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American Government and Politics Today Essay

… Government

Why did the Framers of the Constitution create a bicameral legislature? Was part of the reason for a two-house legislature the idea that it would be more difficult to pass legislation, therefore serving as a check on a runaway legislature? What impact does this have today? Is it easy for Congress to agree on legislation?

There are three main reasons.

The primary reason was an issue of chronological precedent. At the same time as the American colonists had revolted against British regulation in the Revolutionary War, they silently drew a lot of their ideas about government from their colonial understanding as British citizens. In addition, the British Parliament had two houses -- an upper chamber, the House of Lords, packed with representatives of the…. [read more]

Judicial Review No Doubt Exists Term Paper

… Judicial Review

No doubt exists about the significance given to the complete and thorough understanding of the Judicial Review. It had been treated by many originalists as one of the most decisive, if not the key factor in the Marbury vs. Madison case. Of course, over the years, reviews, analysis and answers given by the various jurists and researchers have varied in a wide spectrum. Some scholars opinionated that in that particular situation the judicial review was an added angle and had no part in the initial case and its understanding at all, while others completely disagreed saying that, the notion of the judicial review had been extensive enough to give the courts leverage and authority to overthrow laws and regulation on the basis of…. [read more]

Federalist What Is a Faction? Research Paper

… Justify your proposal.

The framers intended the amendment process to be difficult, to avoid the problem of the tyranny of the majority. Unless the state legislatures call a constitutional convention, the only way an amendment can be passed is with a supermajority of two-thirds of Senators and Representatives which is then sent to the states for ratification. Three quarters of the state legislatures must then approve the amendment, usually within a set time frame, although the 21st Amendment (repeal of Prohibition) specified that state conventions had to vote on it. No constitutional convention called by the states has ever occurred, although this would be the method that best expressed popular sovereignty.

One major problem the U.S. has today that could only be changed by a…. [read more]

Local Government Around the World Essay

… The judicial branch of the New York City is a bit more complicated as compared to most other judicial branches function in the United States of America. The head of the judicial system, like in all other regions of the country, is the state Supreme Court where all the Supreme Court judges are elected. Under the supreme court, there are separate civil courts, criminal courts and family courts, with each one of the three existing in each of the city's boroughs. The civil court handles the claim cases, the criminal courts handle cases they are of criminal nature such as felonies, and the family courts handles cases pertaining to family and children (Mauro & Benjamin, 1989).

The New York City government despite of being more…. [read more]

Government Preferable in a Presidential Essay

… The federal government originally was far weaker than it now is, states held far more responsibility in concerns such as currency, trade, and even the states military.

One problem of a divided government is the presence of considerable deadlock and conflict between issues among the divided parties. This problem does not happen in parliamentary systems, since the ruling party controls all functions of government, and the minority party can merely voice its opinion. The slowness of the presidential system is frustrating for many observers, as controversial legislation is often not even presented in divided congresses, so that one party can seek to pass that legislation during a time of one party rule. This means legislation that is passed during divided government is usually weaker, less…. [read more]

Judicial Review Term Paper

… Without presuming to undertake a full development of this important idea, I will hazard a few general observations, which may perhaps place it in a clearer light, and enable us to form a more correct judgment of the principles and structure of the government planned by the convention (Federalist Paper #51).

But beyond arguing for these separations, Hamilton felt that it was important to define as clearly as possible the roles and powers that each of the branches would have. In Federalist Paper #78, for example, he focused specifically on the role of the judiciary. This is the element of government that Americans today probably think about the least, but Hamilton wanted to reassure the Americans of his time that the courts would not have…. [read more]

Takings and Judicial Review Term Paper

… He concludes that the evidence, taken as a whole, suggests that judicial review may be important in protecting private property interests against local government takings, but is less important in protecting against state or federal taking.

In conclusion, Cole believes that legislation should be sufficient to protect private property from governmental takings. While this theory may be supported by evidence of how the legislative system would work in a true democracy, Cole's argument fails to consider the significant difference between a small property owner and a large private property owner. There are legitimate concerns that the United States is moving towards an oligarchy and recent Supreme Court decisions that have equated the use of money in financial campaigns with the exercise of free speech have…. [read more]

Government Constitution Essay

… States also have authority reserved to them. This separation of powers does overlap and from time to time leads to problems which then have to be resolved according to the other components of the Constitution (Kelly, 2012).

What is public policy? Explain. What purpose does it serve?

Public policy manifests the general sense and universal conscience of the citizens as a total that extends throughout the state and is applied to matters of public well-being, security, and welfare. It is universal, well-settled public opinion relating to the responsibilities of citizens to their fellow citizens. It brings in something that varies with the changing economic needs, social customs, and moral ambitions of the people. Public policy enters into, and influences, the performance, implementation, and understanding of…. [read more]

U.S. Government the United States Democracy Term Paper

… U.S. Government

The United States democracy and government can be considered to be one of the most important political structures of the modern times. From the point-of-view of the principles it entangles, it is created according to the 18th century Constitution which, aside from some amendments, has maintained its basic elements which defines to this day the American government.

The present paper assesses the main structures of the executive branch in terms of institutions and positions of decision inside the administration. There have been wide debates in terms of the way in which the American government is able to adjust its mechanisms to the increased issues of security and national threats. From this point-of-view, the paper analyses the reforms that have been undertaken in order…. [read more]

Democracy or Monarchy), All Governments Research Proposal

… ¶ … democracy or monarchy), all Governments have (5) primary missions: (a) national security, (b) internal security, - public goods and services, (d) socialization of the young and (e) raising money. Fully explain your understanding of each purpose of government and give examples of each.

National security refers to the security of the nation, and is concerned with both civil defense and emergency preparedness measures. National security strives to protect a country's infrastructure, generally from outside threats, but it can protect it from inside threats as well as from national disasters. The Department of Homeland Security is devoted to national security concerns in the United States. Internal security is concerned with maintaining security within a country and focuses on the enforcement of a country's laws.…. [read more]

German History German Government: Ancient, 18th Century Thesis

… German History



Between the beginning of the 1st millennium a.D. And 500 a.D., the government of what is now Germany did not exist, for at this time, much of Northern Europe including Germany was controlled by tribal Teutonic warriors and chieftains who mostly came to power by either destroying rival tribes or by killing rival tribal leaders. Sometime in the 1st century a.D., the great Roman Empire invaded Germany and conquered many of the Germanic tribes as they migrated to the south and to the west, clashing in fierce battles with the better equipped and trained Roman army. In 9 a.D., these Germanic tribes, headed by Arminius, destroyed the Roman army of Quinctilius Varus which prompted Augustus…. [read more]

Comparative Politics and Government Term Paper

… Political Science

Government in Canada and the United States

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of political science in America. Specifically, it will compare and contrast three major branches of government and politics in the United States with Canada's government and politics. Both democracies, Canada and the United States have many governmental branches and policies in common. However, there are key differences, including Canada's legislative branch, their prime minister, and their social services. The United States government could learn some important lessons from Canadian practices, including their health insurance and role in world politics. Government has grown from the three main branches, executive, judicial, and legislative in this country, to become a complex and convoluted morass of agencies, public…. [read more]

Judicial Review Judiciary -Governing Article Review

… Armed, as of Jan. 31, with nine contributions of $1 million or more from six men and three corporations and 14 more contributions of $500,000 to $750,000, Restore Our Future did the job" (Edsall 2012). Even within his own party, Romney has been excoriated as a candidate that only understands and supports the lifestyle of the ultra-rich, and one of the cornerstones of the economic plan of his campaign is tax breaks for the wealthiest members of society.

In theory, the Court's decision demanded a separation between the PAC and the candidate's actual campaign, but that is not how it has operated in practice throughout the Republican primary, the most recent, full 'testing ground' of what a post-Citizens United America resembles. If Edsall's analysis is…. [read more]

Switzerland, a Federal Republic in West Central Research Proposal

… Switzerland, a federal republic in west central Europe, is officially known as the Swiss Confederation or Confoederatio Helvetica (Heatwole 2009). Its people are an ethnic mix, mainly of native German, French and Italian strains. They long labored to forge unity among themselves. Switzerland became the first member of the Confederation in 1291. It is composed of 26 states, called cantons. Of the 26, 20 are full cantons and six are half cantons. They are subdivided into communes, which are similar to counties. There are about 3,000 communes in Switzerland. The Swiss capital is Bern, which has a population of 122,178, as of 2005 statistics. Zurich is the largest city and the financial center (Heatwole).

Not all European States perceived it to their national interests to…. [read more]

American Government the Five Main Principles Essay

… American Government

The five main principles that form the basis of the Constitution are Popular Sovereignty, Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances, Limited Government, and Federalism. Popular Sovereignty indicates that people have the most important role in government. Today, it seems that people do not play the most important role in government, because many things happen that the people do not approve of in government, and so this principle is not being adhered to.

Separation of Powers is the separation of the three basic functions of government - legislative, executive, and judicial, and it creates a government that can never be monopolized by one area of the government. Today, there is still a coherent separation of powers, and the President cannot gain enough power to…. [read more]

Benchmarks in Government 1901-1981 Order Term Paper

… II. Common Law gets the Axe:

The Supreme Court did the unthinkable in 1938 when 150 years of 'common-law' was overturned. The common-law is that which expresses our 'human rights' and 'civil liberties" As written by one author:

The Common Law is the fountain source of Substantive and Remedial Rights, if not our very Liberties. The members and associates of the Bar thereafter formed committees, granted themselves special privileges, immunities and franchises, and held meetings concerning the Judicial procedures, and further, to amend laws "to conform to a trend of judicial decisions or to accomplish similar objectives."(Hardison 1999)

III. The Federal Register Act:

President Roosevelt by Executive Order created The Federal Register Act in the year of 1935 (Title 3 sec. 301 et seq) Within…. [read more]

Constitutionality of Federal Legislation in 1798 Term Paper

… Constitutionality of Federal Legislation

In 1798, the federalists enacted the Alien and Sedition Acts, much to
the displeasure of Thomas Jefferson. In his Kentucky Resolution, and James
Madison in the Virginia Resolution, both of the founding fathers argued for
state powers, believing the federal government had overstepped its power.
The Constitution, according to the Resolutions by Madison and Jefferson was
just an agreement in which the states agreed to federalize. In other
words, the states hold the power; the federal government is only the sum of
state power. In reality, however, according to the Constitution of the
United States, the federal government is who decides on the
constitutionality of federal legislation. The Constitution is an argument
for federal power, and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions…. [read more]

American Government Branches of the Federal Essay

… American Government

Branches of the federal government

The Federal Government consists of three distinct branches and they are the legislature represented by the Congress, judiciary represented by the Supreme Court and the executive represented by the President of the United States. Each of these three branches have unique powers bestowed by the U.S. Constitution and they also check the actions of the other branches to ensure that each branch fulfills its duties in a responsible manner.

The Supreme court checks the powers of the Congress by looking thoroughly at the laws that are likely to be passed in the current session. They also look into how the law is intended to be applied and how it is likely to affect the parties concerned. The legality…. [read more]

Warrantless Use of GPS Research Paper

… Katzin was then arrested, charged, and convicted. In the appeals, the government argued the GPS device did not require a warrant because it represented "only a minimal intrusion on a vehicle…no part of the vehicle is penetrated…Installation takes a matter of moments, and is much less intrusive than the typical stop and frisk of a person" (Gosztola, 2013). In this case, yet to be decided, the main issue of warrantless GPS surveillance can be seen -- and so can the fact that the government attempts to justify its usage in any way possible. From arguing for the "innocence" of GPS tracking (it's less invasive than "frisking") to arguing that it is not unreasonable to use it in cases such as that involving Katzin (who was…. [read more]

Branches of U.S. Gov Term Paper

… The judicial branch is made up of the United States Supreme Court and of lower federal courts. The legislative branch is charged with hearing court cases and interpreting legislation (Trethan, 2012). The Justices appointed to the Supreme Court are chosen by the President and confirmed by the Senate; furthermore, this Justice positions are lifetime appointments. When it comes to public policy, the legislative branch is charged with ensuring that the public's rights are not violated and ensure that laws and policies passed at state levels adhere to Constitutional requirements, thus setting precedence and determining if laws are unconstitutional thereby protecting the public from unfair discrimination. One of the most influential Supreme Court cases affecting public education was Brown v. Board of Education, which determined that…. [read more]

Judicial System Essay

… With the need to manage the system efficiently and ensure a fair and speedy trial for all, the court has taken many advances to move cases along. The future of the judicial system looks equally promising. Where once lawyers and judges held separate roles in the adversarial system, modern judges are becoming more and more active in moving their cases through the system in a just and less adversarial way. For instance, modern judges oversee activities such as settlement meetings or forcing the parties to come together and seeking a means of closing their case before it ever reaches the trial phase. Where once judges were expected to simply determine the final outcome of a trial, modern judges are leaving greater fingerprints on the trials…. [read more]

Judicial Dictatorship This Report Serves Book Review

… Judicial Dictatorship

This report serves as a summary and analysis of the book Judicial Dictatorship by Bridwell and Quirk. It was written nearly a generation ago but many of the allegations, points and analysis in the book remain very relevant to the modern age of judicial action and oversight. The main point of the text is that the judicial branch of the United States government has far surpassed and exceeded the purview that was supposedly intended by the founding fathers. The chapters offer a systemic review with many examples of how this alleged state of being has come to pass.

The book gets things off to a roaring start in the prologue by railing against the concept of judicial review. Judicial review, in a nutshell,…. [read more]

Federal and Nevada State Constitution Research Paper

… ¶ … Sagebrush State

The political history of the state of Nevada begins on the eve of the Civil War, when on March 2, 1861, the Nevada Territory separated from the Utah Territory, adopting its name from the mountain range the Sierra Nevada. The federal government gave the go-ahead for statehood for Nevada for its own reasons: As civil war became almost an inevitability, the federal government wanted more free states in the union. But the citizens of what would become Nevada had their own reasons as well. There was conflict -- sometimes arising to the level of lethal violence -- between Mormons and non-Mormons. As a result, non-Mormons were glad to be given their own state.

Nevada's statehood helped to ensure Abraham Lincoln's election,…. [read more]

Government to Allow Essay

… An example of the presidential power to make executive agreements can be seen in Dames & Moore v. Regan (1981). In this particular case, Vile (2010) points out that an agreement between president Reagan and Iran was upheld or validated by the court. This according to the author effectively ratified an order that had been issued earlier on by President Carter freezing Iranian assets.

Apart from the various powers of the U.S. President that I highlight above, it can also be noted that the holder of this important office also does have other powers not mentioned herein. While presidential powers are largely constitutional, there are other powers of the president not expressly outlined in the Constitution. These powers according to Schmidt, Shelley and Bardes (2012)…. [read more]

Powers of the Federal Government Constitution Essay

… Powers of the Federal Government

Constitution sets for the source and scope of the national government's power and does so for the judicial, legislative, and executive branches. The Constitution sets up a form of government based on federalism in which the states are afforded the general authority to govern while the national government is granted only enumerated powers. Over the course of time, however, the national government's powers have been expanded through judicial interpretation and the use of implied powers. The expressed powers include the right to collect taxes, the power to declare war, and the right to regulate interstate and foreign trade. The judicial branch has the power to rule in any case involving the application of a federal law, where the United States…. [read more]

British Parliamentary System of Government Term Paper

… S. government. It was written and passed in 1787 during the Constitutional Convention, which had been convened in the midst of the political crisis that followed the American Revolution. At that time relations between the central government and the states were strained. One of the main reasons behind forming a Constitution was to ease these tensions. The other was the urgency to consolidate the revolution by creating a single unit or a political entity consisting of 13 states (other states joint the union later) whose status at the time was of 13 independent former colonies. The Constitution making effort was, thus, also a reflection of the country's motto, E Pluribus Unum (From Many, One). The Constitution became the 'law of the land' after it was…. [read more]

American Government Question One (Interest Groups) Term Paper

… American Government

QUESTION ONE (Interest Groups): There are a number of political experts and observers who believe interest groups - or, according to Democracy Under Pressure (Cummings, 224-241), also called the "power elite" - in reality are the forces that make public policy at the federal level. And so, with this system entrenched, it will not be easy to change the way power is wielded in American government dynamics. Cummings writes (225) that "...lobbyists for interest groups are able to exert influence by means of campaign contributions and fund raising" (229), how healthy is that for the average consumer who just wants fairness and honesty in government? it's unhealthy, and difficult to change.

What changes could be made to reduce interest groups' influence? First of…. [read more]

Judicial Independence Is Vital Essay

… This is important, because it is showing how judicial system is criticizing the actions of the executive branch of the government. As, they are publically stating that they conducted their duties in: an inappropriate manner. In this aspect, the judicial system is showing its independence by: ruling on how the government violated the rights of the individual during the course of trail. ("The Duty owed to the Court," 2006)

In the case of Gianarelli v Wraith this discusses how: the prosecutors and law enforcement officials are able to use immunity (to encourage someone to provide them with additional information). This is significant, because this is showing how the court system is ruling in favor of the government, by giving them the power to encourage someone…. [read more]

Governance Essay

… this quickly became the dominant force within the North and with the defeat of the party of confederates known as the party of victors. Republicans promoted industrial development through imposition of high tariffs .at the same time it advocated for moralistic policies which were on the basis of evangelistic protestant was supported by farmers, catholic immigrants, workers and businessmen that opposed the civil war (Hartman, 2010).

The second major party was the Democratic Party which succeeded in bringing platforms, conventions and highly institutionalized campaigns to the new party level systems. The democrats asserted that it was quite wrong to wield power towards the regulation of people's individual behavior and their religious beliefs. It was supported by skilled craftsmen, commercial farmers, businessmen and African-Americans. Democrats…. [read more]

Federal Courts Essay

… In addition, these trial level courts, which are referred to as superior courts, have appellate jurisdiction over in misdemeanor criminal cases and civil cases where $25,000 or less is at issue.

The next level of the California state court system is the appellate level. There are 6 appellate districts, with 19 divisions, and 105 justices. These Courts of Appeals consist of panels of three justices, and hear all appeals except for death penalty appeals. The appellate level hears appeals from the various California trial-level courts. It is important to keep in mind that the California Courts of Appeals are not fact-finding courts; instead, they are looking to see if they can find legal errors in the trial court's decisions.

The final level of the California…. [read more]

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