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Criminological Theory and Social Policy Essay

… Criminological Theory and Social Policy

Describe how certain theories are related to how social policies are created

Classical and rational theories of criminology view crime as a 'choice' made by rational human beings. Viewed as such, punishment must be swift and certain, so that potential criminals comprehend that if they act in error, there will be consequences. Crime should be dealt with fairly, regardless of the person's social status, so they understood that the law is fair, and can make an intelligent calculus to see that the pain of punishment is greater than the pleasure of committing a crime. This theory can still be seen in the use of the death penalty, whereby the ultimate penalty is supposed to prevent capital crimes or 'broken window'…. [read more]

Social Policy Term Paper

… Differences in history, culture, resources, and national governments does account for some of these variations. Many of the innovations that Canada has created would work well in the United States, but others may not be quite so good a fit. In any case, it is important to understand how Canadian social welfare policy functions (McNutt, 2010). The European social model, with the welfare system and social policy, became the hegemonic framework for social work with the necessary implications for the structure of social work practice. Hence, many purport that it is not possible to talk about social work changes without referring to present social policy trends, and to talk about transformation of the welfare systems without taking into account its implications for social work.

Conclusion…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory and Policy Discussion Chapter

… Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

The Prison Industrial Complex

The national correction-commercial complex is an institution governed by a number of participants who have the power to make certain decisions. The participants are not ordinary individual rather, they are other firms established by the government to work under and part of the criminal justice department. The participants include the federal agencies that work hand in hand with the for-profit corporations besides other professional organizations. These participants carry out their duties within an enclosed network and ensure that the kind of information they hold about the correction-commercial complex remains secured (Kraska & Brent, 2011). The key participants have certain principles that they need to follow in order to ensure that there is no bridging of information…. [read more]

Social and Social Policies Research Paper

… It is easy to see that the spirit of the authors went well with notions of social capital, grounded civic society, participatory democracy, inter-organizational synchronization, and collective effectiveness (Reisch, & Andrews, 2014). As is often the case with such notions, details about the structure of the community center, inter-service coordination, assumptions about community solidarity and evidence of effectiveness of collective intervention are sketchy. In all these fronts, a variety of concrete precedents could be explored to move the author's ideal model closer to one that is open to experimentation.

The authors have set themselves an ambitious challenge in producing a book that focuses on various social theorists. They seek to examine the relevance of these social theorists in social work as a professional practice, academic…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory Discussion Chapter

… Criminal Justice Policies

Criminal Justice and Policies

M2D1: Applying Due Process and Crime Control

Habert Packer was the core founder of due process model and crime control model that aimed at reducing the alarming rate of crime in America. Crime control model emphasizes more on human freedom and calls for the suppression of crime. The model puts human interest first and encourages efficiency, finality and speed to apprehend any criminal with less effort on human rights. On the other hand, due process model encourages freedom but insists more on reliable data and evidence to support a criminal act for the release of the individual. Unlike the model of crime control, it emphasizes on human rights whenever the person has committed crime (Cole, 2012).

Patriot Act…. [read more]

Incorporating Restorative and Community Justice Into American Sentencing and Corrections Article Critique

… Restorative Justice




In criminal justice, new interventions targeting crime control and reduction are constantly being developed and implemented. The recent intervention that is notable is Restorative Justice. This paper will thus critique this particular emerging intervention and focus on answering questions like: What is Restorative Justice? What is Community Justice? Should Restorative and Community Justice Be incorporated into the Criminal Justice System?

In criminal justice, new interventions targeting crime control and reduction are constantly being developed and implemented. The recent intervention that is notable is Restorative Justice. Regardless of the enhanced attention provided recently to the concept of restorative justice, the principle still stays rather bothersome to specify as many feedbacks to criminal habits could fall under the supposed corrective umbrella. The…. [read more]

Criminological and Criminal Justice Research Comparative Article Review

… ¶ … Criminological and Criminal Justice Research

Comparative research

Comparative research is a technique in the social sciences that seeks to draw comparisons across different cultures or countries.

What led to its use in criminology?

The comparative methodology is not new to research studies in the social science field. In 1889, E.B. Taylor recognized the profits of comparative research in his presentation to the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain. Nonetheless, with a couple of prominent special cases, his call for comparative studies went unheeded by non-anthropological analysts until the mid-1950s (Bennett, 2009). At that point, scientists in psychology, political science and sociology started utilizing comparative approaches to develop and test theories in their disciplines. Not until the late 1970s and early 1980s did criminologists,…. [read more]

Social Policy Human Services Term Paper

… 114). Also, there were issues concerning service coordination that were not expected either (p. 114). As we can see, looking into the future and predicting what some problems may present themselves is a difficult thing to do. Sometimes projects take time to even be introduced and they may take even more years to get to a point of healthy functioning after implementation. This can be a great limitation.

Furthermore, from my own experience working in human services, we have to be aware of the fact that certainly not all social policies -- once implemented -- are in favor of the welfare of individuals. There are certain policies that once implemented can actually chip away at human capabilities. Social policies will be implemented at times even…. [read more]

Australian Social Policy: Health Essay

… Matters of inflation with regard to healthcare costs are tied to the Australian and global economic situation. There have been some studies that indicate that single payer systems, such as was erected in Australian briefly in the mid 1940s and again in the early 1990s, have been demonstrated to curb the effect of inflation and economic duress (Gray 2003; Ross 2005). As was previously outlined, however, since the first series of reforms on the Medicare system in Australia, the policy initiatives, such as Lifetime Health Cover have favored moving in a multi-payer direction. While there are few serious calls for the total dismantling of Medicare or its constituent parts, the insurance lobby has demonstrated some success in impelling the government to pass legislation which funds…. [read more]

Theory and Social Policy Essay

… ¶ … Social Policy: KiwiSaver as a Social Policy

A vitally important social / economic policy that the New Zealand Government launched - thanks in part to the progressive influences of the Labour Alliance Coalition and cooperation from private providers and employers - is called KiwiSaver ("Poua he Oranga"). KiwiSaver is a kind of savings program to help all citizens prepare financially for their retirement, or whatever their future plans happen to be. The benefits are many, and the program is flexible. This program was certainly not designed with Maori needs in mind exclusively, but indeed KiwiSaver offers returns to individuals - if they take advantage of it - that may not be as well off financially as they would like to be in terms…. [read more]

Social Equity Is a Key White Paper

… In addition, public administration has the duty of burdening the responsibility of creating and maintaining a commonwealth. However, in practice the relationship between citizenry and administrators is complex, making matters of government operation, citizen engagement, and design in administration complex (Candler & Dumont, 2010). This is the result of a global phenomenon, which has led to the creation of the concept of direct citizenry engagement. The need for local responsibility is a challenge for the administrator to create citizenry engagement for some administrative functions, like security. However, these remains a challenge for leaders as national integrated systems of administration are in the way of future governance.

2.2 Analysis of Theories of the Conference

2.2.1 Public Administration Leadership

Leadership in public administration entails the "exercise of…. [read more]

Juvenile Delinquency Theory Social Identity Term Paper

… They make up 62% of the under-aged persons prosecuted in the adult criminal system "and are nine times more likely than white youth to receive an adult prison sentence... white youth are significantly more likely than African-American youth to use drugs and 30% more likely to sell drugs, but African-American youth are twice as likely to be arrested and detained for drug offenses" (Huston 2008).

Postmodernism is a tool to help us understand why certain persons have been classified as part of a criminal class. Conventional criminology theories may state that African-Americans are more likely to commit crimes because they are members of historically discriminated-against groups, or that poverty and social disenfranchisement creates a fertile breeding-ground for crime. But this does not explain why African-Americans…. [read more]

Social Work What Does the 'Partisan Mind Term Paper

… Social Work

What does the 'Partisan Mind' suggest about social work practice, social workers, and the Code of Ethics?

The occupation of social work evolved through the endeavors to address the person-environment relationship in the service of enhancing peoples' lives and assist in the transformation and growth through skilled interventions. The driving forces of Social work are helping needy members of society, improving the welfare of people within their social framework, and addressing the interests of the whole society. By concurrently addressing both the person and the environment, social work is very comprehensive in its approach. It is this context of inclusiveness that makes it becomes challenging to elucidate (National Association and Social Workers, 2008). Even though, social work essentially struggled for a comprehensive integrative…. [read more]

Policy ( 1250 Words) Essay

… Its focus should instead be redirected towards providing individuals with rehabilitative resources so that they will be less prone towards recidivism when released.

The lack of adherence to authority in prisons is actually an effect of a lack of mature coping on the part of inmates. This dearth of mature coping also is related to the high rates of recidivism that is found among most inmates who are released into the free world. There is a fair amount of overlap found between the skills and temperament it takes to engage in mature coping both in prison as well as in the free world. In both settings, people are expected to pursue their needs and desires as best as they can without infringing on the needs…. [read more]

National Institute of Justice (Nij) Essay

… Literature review

One researcher that hypothesized the same issue was concerned about the location of the ROTC units, and made conclusions after analysis that the units were located in the lower educational stations such as colleges, other than the major reputable universities. Janowits, however, hardly predicted that the program was ending, but emphasized on the transformation of the program from major universities, to the colleges and high school. Garnier later commended Jonawits and proved that he was correct, and most of the ROTC units are currently located in the less prestigious school, and the expected results led to general intellectual (Reed & Loman, 1975).

The Army Research Institute (ARI) has also maintained a researching the ROTC program as one that supports leadership traits of their…. [read more]

Public Policy Alternatives to Improve the Nation's Prison Overcrowding Dilemma Term Paper

… Public Policy Alternatives to Improve the Nation's Prison Overcrowding Dilemma

There are more individuals per capita incarcerated in the United States than in any comparative democracy that is an industrialized nation anywhere in the world. The sentences imposed on offenders in the U.S. are longer and the U.S. is one of the last nations on earth to practice capital punishment or what is commonly known as "the death penalty." Increasingly individuals are being locked up male and female and both adult and child. Collateral impacts from incarcerations of this enormity are costly to society both in monetary as well as in social terms. The findings of this study are simply that there exists alternative measures of punishment that are more cost efficient and more conducive…. [read more]

Court Management Policy Proposal Essay

… In addition, when the courts divert some of the juvenile offenders to VOM program, there is a reduction in the case backlogs, whereby successful mediation will reduce delays and the court's workload (Sheinin, 2010). This means that another goal associated with VOM policy is reduction of backlog cases or pending minor juvenile offenses.

The VOM program comes with significant benefits to society. The program reduces the adverse effects of incarceration, in cases where parents who are breadwinners may end up in jail. The experience of the program increases the appreciation of justice in society. Additionally, the program has the capacity to reduce the effects of criminal activities on the society by offering the offender and victim an opportunity to forgive each other. The program offers…. [read more]

Justice Model Replaced by Medical Research Paper

… ¶ … Justice Model" has Replaced the "Medical Model"

This paper addresses the reasons why the medical model of corrections has been replaced by the justice model of corrections. It will begin by defining each of these two models and their basic characteristics. This will be followed by a discussion of the possible causes of this transition. From these possible causes, a primary cause will be selected based on the information obtained during the research process. A conclusion paragraph will summarize these findings and evaluate the research process. Recommendations for further research will also be made.


In order to understand why the justice model has replaced the medical model, we must first understand the difference between the two models. The medical model…. [read more]

Justice Information Systems Integration Term Paper

… Legal Justice Information Systems Integration in Law Enforcement

This report aims to present insights into the decision making process for justice information systems integration. Technological advances continue to become available which create opportunities for each locality and state to develop a governance process that will serve as a viable solution for its own jurisdiction while at the same time meshing with immediate and distant neighbors.



Justice Information Systems Integration

In today's highly technologically advanced digital era, legal and governmental integration has become a reality. "During the Investigation process, at the Incident event, if law enforcement determines that a crime was committed, and if law enforcement collects latent fingerprints, the Law Enforcement sends the Latent Fingerprint Card to the State Repository for the Biometric…. [read more]

Implications for Social Protection Policy and Programs in Africa Essay

… Political parties are increasingly vying for power: mandates like social protection are top in their agenda. This has increased the size of populations covered and served by the state. Research shows that the lack social protection is a costly economic and political nightmare (Cook & Kabeer, 2009)

State-citizen relations

Multiple researches have been done to establish the relationship between the state and its citizen. The state wants maximum power and authority while citizens want maximum liberty. This is impossible some form of compromise must be made. Reasonable authority and power should be made available to the government for smooth functioning. Citizens should be accorded reasonable liberty for the best development of their personality. It is thus evident that both the states and citizens are made…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Policy Practice Essay

… The dichotomy with which this situation may be viewed, of course, is an intrinsic component of utilitarian thought and which may be evinced by one of its champions, Jeremy Bentham. One may posit just as convincingly that those condemned to lengthy prison sentences via the crack law would simply return to being detriments to society if released, by engaging in illicit behavior (the selling of street narcotics) and leading subversive, counterproductive lifestyles. All people have this duality of choice, which Bentham referred to as pleasure and its antithesis, pain, which he believed "govern us in all we do, in all we say, in all we think" (Bentham 1).

However, while such a debate may be largely settled by the particular opinion of the voice that…. [read more]

Restorative Justice Research Paper

… This theory is also interested in labeling of people.

An analysis of how this article relates to the labeling g theory

The article shows that both victims and offenders are more satisfied with as compared to courts. This is because it looks at the needs of both the victims and offenders and at the same time the involved community and not just punishing the offender. Victims take an active role whereas the offenders are expected to take responsibility for their actions. According to the labeling theory, criminal behavior is not something innate but involves a process of learning and socializing in groups they are in. It also emphasizes that one's behavior is influenced by labeling meaning that positive labels produce positive behavior while negative labels…. [read more]

Social Partnership' and the Implications Term Paper

… "What is most striking about the industrial relations practices of employers is their hostility toward the panoply of new forms of worker participation, works councils, quality circles, and other forms of consultation, indeed toward collective representation of any kind. Employers have consistently objected to EU proposals for statutory worker participation, arguing that employee consultation must be voluntary and flexible." Baccaro et al. (1999, p. 39)

The process of hiring, treating and firing employees will continue to be major concern in the global spectrum. "The arguments that globalization will automatically force homogenization on countries, or that nation-states will have to retreat into cultural fortresses while they become ever more uncompetitive appears to be incorrect." (Boucher & Collins, 2003)

With the new social partnership line of reasoning,…. [read more]

Social Services for the Elderly Term Paper

… ¶ … Elderly

Social services for the elderly are in greater need than they ever have been before as the population is aging greatly. A gradual aging trend, that began in the 1970s with decreased fertility and increased longevity, with a short increase in fertility following the depression and reaching into the 1950's know as the baby boom the population of the U.S. has aged significantly over the years. According to the U.S. Census Bureau the population had a median age of 22.9 in 1900 which changed to between 30.7 and 32 by 2000. The projection of age increase is for between 30.9 and 43.7 by 2050. Yet, the most startling aspect of this change is the growth of the old and very old population…. [read more]

History of Social Policy Article Review

… Such a legislation directly assists gay and lesbian parents by making it less difficult for them to integrate society without being criticized for their sexual preferences (Haney-Caron & Heilbrunn 23).

Bisman, J.E. (2012). Budgeting for famine in Tudor England, 1527 -- 1528: social and policy perspectives. Accounting History Review Vol. 22, No. 2, July, 105 -- 126.

Parenthetical in-text: (Bisman 2012)

Bisman's article discusses with regard to social welfare being applied during the famine of 1527-28. The fact that Bisman emphasizes a series of reforms that made it possible for people to experience a less problematic recovery demonstrates the degree to which organization and accounting can assist social welfare programs. The unique budget designed to solve the issue effectively addressed the famine problem and helped…. [read more]

Immigration Reform the Social Justice Research Paper

… Disparities between blacks and whites stems from varied interdependent variables. Nevertheless, an in depth theoretical analysis and background of studies suggested that unique emphasis has been placed on how healthcare has contributed towards disparities between blacks and whites in the U.S. Therefore, we focused on how the implementation of immigration reforms introduced comprehensive legislation that fixed the formerly tampered system of immigration thus strengthening the U.S. economy. Evidence has accumulated suggesting that stereotyping and prejudices are the primary causes of disparities between white and blacks in healthcare. Nevertheless, there is a pressing need for researchers in the future to pursue identity reasons justifying the disparities between the treatment given to white and black parents. Future research studies must focus on designing and implementing effective intervention…. [read more]

Ethical Dilemmas in Criminal Justice Term Paper

… For example, they receive little remuneration that does not gather for their daily needs alongside he poor working conditions. This affects their job morale and their psychological well-being. Therefore, William should consider providing his team members with better working environment alongside motivating agents such as remuneration to ensure their mental well-being (Hudson, 2003).

The present status of the correctional facility is undesirable as it is characterized with overpopulation, scarcity of the basic resources, and demotivated staff. As such, William, should focus on lobbying for strategies that aim at preventing further increase in the number of inmates. Such strategies include presenting the actual statistics to the involved stakeholders to ensure the reduction of the number of the inmates sent to a correctional facility. Alternatively, William should…. [read more]

Mandatory Sentencing Public Policy, Crime Research Paper

… Afterwards, the constructing of the justice system aimed at criminalizing the "equal" African-American; additionally, the system also ensured that the social position of African-Americans was not equal to those of their white counterparts. From history, dating back to the era of Nixon, the president of America, this was done through the establishment of the "Drug War" as a strategy to gain support from whites in the south by advocating for policies in opposing civil rights and racial equality related initiatives. The system also changed via conservative justices on the courts who would endorse reductions to the fourth Amendment protections against many illegal searches, seizures of property and wrongful detentions. From the arguments presented in some studies, I strongly agree that there exist civil liberty issues…. [read more]

Criminal Justice and Criminology the Chicago Alternative Research Proposal

… ¶ … Criminal Justice and Criminology

The Chicago alternative policing strategy came into effect in the year 1993. The strategy initially took place in five police district then moved to include the entire city. The need of this strategy was to revise the way police departments conducted their operation in the entire city. It is a long-term strategy where now police officers do have long-term duties in each of the 279 police units. The entire police squads in the city have training on problem solving techniques based on the steps formulated by CAPS. There are steps that any police officer needs to adhere to based on the strategy the processes are focusing on the victims, focus on the location of crime, attention given on offenders…. [read more]

Racism in the Criminal Justice System Research Paper

… Racism, a term which is defined as the infliction of an obviously unequal consideration which is motivated by the strong desire to dominate on the basis of race alone is noted by several scholars to be rife in the criminal justice system. In this paper we explore this issue with focus on a supervisory issue impacting the criminal justice system with regards to racism. Make sure you include ethical issues found within the criminal justice system.

Elements of racism in the judicial system

The persisting element of racism in the American social system has raised several issues in regard to racial injustice that is being witnessed within the nation's judicial system (Tonry, 1995; Hacker,1992). There is a major source of inquiry within the context of…. [read more]

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