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Labeling Theory Criminality Essay

… He further asserts that it is the othering of individuals who do not belong to groups which society considers normal, creates a situation wherein people are more likely to behave in criminal ways. There is a lot of logical argument in the perspective that labeling an individual has to do with being not necessarily criminal, but being beyond what the society considers to be normal. . Consider that for many years and in many countries, homosexuality was a criminal offense. People who performed homosexual acts were criminals because they participated in a lifestyle that was not accepted by the social majority.

Criminologists who support the labeling theory of their field believe that by providing those who break the law with labels which are unflattering is…. [read more]


Labeling Theory Originating in Sociology Essay

… " Precisely because a child is labeled a delinquent, the label "transforms the offender's identity from a doer of evil to an evil person" (Tannenbaum, 1938, pg. 37). In essence, then, social labeling theory suggests that juveniles, having been labeled a "delinquent" begin to believe not only that they are people who do bad things, but that by labeling, such children are transformed into believing they are bad people. Bench and Allen (2003) suggest that younger inmates have higher rates of disciplinary infractions than older offenders. Consequently, labeling theory would explain the incidental increase in gang activity given the relatively few opportunities for inner-city youth to achieve a measure of success. Likewise, gang leaders getting out of prison yearly for good behavior might also be…. [read more]


History and Theories of Crime Essay

… Crime Theory

The thirty years that made up the historic era known as the 1950s through the 1970s produced many changes in the way we view the world. Two significant events, the Weather Underground's rise to popularity and the massacre at My Lai both contribute to radical behavior. that contributed to this time in history's quality. These two events share something more important however, and that is the ability of history to reverse outdated roles and expose actions and people for their real humanity instead of fabricated and cliche roles.

The United States of America was constructed in violent and unjust manner. Native Americans were eliminated in a genocidal frenzy that has lasted well over two centuries. The Vietnam War represented for America a turning…. [read more]


String Theory the Fundamental Forces of Nature Term Paper

… String Theory

The fundamental forces of nature include the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and gravity. One or some combination of these forces, applied to matter, is responsible for everything we can observe in the physical world. The story of strings as a plausible theory within the realm of physics stems from attempts to unify these forces under specific circumstances. The concept of unification is implied by the theory of the Big Bang. Essentially, if we are to accept that the entire universe -- all matter, space, and time -- originated from a single point, then we are forced to also conclude that major patters we observe today were also singular. In other words, the separate branches of physics must,…. [read more]


Criminology Theories and Theorists Essay

… "According to the original strain theory, an increase in aspirations and a decrease in expectations should lead to an increase in delinquency; however, this was not found to be the case (Agnew, 1985:152). Also, the original strain theory predicted a concentration of delinquent behavior in the lower class, but research proved that delinquency was also common in the middle and upper classes" (Robert Agnew's general strain theory, 2013, FSU). Agnew criticized earlier strain theorists for focusing too much on economic conditions, pointing out that was only one source of strain. Agnew conceptualized strain as more internally driven: it was not only the fact that society was unfair, but also how the criminal perceived his or her circumstances.

"There are three major types of strain according…. [read more]


Theory X vs. Theory Y Research Paper

… ERG theory does have an important footnote for Theory Y concepts, namely that "ERG theory allows the order of the needs be different for different people" (ERG, 2011, Net MBA). Individuals attracted to investment banking, for example, are more likely to be motivated by money alone than engineers. However, a counterpoint to that notion is that after a certain point, in some industries money takes on a significance that transcends its material significance. Money comes to symbolize success and power, and becomes a source of personal esteem. Theory Y suggests that treating all employees with respect and listening to their ideas increases their sense of motivation and desire to invest their time and effort into the organization. At Google, even the lowest-level employees eat shoulder-to-shoulder…. [read more]


Theories of Intelligence Essay

… " These are the factors he christened primary mental abilities.

Verbal Comprehension: this according to Weiner (2012) is the ability to comprehend verbal material. This ability could be gauged through the use of vocabulary tests (Stenberg, 2008).

Word Fluency: this has got to do with the ability of an individual to produce sentences, words, and other material of a verbal nature rapidly (Weiner, 2012). This could be measured via the utilization of tests that are time-limited (Stenberg, 2008).

Numerical Skill: this in the opinion of Weiner (2012) is the ability to engage in rapid computations. Mathematical tests could come in handy in the measurement of numerical skill (Stenberg, 2008).

Spatial Ability: this is "the ability involved in visualizing shapes, rotations of objects, and how pieces…. [read more]


Labeling Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … labeling theory and its specific relevance to the condition of juvenile delinquency. Through references and studies the effect of negative as well as positive labeling will be discussed and a reviewed for its particular impact on the younger offender. Also considered will be the part that labeling theory, as well as other social interactions, has played in affecting the justice system's sentencing of juvenile offenders. Though labeling theory focuses primarily on the negative impact on juveniles, it has also played a part in correcting many misuses of power in the justice system.

Labeling Theory

Social interaction is an extremely important aspect of human behavior and is an integral part of the survival instinct of the species as a whole. The human brain has…. [read more]


Health Criteria One Food Labeling Essay

… (1999). The application and impact of computer-generated personalized nutrition education: A review of the literature. Patient Education and Counseling 36(2): 145-156.

Coitinho, D., Montiero, C.A. & Popkin, B.M. (2002). What Brazil is doing to promote healthy diets and active lifestyles. Public Health Nutrition 5: 263-267.

Contento, I., Balch, G.I., Bronner, Y.L., Lytle, L.A. Maloney, S.K., Olson, C.M. & Swadenner, S.S. (1995). The effectiveness of nutrition education and implications for nutrition education policy, programs, and research: a review of research. Journal of Nutrition Education 27(6): 2.

Coveney, J. (1997). The government and ethics of health promotion: the importance of Michel Foucault. Health and Education Research 13(3):459-468.

"Food Labeling." (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumerinformation/labellingoffood/

Haddad, L. (2002). Nutrition and poverty. World Bank/UN ACC/CSN. Retrieved online: http://www.unscn.org/files/Publications/Briefs_on_Nutrition/Brief8_EN.pdf

Hu, F.B.,…. [read more]


Theories of Delinquency: Conflict and Labeling Theory Research Paper

… Like conflict theory, Becker suggests that the way that crime itself is defined and the way that criminality is conceptualized is relatively arbitrary and exists to reinforce social norms that serve those in power. Becker's theory differs from conflict theory, however, in that he does not necessarily see economics as the only root of these sources of criminological definition.

Take, for example, so-called juvenile delinquency. Many crimes are considered crimes simply because they are perpetuated by young people, such as staying out late and loitering. The definition of the crime creates the criminal, since for many young people; there may be nowhere else to go but a city block to hang out after school. Labeling teens as delinquents effectively disempowers this social class and stymies…. [read more]


Connecting Theory and Meaning Research Paper

… The theory enables students to develop the feeling of informed, competency with the capability of making constructive decisions having relevant impacts on education lives. The connecting theory holds a transformative power with the provision of hope at differing time intervals following unclear education future for the disabled. It also provides the significant opportunity for the imagination of the education system with fairness, equality and just for learning (Kent & Simpson, 2010).

Meaning of disability studies in schools

The disability studies involve the collaborative aspect of understanding respective subject matters relating to the education social phenomena related to disability. The disability studies enable the understanding and definition of positions associated with the foundations of disability awareness in relation to cross-disciplinary perspectives on the case of disability.…. [read more]


Social and Cultural Theory Study Essay

… The phrase 'looking-glass self' was used by Cooley to present the idea that "what we think of ourselves depends on what we think others think of us" ("Charles Horton Cooley,").

The human beings are living in groups, both large and small. The concern shown by the members of the groups towards each other differentiates the primary and secondary groups. Thus, a primary group is one in which the members share personal relationships that are permanent and long-term and family being the most important one. This group of prime importance plays a significant role in the life of an individual. Members of this group spend a lot of time with each other, display real concern for each other's welfare and understand each other really well. It…. [read more]


Personality Theories in Psychology Essay

… For Freud's patients, the goal of psychoanalysis was to help mitigate some of these feelings and reconcile some of the differences between the id and the superego. Of course, human beings were able to reconcile these competing differences before the advent of psychoanalysis. They did so in a number of ways, which Freud referred to as defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms are subconscious ways that a person deals with the tension between the id and the superego. These defense mechanisms include: compensation, denial, displacement, fantasy, intellectualization, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation (See generally Freud, 1989).

There are certainly numerous flaws in Freud's theory. First, he was working in a repressive time which did not allow him to focus more effort on uncovering the…. [read more]


Kolcaba's Comfort Theory Utilized in Med Surge Dialysis Application Essay

… Medical Theory

Ever since the last century, nursing has becoming a professional discipline and just like every other discipline, it requires some theories to guide it. It has been seen that the nursing theory is split along three levels. One level is grand, then middle-range and then there is the situation specific level. (Meleis, 2012 p 33) As it would be expected, the grand theory is quite broad and takes into context very generalized views. Our basic concern is the middle range theory that is more focused these days. These theories are basically an end product of a research study. The narrow range study is even more selective and is solely based on research findings. (McKenna, 1997 p 17)

Just like any other discipline, theories…. [read more]


Personality Theory Term Paper

… In a way the domains of individual differences which have similar surface manifestations are differentiated by the Big Five. Although it has only just started that we have begun to explicate the processes and structures which are underlying them. "Explication in explanatory and mechanistic terms will change the definition and assessment of the Big Five dimensions as we know them today" (as cited in John and Srivastava, 1990, p. 44).

Describe, compare and contrast the Big Five factors and the Big Three factors; the areas of experience, behavior and life that have been found to be related to each; and what relationships have been found in these areas.

Like its name, there are three broad superfactors whose importance is emphasized on in the Big Three…. [read more]


Social Concerns Theory Article Critique

… One conceptual framework produced by Yoshikawa, Aber and Beardslee (2012) examines four aspects of poverty and how these relate to the family and the children present in this arrangement. These factors are the main subjects or selection factors, the multidimensional nature of poverty, the mechanisms through which poverty affects children on an individual, relational and institutional level, and the multidimensionality of children's outcomes (Yoshikawa, Aber, & Beardslee, 2012). Of all the types of interventions studied, what showed to be the most effective was grounded on strategies formed by various economist and policy experts and were simply focused on reducing poverty as a solution. Based on multiple research findings, the authors are able to provide evidence that a causal effect between poverty and the negative impact…. [read more]


Label Slp Essay

… 39, the cost of equity at Wal-Mart is of: RA = 3 + 0.39 x 7 = 3 + 2.73 = 5.73

This computed cost of capital is somewhat lower than the expected cost of equity, especially in a context in which the cost of equity for a S&P 500 organization is of 10.2 and as the difference between the two is significant. The company would be satisfied with an average cost of capital. A lower one would allow the company to fund its projects through more cost effective capitals, but this could also imply that the organization's appeal to prospective investors is decreased.

In order however to gain a more comprehensive look at Wal-Mart's cost of capital, it would be necessary to compare it…. [read more]


Symbolic Interactionism Healthcare Sociological Theory Essay

… However, rather than external systemic factors, blame is placed in a personal fashion because of the undesirability of being overweight. "Middle and high school females who are either more or less attractive than peer-determined expectations are at high risk for experiencing bullying…school-aged children of both sexes harbor [more] negative attitudes toward the obese than toward bullies, the handicapped, or children of different races…These same children are likely to label overweight peers as 'lazy, sloppy, mean, dirty, cheats, and arguers'" (Marci, John, & Lisa 2006). The rhetoric of thinness, as advanced by the media, associates thinness with superiority and as a symbolic of success, even of purity as well as health, of 'control.' "As agents of social control, group dieting organizations are spiritual movements attempting to…. [read more]


Sociological Theories Have Helped Widen Essay

… The theory posits that different component that form the society must have shared values and consensus and that social stability and prosperity can only be realized through this (Teevan & Edward, 2005). Conflict theory to the contrary focuses on inequality in the society and social control. Functionalism theory views the family as a single unit a view that is alien to conflict theory.

Functionalism and conflict theories are similar because they find the origin of social behaviors from the social structures. According to functionalism theory, individuals have fixed social roles something that is very important to the functioning of the society (Teevan & Edward, 2005).

The three sociological theories affect the views of the society as they help examine various behaviors in the society, how…. [read more]


Maturationist, Constructivist, Environmentalist Theories Research Paper





Notably, Lev centered on the relationships between people and the context of socio-cultural through which people function and intermingle in collective experiences. With reference to Lev's theory, human beings employ apparatus that build up from culture such as writing, speech and their immediate social environments. Initially, children were known to develop apparatus in order to serve as social activities as well as means of communicating their needs. It is the belief of Lev that internalization of the apparatus prompted advanced thinking skills (Parke & Clarke-Stewart, 2010).



While most schools have conventionally considered instructionists or transmissionists model of teaching whereby teachers transmits knowledge to children, Lev's facilitated a context of learning where students play a dynamic function in learning.…. [read more]


Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … Theory

The objective of this work is to review the history, ideology and practice application of 'Attachment Theory' and will do so through a review of the literature in this area of study.

Attachment theory was first conceived by Dr. John Bowlby born in 1907 and developed over time from the decade of the 1950s until the decade of the 1980s. (Tuovila, 2007; paraphrased) Many studies have focused on understanding attachment theory and the work of Tirjo Tuovila, a development psychologist in the work entitled: "What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Father" (2007) states that this is "one of the most extensively research psychological theories." (Tuovila, 2007; p.1) Attachment theory is "a theory about adapting to danger: How can…. [read more]


Multiple Theories in Research Two Essay

… ¶ … Multiple Theories in Research

Two theoretical notions that guide Caron and Rosette (2011) study on biases against black leaders are that black's success comes from superior athletics skills while the white success is attributed to their smartness and leadership ability. These notions have greatly impacted how black leaders are evaluated. When black leaders perform poorly in whatever activity s/he is assigned to do people will be quick to say that black folks are not as intelligent, determined or decisive and are therefore not good leaders. The situation is never the same when a black leader does an excellent work. However, the good performance is attributed to compensatory attributes like "he has survival skills'. Good performance is never attributed to actual leadership competence. Evaluation…. [read more]


Therapy the Object Relations Theory Essay

… Unlike object relations theorists who are more insight-oriented and experiential, cognitive theorists view people as more information-processing in nature. People engage in the process of self-evaluation that is an ongoing process. They continually evaluate how they manage the tasks and challenges of life as well as appraising whether they are doing what they "should" be doing or saying, acting how they "should" act, etc. Cognitive therapy was originally designed for the treatment of depression (e.g., Beck, 1976) and in depressed people this process of self-evaluation is often overly critical and negative. A depressed person will view mistakes as a result of their own personal incompetence, whereas when things go well they will tend to place the blame on external factors (internal and external attributions). People…. [read more]


Labeling Theory and Juvenile Essay

… The drugs have not changed, only our perceptions of them. Similarly, legal racial classifications have broken down that stigmatized certain individuals as 'other,' although personal stereotypes have proven harder to extinguish.

One criticism of labeling theory is that it is difficult to pinpoint as the root cause of all sentencing discrepancies, however. For example, while there is clearly an overrepresentation of young black and Latino males within the juvenile justice system, there is a chicken and egg question -- is the overrepresentation due to racism, or to the social end economic conditions that racism has created that drive these young men to crime? The answer may be that it is a combination of the two -- expectations of criminality result in higher apprehension and conviction…. [read more]


Theories of Criminal Behavior Discussion Chapter

… Criminal Behavior Theories

Theory of Criminal Man: Renowned Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso created theories that have not always been understood, according to professor Mary Gibson (University of New York). Basically Lombrosos' theory altered the role of the criminologist when he theorized that some humans are born criminals, and an individual that would be a potential career criminal would have "a small skull, low forehead, protruding jaw, and jutting ears" (Gibson, 2006, p 29). The fact that crime may well be "rooted… in biological factors" has not been entirely dismissed by modern criminologists, Gibson explains, and this is a theory Lombrosos authored that has changed society's approach to understanding human behavior.

Control Theory: This theory posits that people with weak social bonds are most likely to…. [read more]


Practice Bi-Lingual Theory Term Paper

… Social instruction should not be given in a generic format, but should communicate the different registers, or levels of formality, of English discourse. Students' ability to "identify and know when to choose the appropriate register according to audience, purpose, and setting," will enable them to be functional in a classroom vs. simply able to navigate social terrain (Beckett & Haley 2000). Standardized tests in particular require students to use more formal language than many are accustomed to use on an everyday basis. By being able to identify colloquialisms vs. Standard English, students gain more control over their ability to express themselves. This does not mean that the teacher should eschew using non-academic material, but rather it should be clearly labeled as such.

To further improve…. [read more]


Psychological Intervention to a Person Who Has Lost a Job Essay

… ¶ … Practice

This study focuses on an individual undergoing trauma arising from an indefinite loss of job: the position she was holding was scrapped completely. The individual went into a state of complete and utter shock characterized by the development of mixed emotions. It is not her first time to confront such a stressful experience: she has never been in the unemployed ranks for some time and does not know where to start. The individual felt overwhelmed because she lives in a town where there is limited room for employment opportunities and personal growth. As such, she believed the first step would be to speak with a counselor as it is evidenced in the subsequent sections of this paper. While presenting the issue, this…. [read more]


Theories of Crime Essay

… ¶ … respect to the State of Connecticut's juvenile diversion programs, the best way to ensure that these are producing the desired goal is to determine how such programs impact the tendency toward juvenile delinquent or, in eventuality, adult criminal recidivism. A study on the program would use one diversion program as a pilot, with all individuals entering into this program being part of the experimental group. A control group would be comprised of a set population of individuals entered into traditional juvenile detention settings.

Using a meta-analysis design to assess outcomes, the research study would compare the proclivity amongst members of both the control and experimental group toward criminal behavior and incarceration. It is anticipated that those in the experimental group would be less…. [read more]


Theories of Personality Term Paper

… Forrest Gump/Analysis of Jenny

Theories of Personality

Forrest Gump's Jenny grew up without a mother and endured substantial abuse as a very young girl. It is implied but not known if she was sexually or physically abused. However, she clearly was traumatized by her father and by the memory of her childhood home sufficiently to impact her outlook on life and relationships. Jenny's also learned from her traumatic childhood experiences that she was never good enough; certainly not good enough for the one man who devote his life to giving her all positives. When children are abused by parents, research has suggested that the children carry into adulthood a feeling of lower self-esteem beliefs of inferiority (Diehl and Prout, 2008).

Jenny's self-views determine her, and…. [read more]

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