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Juvenile Detention Standards Juvenile Delinquency Article Critique

… There are numerous standards for juvenile corrections. The development of standards for juvenile and adult corrections facilities continues to grow and change. (Livers & Kehoe, 2012) Correctional advocates are concerned with effective rehabilitation of offenders as well as sustaining humane and productive standards as part of the correctional system.


I found this article to be interesting. It was difficult for me to assess the relevance of this subject, though. Maintaining standards and safety in correctional institutions, for adults or for juveniles, is kind of a conundrum. It seems to be evident that there is a great deal of abuse in correctional facilities. This truth makes correctional standards kind of hollow and meaningless. The standards are meaningless unless they are really put into practice. Additionally,…. [read more]

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency and the Best Strategies and Interventions Designed to Stop Thesis

… Juvenile Delinquency


Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Best Strategies, Interventions

The American Heritage Dictionary (Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006) broadly defines juvenile delinquency as antisocial or criminal behavior by children or adolescents.

This has been a major, baffling and frustrating concern of the various sectors of society through the ages. It has become even more serious, baffling and frustrating today. The image of problem youths today has also changed: they have become both victims and offenders and at alarmingly increasing rates. The primary approach has been retributive incarceration, lately from juvenile courts to adult facilities. Studies have shown, though, that their detention leads to further victimization and greater exposure to criminal behavior. Despite praiseworthy strides in overall progress, juvenile delinquency in modern…. [read more]

Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes Term Paper

… Arrests among juveniles for aggravated assault rose 67% between 1988 and 1992. Arrests for aggravated assault for children under 15 years of age climbed by 80%.

Between 1988 and 1992, the number of children under the age of 15 arrested for committing forcible rape increased over 49%.

There are many reasons for concern when it comes to literacy rates in the United States. The Los Angeles Times recently reported that approximately 60% of local children were in danger of failing their third-grade reading proficiency test (Tallal, 2000).

Millions of American students are not learning disabled yet they enter school with poor English skills. As a result, they do not learn to read and end up in special education classes, which have lowered expectations and poor…. [read more]

Juvenile Corrections Term Paper

… Juvenile Corrections

Juvenile Justice: An overview of the philosophy, system, rehabilitation, institutionalization, and parole of juveniles

Serious crimes committed by juveniles often strike a particular chord in the hearts and minds of the American populace. No one wishes to think that someone who is so young can turn against society and its moral values. However there is equal outrage when juveniles of a fairly advanced age seem to be treated extremely leniently by the justice system. To better understand some of the apparent contradictions of how individuals deemed to be juveniles are viewed and treated by the system of juvenile corrections, at first it is essential to understand the nature of the justice system and the philosophy underlining juvenile justice in America.

The current procedural…. [read more]

Juvenile Court Philosophy Essay

… Juvenile Court Philosophy

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) offers the reader and researcher many insightful documents regarding the history of the juvenile justice movement, based almost entirely in the ideals of a few to create systems that responded more humanely to juvenile perpetrators of crime and the more modern movement to provide accountability and retribution for juvenile crime. In the document offering are two insightful articles one of which argues against the use of the death penalty among juvenile offenders, based upon the special considerations of youth as outlined by the Supreme Court and the juvenile justice system of understanding youth mentalities and understanding. (Cothern, 2000) Another insightful article outlines almost to the year, but more realistically to the decade, the…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Juvenile Justice Gang Term Paper

… The office of juvenile justice and delinquency prevention should have seminars to train law enforcement officials to forestall the formation of gangs (TheAttorneyStore, 2013). This can significantly eradicate/limit number of gangs involvement in criminal activities. The Office of the Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention should come up with programs that prioritize recruitment of faith-based organizations as well as community members and representatives from community-based organizations to come up with engaging activities for at-risk juveniles. The program should also encourage multiagency collaboration at neighborhood, community and federal level. The program should finally stress the importance of partnering with the private sector. Community businesses stand to flourish when juvenile involvement in gang activities is reduced (TheAttorneyStore, 2013). To counter juvenile hate crime, respective states should come up with…. [read more]

Juvenile Justice System Verses the Adult Term Paper

… Juvenile System vs. Adult Justice System


Juvenile Justice System vs. Adult Justice System criminal justice system is a mechanism, utilized by a society to enforce a given standard of conduct in order to protect the members of the community (Colquitt 2002). It consists of apprehending, prosecuting, convicting and sentencing violators of the basic rule of group existence within a society. The purposes of such a system are to remove dangerous members of the community, discourage the rest from criminal behavior, and give society the chance to change violators into law-abiding citizens. The core philosophy of the American criminal justice system is that the government may punish a person who has violated a specific law. A juvenile court, on the other hand, is viewed…. [read more]

Juvenile Justice How to Prevent Juvenile Delinquency Term Paper

… Juvenile Justice

How to Prevent Juvenile Delinquency

Much has been written about juvenile delinquency in the last two decades. The problem attracts a serious interest these days because of the prevalence of delinquent behavior among adolescents in the United States throughout the country and the inability of stakeholders in containing the growing rate of juvenile delinquency. Juveniles are also a special target for those interested in rehabilitation (a) because there are greater chances of rehabilitating adolescents than adults and (b) because of the fear that without intervention juvenile delinquents are likely to carry their delinquent behavior to adulthood. So, how to tackle the problem of juvenile delinquency? There is no easy answer to this question. Different types of juvenile delinquency may require different approaches. But…. [read more]

Juvenile Justice Essay

… Juvenile Justice

In the beginning the idea of establishing a juvenile court was to put into place a separate institution for juvenile offenders in which the rehabilitative attempt could proceed without the alleged corruption of incorrigible adults. Up until this point there were no laws in place to deal with juvenile offenders other than the common law's substantive infancy defence (Fox, 1996). On July 1, 1899, the first juvenile court in the world came into existence in Chicago, Illinois. This has been widely commended as a ground-breaking advance in the treatment of delinquent and neglected children and as the beginning of a new era in the collaboration of law, science, and social work in the field of child welfare (Caldwell, 1961).

In 2008, law enforcement…. [read more]

Juvenile Delinquency Is the Legal Expression Research Paper

… Juvenile delinquency is the legal expression used to describe the behavior of children and adolescents that if they were an adult would be considered criminal. Throughout the United States, the definition of a juvenile along with the age limits is different. There has been seen a maximum age of 14 years in some states to 21 in others. The group that is 16- to 20-years old, is thought to be adults in many places, and has one of the highest incidences of serious crime. A large percentage of adult criminals have a background of early delinquency. Theft is the most common offense that is committed by children. Further serious property crimes and rape are most often committed later on. The reasons for this behavior, like…. [read more]

Effectiveness of the Juvenile Justice System Term Paper

… ¶ … Juvenile Justice System

History of Juvenile Justice in the United States

The United States experienced the Progressive Era from approximately 1900 to 1918 (Thomas, 1992). During that time period, there were a number of social reforms taking place, once of which was the advent of the juvenile justice system. Prior to this era of change and reform, children over the age of seven who committed infractions were treated like adults and jailed with adults. As more and more research was done and chances transpiring in society and in politics, the move to rehabilitation instead of imprisonment became the general focus of the system for juveniles. Societal, there was a sense of responsibility to the juvenile delinquent population to rehabilitate and possible deter them…. [read more]

Juvenile Courts Term Paper

… Juvenile Courts

The juvenile justice system has been in existence since the civil war ear, when the U.S. was undergoing specific and detailed reevaluation of what and whom had rights that needed to be protected. Children had yet to be protected by compulsory education rules or child labor laws and some were concerned that children if given the legal definition of owned by parents or the state would be the countries "new slaves." Chicago, IL was the location for the first juvenile court and it was established, in part by a Illinois Supreme Court ruling that releases a 14-year-old boy from reform school because due process had not been followed to remand him there and he had according to the system committed no crime but…. [read more]

Juvenile Justice Juvenile Delinquents Shifting Term Paper

… The juvenile can be forced to restore and repair the damage of his graffiti and then help build a new garden for the synagogue or church he or she damaged, as well as attend sensitivity-training classes that focuses on rehabilitating his or her perspective.


"The most severe sanction that a juvenile court can impose entails the restriction of a juvenile's freedom through placement in a residential facility…Out-of-home placement results in a great burden both on the youth who receive this sanction and on the juvenile justice system itself. The youth experience a disruption in their normal routines, schooling, and family/social relationships. The juvenile justice system must bear the responsibility for mental health care, substance abuse treatment, and education, among other requirements" (Juveniles in corrections,…. [read more]

Treatment vs. Punishment Treatment Concept Research Paper

… In this research, recidivism was the new contact with the criminal justice system after release from the last DHS supervised residential treatment placement (McCollister et al., 2009). The critical was critical in integrating three definitions: new arrest for felony crime, new conviction for felony crime, and incarceration with the Michigan Department of Corrections

According to this research, 1978 persons took part in the experiment. About 83% of the participants were males while the remaining 17% females. The study also focused on the inclusion of 62% of the participants from the white race while other racial groups made-up 38%. According to the findings, there is a continuous reduction or decline in relation to the number of juvenile justice youths released from the treatment aspect. The decline…. [read more]

Philosophies, Procedures of the Balanced Approach Term Paper

… ¶ … philosophies, procedures of the Balanced Approach to Restorative Justice and how it is applied within the Juvenile Justice System in Pennsylvania

The BARJ in Pennsylvania

This paper is going to provide detailed information about the BARJ applied within the territory of Pennsylvania. In order to do this, I am going to explain what this approach involves, its philosophies, its procedures and the way it is applied in Pennsylvania.

In the first place, I must make clear the fact that the initials BARJ stand for the Balanced Approach to Restorative Justice, which Pennsylvania and other states have adopted in order to improve the activity of their Juvenile Justice System. This method is the result of continuous high violent juvenile criminal acts which have covered…. [read more]

Juvenile Court Philosophy Essay

… ¶ … articles discussing the parens patriae ideal of juvenile justice, compared with the Get Tough Movement in juvenile justice. It will also compare and contrast the two articles. These two articles discuss different areas of juvenile justice, and they show how the field is constantly changing as new research points toward new methods of dealing with juvenile offenders.

The first article, Juvenile gun courts: Promoting accountability and providing treatment by David Sheppard and Patricia Kelly discusses the idea of specialty courts that deal with specific juvenile crimes, in this case, those involving guns. In their Introduction, they introduce the topic. They write, "One innovative response has been the specialty court, characterized by small caseloads, frequent hearings, immediate sanctions, family involvement, and treatment services" (Sheppard…. [read more]

Juveniles and Reduced Recidivism Research Proposal

… Reducing Recidivism Among Juveniles

Research topic and its importance

This study focuses on modern juveniles, aka court-referred youth, within the justice system. An individual who engages in illegal or proscribed activities, banned by federal, state, and/or local codes, is defined as a juvenile delinquent (Granville, 2007). The matrix of authorities involved in the juvenile correction system include the Department of Juvenile Corrections, the police, probation, prosecutor, court, and detention (Nissen, 2006). From a historical perspective, the intent of the juvenile justice system has been to prefer rehabilitation vs. punitive measures such as incarceration (Granville, 2007). This general consensus is founded upon the premise that juvenile offenders, as individuals lacking adult cognitive development and understanding, are not wholly responsible for their illegal actions (Binder, 1988).

B.…. [read more]

Juvenile Justice Policy Term Paper

… But the purpose of boot camps for juvenile offenders is to teach and internalize new personal habits and social abilities. When the offender learns from experience that he or she can live a different life style, the desire for change becomes internalized, and personally meaningful. Boot camps have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness when coupled with rigorous academic and other treatment programs. These programs also are significantly more cost effective than traditional congregate incarceration facilities.


Restitution programs require offenders to compensate their victims. Restitution alone is not an appropriate sanction for the most serious, violent offenders, hut it often is a valuable component of treatment and punishment. The purpose of restitution is to create a restorative justice system that attempts to mitigate the…. [read more]

Liberal Philosophies of Criminal Justice Essay

… (Krajicek 4-5) Criminals both juvenile and adult have since been held to legal and penal standards that are harsher and in many ways devoid of rehabilitative services. Though it should be made clear that much of the juvenile legal system still demonstrates the legacy of protection for children and limitations on both the perception of full culpability and an emphasis on rehabilitation, or intervention that attempts to challenge the "path" the individual has begun to tread. (Dodge 51) It might also be for this reason that the biggest challenge to juvenile systems recently, i.e. since the inception of the tough on crime era, a markedly conservative trend juveniles have been more and more frequently charged as adults, particularly for heinous and/or violent crimes.

Really since…. [read more]

Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System Essay

… Criminal Justice - Juvenile Justice


Parens Patriae vs. The Due Process Model:

The parens patriae model dates back to the Roman Empire and in more modern times, to British justice system. In principle, it refers to the substitution of the King or the State for the parents of children who are incapable of being controlled by their parents (Schmalleger 2008). Under the doctrine of parens patriae, government authorities adopt the responsibility for controlling, disciplining, and punishing children in the place of their parents.

According to the way that parens patriae was employed in the early nineteenth century America, the state sometimes assumed this role in cases where no acts of criminality were involved, such as where the basis…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Juveniles Research Paper

… (Johnson and Tabri, Page 2 -- 3)

People think that juveniles with life sentences would improve their health and their character if the possibility of parole existed to be something for them to work towards while imprisoned. LWOP is another form of death. Others who argue against LWOP for juvenile declare that LWOP diminishes the health of juveniles in many ways, many of which, lead to premature death.

According to Monahon (2009), juveniles are vulnerable because of their size, lack of experience in the system, and lack of peer support groups. Compared to youth in juvenile facilities, juveniles incarcerated in adult prisons are five times more likely to be sexually assaulted, and almost twice as likely to be attacked with a weapon by inmates or…. [read more]

concise Analysis of Juvenile and Adult Courts Essay

… The juvenile system's focus is mainly rehabilitation. Another difference is the levels of formality between the two systems. The adult system is more formal than the juvenile system. The differences in formality can be seen in the rules for admitting evidence and the language used. The adult justice system employs terms such as trial, conviction, sentencing grid, sentence, arrest, crime and defendant. The juvenile system uses terms such as respondent or juvenile, petition, secure custody order and delinquent act.

Adjudication Process

As stated earlier, when the delinquent act is deemed as too serious, the juvenile can be tried under the adult system for a crime. This happens when there is a "waiver" which means that the juvenile court has given up its original jurisdiction of…. [read more]

Is the "Get Tough" Approach to Juvenile Crime the Best Approach? Essay

… These policies were more about "the politics of juvenile justice" than about the knowledge of juvenile crimes or juvenile offenders; Elrod asserts that the public "perception" of juvenile offending has a bigger impact on how society treats juvenile law-breakers than the realities of juvenile crime per se (13). And moreover, responses to juvenile criminals are based not on sociological facts, but rather, on the "political process" -- and the political process (politicians talking tough to get votes) is based more on "sensational and distorted media accounts" than the raw facts and conditions under which juvenile criminals live (Elrod, 13).

A good example of a "get tough" approach was launched in New York State under the Juvenile Offender Law. It provided for "automatic placement in criminal…. [read more]

Critical Thinking and Logical Fallacies Term Paper

… The person who appeals to the "Look who's talking" fallacy seeks to downplay their own actions in light of the speaker's actions, or beliefs. As we approach the political elections in the fall of 2004, this fallacy is often at the core of political advertisements. In a 30 second television add, the ad sponsor does not often have the time to develop a well thought argument, and present their counter argument. Consequently, the approach is to diminish the perspective of the person by associating him with other disliked, or socially objectionable decisions.

For example, the current ads for president Bush highlight his opponent John Carey's record on taxes. The ad recounts a litany of adverse tax decisions made by Carey over the past decade. The…. [read more]

Courts and Juvenile Justice System Essay

… ¶ … oral arguments in Roper v. Simmons demonstrate exactly how the chief justices reached their decision in the case. The justices debate all the different aspects of the issue, using various forms of reasoning and rhetorical strategies to come to a consensus on the matter. In this case, the chief justices are deciding whether it is constitutional to sentence a person under the age of 18 years to death. The justices begin by talking about culpability and the assumption that juveniles are not equally as culpable as their adult counterparts. Interestingly, some of the justices compare juveniles with mentally disabled persons to show how the courts determine culpability. Justice Layton points out that the comparison does not always make sense because some older juveniles…. [read more]

Crime as Schmalleger Term Paper

… 5. a) The site labeled ":Criminal Justice Statistics ( offers links to many different criminal justice websites, with a large section headed "Foreign Web Sites." The sites linked cover much of the world, notably Canada, Great Britain, Finland, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Russia, and Ukraine. The section headed "International Web Sites" covers sites dealing with crime in Latin America and Europe and different police organizations, including various UN crime control programs.

b) The website for the United Nations Office on Drugs & Crime ( discusses the UN program, its history, and the importance of crime prevention when it comes to the drug issue, an international problem. The site also covers topics such as terrorism, organized crime, corruption, and trafficking in human beings. The site also offers…. [read more]

Bill of Rights and Today Essay

… Local law enforcement agencies already walk a thin rope in terms of effective policing and PR. The solution to local law enforcement agencies might be to campaign for decriminalization with respect to drugs and sex crimes. This would eliminate a good portion of what is often cited as "racial profiling." As far as illegal citizens are concerned, this too should be made a state's issue. With the rise of terror threats, private security firms are facing the challenge of protection, but by aligning themselves with the DHS recommendations, they should be able to operate smoothly and efficiently.


The Bill of Rights set the initial tone for law enforcement in America. But that guide has been substantially overhauled in the wake of 9/11 so that…. [read more]

Positive Philosophy in Law Thomas Essay

… However, before doing that, it is pertinent that a number of factors are considered. These include what such people think is right or wrong, how they relate to other people, and what they care about. People vary in their propensity to engage in crime just like they vary in their morally and self-control. This underscores the role environment plays in an individual's development. Such factors have to be factored in when handing down sentences to convicts.

Some people can take to attacking others and causing significant injury because the environment they stay in makes it a norm. Crimes like battery are linked to temptations and provocations. Certain microenvironments produce higher levels of temptation, provocation, and deterrence than others. Cognizance has to be taken of the…. [read more]

Economic Philosophy Crime and Punishment Term Paper

… Economic Philosophy: Crime and Punishment

In this paper, we are examining the economic impact of crime and punishment on society. This is accomplished by analyzing the article Crime and Punishment by Gary Becker. Once this occurs, is when we will see how this is affecting productivity and what steps can be taken to deal with these issues.

Over the decades, the impact of crime and punishment has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because this can have positive or negative effects on the economy. This is dependent upon the way various laws are enacted and enforced. In Crime and Punishment by Gary Becker, he is discussing how this can be analyzed. To determine the effectiveness of this approach…. [read more]

Issues on Social Welfare Term Paper

… ¶ … Era -- Shift in Philosophy

The Progressive Era was a campaign for economic, political, and social reform in the United States that began in the late 1800s and ended when the United States entered World War I in 1917 (Campbell and Dore, 2002). The Progressive Era caused a major change in philosophy that was partly a response to the disparity between rich and poor. Americans during this era sought economic, political and social reform on a variety of issues.

In 1800, the United States was a young nation in the midst of a major shift in government. Explorers and settlers were establishing new territories and manufactories were implementing new machines and methods for textile production (Campbell and Dore, 2002). Most Americans lived and…. [read more]

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