12; 9:20), but human labors without Divine assistance are of no avail (Psalm 126:1; 59:13; Proverbs 21:31)."

The primary importance given to the notion of "divine assistance" in the daily life of man points to the idea that Providence has an essential role in helping man achieve his aims in this life, fulfill his duty of…. [read more]

Judaism Christianity and Islam Religious Tradition Terms Term Paper

… ¶ … religious terms. There are nine references used for this paper.

Every religion has terms which are used in their religious traditions. It is interesting to look at Judaism, Christianity and Islam and identify terms which are specific to each religion.


Three terms in Judaism which can be explored are Halakhah, Holdheim, and Hanakah. Halakhah is the Hebrew term for 'the way'. "In Judaism, it is the oral tradition embodied in the Talmud (a compilation of Jewish law and tradition). Based on the Torah, it comprises rules, discussion, and commentary passed down by word of mouth. The Halakhah regulates all aspects of conduct by describing the proper path through life, and it strictly observed by Orthodox Jews (unknown, Hutchinson)."

Samuel Holdheim was a…. [read more]

Man and the Right Government Term Paper

… Rousseau referred to a small village or civic community, but the concepts he provided were also applied to great sovereign nation-states, so Rousseau ironically became the forefather of nationalism although he personally wished for a federal Europe, stating that "if we could realize a European republic for one day, it would be enough to make it last for ever" However, he was realistic enough to see that the realizations of his project was improbable, owing to the folly of men.

Rousseau's work coincided with the emergence of the political consciousness and power of the middle classes and of the masses. The vagueness of the concept of general will did not affect its adaptability and prestige: constitutionalism became even more liberal and dynamic and demagogues and…. [read more]

Investiture Struggle and Give Its Effects Essay

… ¶ … Investiture struggle and give its effects. What was really at stake?

The beginning of the second millennium saw divergences between the Catholic Church and secular powers intensifying, given that Church officials were no longer willing to accept the sin of simony. Cardinal Peter Damian of Ostia's letter to Henry IV of Germany regarding the conflict between the king and Pope Gregory VII wrote "The royal and the priestly dignity & #8230; are bound together in the Christian people by a reciprocal treaty. Each must make use of the other & #8230; For the king is girded with the sword so that he may be armed to resist the enemies of the Church and the priest devotes himself to prayers and vigils so as…. [read more]

Unmasking the New Age Term Paper

… Unmasking the New Age

The opening line of the Foreword to Douglas R. Groothuis' Unmasking the New Age reads, "Advertising that it can transform people and society worldwide, the New Age movement is spearheading a comprehensive attack on many of the highest values of both the Christian church and Western culture," (9). In this book, Groothuis illustrates the basic manifestations of the New Age movement, such as holistic healing and transpersonal psychology, and shows why they run counter to a Christian worldview. He urges his readers to think critically about New Age tenets such as monism and challenge their validity and supremacy. With unmasked scorn for the collection of varied beliefs categorized as New Age, the author concludes that any "faithful Christian community dedicated to…. [read more]

Negative Publicity or Advertising Scandals Term Paper

… ¶ … fashion industry Calvin Klein has forever been in trouble with critics who claim that his advertisements indulge in child pornography. Klein's most vociferous critics are consumer and child welfare who have ongoing mission in crusading against Klein and his marketing. In 1989, Brooke Shields, then barely fifteen, modeled a sexually attractive woman, who uttered the slogan, "What comes between me and my Calvin's? Nothing." Sales soared and no reprisals occurred. Giant billboards in Time Squares portrayed youth wearing nothing but their briefs. In 1995, Klein again produced advertisements that featured pubescent minors in suggestive poses. A legal investigation discovered that the model were adults. In that image, featured in the style of the 1960s, a model tugs at the crotch of her pants…. [read more]

Person of the Holy Spirit Thesis

… Person of the Holy Spirit is the third part of the Trinity, along with God and Jesus. While all three parts of the Trinity are part of each other, Christian religions that believe in the idea of the Trinity stress that the three units are separate. The distinctions between God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit are not superfluous; doctrine suggests that the three different incarnations of God play very different roles in the lives of the faithful. Despite these distinctions and the importance of the Holy Spirit in Christian theology, the Holy Spirit often is shortchanged in discussions of protestant Christianity. Either the Holy Spirit's role in salvation is minimized, or the idea that the Holy Spirit is a separate and distinct person from God…. [read more]

Apocalypse of Art Term Paper

… We want computers that emote, networks that are sentient, robots that care. We stroke their screens, play with their mice, run our fingers over their keyboards, to entice them into our field of consciousness."

Particularly of interest is Ascott's insistence that the artist desires it to be so and further has made claims as to "emotional capacity of technology."

The social impact of the new art-technology relationship is quite simply due to knowledge being more plentiful than at any other time in recorded history. To further expand on that element it must be understood that the application of knowledge, as well as man's integration with knowledge, has not at any time in history been so cohesive with each other. This is due to the global…. [read more]

Religion on World Events Essay

… The events that led to this movement were many and varying and each nation had different specific reasons for venturing onto the high seas to expand their knowledge and power base. Essentially Western European nations had to grown and explore or face the risk of becoming overrun by those nations who were expanding their power through colonizing efforts and means.

During this 300-year period of history, different nations from Western Europe played significant roles in its development. The need and desire for new trade routes eventually began this fervor of exploration. Many products such as fine fabrics and silks, spices, teas, opium, artwork, literature and other consumables were in high demand in European nations from the Eastern part of the globe. Those traders who could…. [read more]

Old Testament Deuteronomy CHP 10 Research Paper

… Deuteronomy, Chapter 10

According to biblical scholars, chapter 10 of the Book of Deuteronomy was written on the fortieth year of the exile of the people of Israel. The chapter is also one of the most important parts of the book, and the Bible in general, for it emphasizes the importance of Mosaic Law, God's Love, Grace, and Forgiveness. Scholars also divide this chapter into two sections, the first (1-11) referring to God's mercies upon the people of Israel after their numerous rebellions (especially with the case of golden calf); the second part (12-22) referring to Moses' exhortations and pleas to the people of Israel, where he reminds the importance of the law, the importance of loving God and following the Covenant, urging humility and…. [read more]

Martin Luther: Biographical Sketch Essay

… The writings of Luther faced strong condemnation by pope in 1518 who declared that his writings conflicted with the Church's teachings. Luther's teachings were also examined by a series of commissions. A public verdict known as the papal bull was issued by Pope Leo X in July 1520 concluding that the proposals of Luther were unorthodox and contradicted with accepted beliefs of the Christian community. He was asked to take back and disavow his propositions in 120 days in Rome. However, after Luther's refusal to repudiate, he was excommunicated from the Catholic Church in 1521 by Pope Leo (Atchley, 2010).

Split with the Church

Luther realized that he had to break with Rome. Therefore, he decided to make his position wider and thus aimed to…. [read more]

Protestant Movements Compared Essay

… Many of the Reformation churches have fairly regimented structures and this often remains true even when a given denomination, like the LCMS/ECLA dichotomy for example, parse themselves out within a singular larger sect. Regardless of any divisions and sects that have or will be created, the four movements in this report are all distinct and different in their own way.


Jordon, Sherry. 2014. "Writing to Learn the Reformation: Or, Who Was Ulrich Zwingli

And Why Should I Care?." Teaching Theology & Religion 17, no. 1: 50-

60. Education Research Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed May 29, 2014).

Gellera, Giovanni. 2013. "Calvinist Metaphysics and the Eucharist in the Early

Seventeenth Century." British Journal For The History Of Philosophy 21, no. 6:

1091-1110. Religion and Philosophy Collection, EBSCOhost…. [read more]

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