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Labor Policies Term Paper

… The [state] recognizes work to be the duty of all citizens of the republic and proclaims the watchword: "He who does not work shall not eat (First Constitution of the Soviet Union, 1918 http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~jobrien/reference/ob103.html)."

This labor policy sounds productive in the beginning but it actually takes away the ability to succeed (Janos, 1992). Those who might want to venture into their own business or those who decide to start companies with their friends or relatives cannot because they are bound by the law to labor. The policy was meant to protect the workers from having to support those who did not work, but in reality it is those who strike out on their own that often make it big. Bill Gates is a prime example…. [read more]


Labor Unions Are Associations Term Paper

… Moreover, unions have placed greater emphasis on organizing drives for new members, and although they have been successful in organizing government employees, they have had less success in recruiting office workers in the rapidly expanding services sector (Union pp). A major problem is demographic, since the fastest growing parts of the labor force, such as women, service industries, and college-educated employees, are generally the most reluctant to organize (Union pp). Unlike the European union movements, organized labor in the United States has avoided the formation of a political party and has remained within the framework of the two-party system (Union pp). By the mid-1990's, the number of strikes in the United States had reached its lowest level in fifty years, however, by the end of…. [read more]


Labor Discrimination Equal Pay Act Law and Reality Thesis

… Labor Discrimination - Equal Pay Act - Law and Reality

The objective of this work is to examine law and regulations relating to labor discrimination, the equal pay act and the reality of labor discrimination in today's workforce.

DEFINITION of LABOR MARKET DISCRIMINATION

The work of Becker (1957) defines 'Labor Market Discrimination' by stating that Labor Market Discrimination "...may be in the form of differences in wage rates for workers who are equally productive but who are different in terms of their personal characteristics including race, age, religion, nationality or education. Labor market discrimination also comes in the form of job exclusion upon the basis of social class, union membership or political beliefs. (Becker, 1957)

BACKGROUND to the STUDY

The Equal Pay Act (EPA) is…. [read more]


Labor Unions the Union Movement Ascended Research Proposal

… Labor Unions

The union movement ascended in the 19th century as a response to the poor working conditions on the Industrial Revolution. By coming together and mobilizing, workers were able to secure basic improvements to their work environment, as well as benefits such as funeral expenses, and basic protections against illness and old age.

The movement rapidly expanded into the early 20th century. The AFL reached a membership of 1.4 million workers by 1904.

The creation of the CIO in 1932 heralded an era of rapid union expansion as mass production industries were brought into the movement. The AFL and CIO joined forces in 1955, but shortly thereafter the union movement headed into decline.

In recent years, the movement has entered a phase of self-reflection.…. [read more]


Industrial Disputes Law Employers and Unions Term Paper

… Union Labor Disputes Canada

Wal-Mart Canada

This report is an evaluative report and summary about the international retail giant Wal-Mart. There is no better presentation than one that presents the varying opinions in legal philosophy between unions and employers. As of late, Wal-Mart has been trying to fend off multiple attacks by organized labor over the past decade in an attempt to maintain its union free managerial style. "Union leaders say their chances for organizing Wal-Mart workers shot up this week when a federal judge in San Francisco said 1.6 million current and former employees could sue the retailer for sex discrimination in a class-action lawsuit." (Ramstack, 2004)

The Wal-Mart situation covers a full spectrum of legal concerns such as the acquisition and termination of…. [read more]


american labor movement decline history Research Paper

… 1). The decline of labor in America also coincided with global trends witnessing reduced support for labor unions. Reasons like poor leadership, corruption, and a stronger corporate sector were all to blame but in the United States, the decline of unions was far more severe and rapid than it was in other nations (Godard, 2009). By 1978, the National Labor Relations Act was 'all but dead,' due to 'an all-out and unrelenting battle against it by the entire corporate community from the day it was passed,' (Domhoff, n.d., p. 1). The proposed Labor Reform Act of 1978, a bill that 'would have modernized and empowered unions through more effective recognition procedures accompanied by enhanced power in negotiations,' died via filibuster (Hogler, 2016). In 1980, only…. [read more]


Labor Laws Since Their Inceptions Both Cobra Term Paper

… Labor Laws

Since their inceptions both COBRA and the FLSA have served an important purpose in the employment world. Throughout the nation employees work hard and help the companies that employ them to build empires of wealth, however, if there are bumps in the road either on the part of the employee or employer the company often goes on to continue growing while the employee, who helped build that company is left out in the cold. COBRA and FLSA both help reduce the stress and anxiety that can go with the loss of a job for reasons other than Gross Misconduct.

COBRA

To understand the purpose they each serve it is important to have an understanding about what each program actually provides.

COBRA provides the…. [read more]


Policy Making Process Welfare Reform Term Paper

… Certain tools are developed to organize these actors and their influences so that reforms are made more effective and each point adds beneficial value in it (Rossetti and Bossert, 1999).

Politics and Healthcare Reforms

The modern world is focusing on the efficacy of healthcare systems and modern politicians are also paying much attention to it. The subject enjoys so much importance that need of reforms is realized at national level and a niche of government officers is dedicated to it. Most probably these officials belong to ministry of health and they are skilled in the field of policy analysis. They may have special technical skills in the field of health sciences but their exposure to relationship between policy formwork and healthcare setting is relatively poor.…. [read more]


Policy and Strategy in Today's Business Environment Term Paper

… Policy & Strategy

In today's business environment, it has become important to implement strategies to not only ensure the highest possible profit margins for the company, but also to ensure employee satisfaction. Indeed, that latter works concomitantly with the former to promote the company's success. When employees are satisfied within their working environment, there is a lower worker turnover. This reduces the costs in terms of human resources and revenue in training new employees. Employee empowerment also plays and important role in the success of a company; it is an element that goes hand-in-hand with employee satisfaction. Empowerment helps to make employees feel in control of the work environment and of the terms according to which they will perform well.

In the JetBlue company, employees…. [read more]


Policy Regulations II Policy Studies Term Paper

… Policy Regulations II

Policy studies II- Regulation

Government Regulations Protect the Consumer, the Businesses and the Economy

Since America was in its infancy, the public has looked to federal and state government agencies to protect it from harm. Whether it was the threat of international terrorism or scams from international gold diggers, society has turned to its government and asked it to regulate such activities to protect American residents. While the public recognizes and appreciates such efforts, it quickly changes its tune when it comes to government regulations with regard to business. For the most part, business owners try to avoid government regulations and often lobby to have the government's involvement in their interests reduced. Business owners complain that government regulations have become so prohibitive…. [read more]


Social Policy and Economic Policy? Essay

… This, in turn, will be elevating for the economy.

Keynesianism goals are several:

1. Economic spending - where increase of ability spend boosts earnings in others. This in turn has a positive effect on the economy and encourages competition which stimulates innovation and leads to increase in employment.

2. Greater government investment in economy -- This promotes public spending and serves as model example. Government should invest and introduce incentives as well as engage in government spending in order to encourage people to spend.

If the government has little money at the moment, it should borrow money in order to boost demand by pushing money into the economy. The government can repay once the economy has stabilized.

Private investors too should be encouraged to contribute…. [read more]


Public Policy Dealing With Minimum Wage Term Paper

… Public Policy Dealing With Minimum Wage

Introduction minimum wage refers to the lowest hourly, daily or monthly wage that employers may legally pay to their employees or workers. The first minimum wage law, worldwide, was enacted by the government of New Zealand in 1894, followed by a similar law promulgated by the State of Victoria, Australia in 1896. Other countries followed suit and currently over 100 countries, including most industrialized countries, have some form of minimum wage law in place. ("Q&a: The Minimum Wage...")

The need for minimum wage law was felt largely due to the plight of the low-wage workers, especially women and children, who were forced to work in appalling conditions and for ridiculously low wages in the early decades after the Industrial…. [read more]


Human Trafficking Social Policies-Final Project Essay

… This law attempts to eliminate an important part of slave labor in the manufacturing and agricultural sectors by making it unprofitable for companies to use trafficked labor or to ignore the use of trafficked labor. Because California is such a large state, it is able to set a high standard for participating companies. The law has already had a demonstrable effect upon the actions of companies. "Companies have started publishing the information necessary to comply" even in anticipation of the law taking full effect (Cernansky 2012).

The law recognizes that a single ethical and watchful company alone cannot change the world. Consumers likewise can have trouble changing their buying habits based upon personal research. Although some highly-publicized companies, such as Nike, have been the subject…. [read more]


Human Resources Labor Relationships a Labor Union Term Paper

… Human Resources

Labor Relationships

A labor union is an association of workers who have come together in order to attain common goals in relations to such as better working conditions. The job of the leadership of the union is to negotiate with the employer on behalf of union members. The labor contracts are known as collective bargaining agreements. These agreements can include such things as: negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint processes, rules that oversee hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and other policies. The contracts that are negotiated by the union leaders are binding to both the employees and the employer. In some cases that are even binding on workers who are not part of the union. Once the government approves…. [read more]


Unemployment in the Labour Market Essay

… 4. Game theory

According to game theory, industries and traders share all the rules of games. These include:

1. Rules, which govern conduct of the players

2. Pay-offs, such as win, lose or draw

3. Strategies, which influence the decision making process.

Firms have to make a number of decisions such as on price and output, on products, on marketing, on possible pay-offs, and on gaining more profit for their firms. In this way, employment can be seen as both voluntary and involuntary. It is involuntary in that the person is laid off as a result of a stratagem / game of his firm that decides that the spate of unemployment's will be more lucrative to his industry. Ion the other hand, the individual may…. [read more]


U.S. Department of State: Public Essay

… Complaints will need to be submitted as soon as possible right after an incident of the alleged sexual harassment takes place. The Albany Fire Department then set up a system where the manager of human resources will be the ones that would assist the complainant in finishing a sexual harassment objection form at the department. In order to make sure the quick and detailed investigation of a sexual harassment complaint, the complainant should deliver as much of the following information as is likely:

The department, name, and position of the individual or persons supposedly causing the harassment.

A report of the incident(s), as well as the date(s), location(s) and the attendance of any observers.

The supposed effect of the occurrence(s) on the complainant's situation, salary,…. [read more]


Foreign Policy With Regards to the Middle East Essay

… U.S. Foreign Policy -- Middle East

What is the U.S. foreign policy with reference to the Middle East following the uprisings in that region of the world commonly known as "Arab Spring"? This paper delves into issues surrounding the position of the United States now that leadership dynamics have changed in the Middle East, and new realities are being presented. The biggest threat for the U.S. vis-a-vis the Middle East has not resulted from the Arab Spring however; it is the ongoing menace, Iran, and the possibility that Iran will successfully develop nuclear weapons.

In the December 10, 2011 edition of the respected publication, the Economist, the author refers to the 4,500 Americans that were killed in the "eight-year misadventure" in Iraq and posits that…. [read more]


Policies That UK Government Essay

… How can social class affect individuls business.

For many centuries, Japan was a feudal nation ruled by an emperor and occupied by a hierarchy of shoguns, daimyos, samurais, farmers and merchants. This system closely resembled the noble landowner hierarchy that persisted in Europe until the French Revolution. In Japan, the feudal system's end came with the devastation of the atomic bombs that ended World War II. These brought to an end the all-encompassing rule of Japan's Emperor Hirohito and ushered in an era of dominant western influence. The forces of capitalism and democracy would be especially powerful during the inception period.

The result has actually been a fairly thorough dismantling of the class system in Japan's highly egalitarian socio-economic structure. Accordingly, we find that "the…. [read more]


Policy Analysis: Interior Enforcement Term Paper

… S. citizens are likely to be considerably cheaper. The issue here, naturally, is not the cost of the cards or even the source of the cards. It is less about forgery and fraud and theft, than it is about employers in the U.S. looking the other way when they have been charged by way of federal laws and regulations to winnow out those prospective employees who are not entitled to work in the U.S.

Policy Proposal

The immigrant worker landscape leans heavily toward traditional remedies that entail criminal prosecution and fiscal penalties. The very real economic drivers of the "business" of employing unauthorized workers seem to have been lost in the shuffle of policies, actual practices, and cultural shifts. The causes are known to America,…. [read more]


Foreign Policy of China (Beijing Thesis

… But just as China (Beijing consensus)'s economic and military power does not yet match that of the United States, China (Beijing consensus)'s soft power still has a long way to go as demonstrated by a Chicago Council on Global Affairs poll. China (Beijing consensus) does not have cultural industries like Hollywood, and its universities are not yet the equal of the United States. It lacks the many non-governmental organizations that generate much of U.S. soft power. Politically, China (Beijing consensus) suffers from corruption, inequality, and a lack of democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. While that may make the "Beijing consensus" attractive in authoritarian and semi-authoritarian developing countries, it undercuts China (Beijing consensus)'s soft power in the West. Although China (Beijing consensus)'s new…. [read more]


California Labor Laws the State Term Paper

… The wheels of justice are badly out of alignment when it comes to California employment law," said John H. Sullivan, president of the Civil Justice Association of California, which initiated the study (1996). "The outcome is that everyone is treated unfairly -- businesses go out of their way to avoid hiring people for good positions with benefits, and they turn to using temporary help. By rewarding frivolous job lawsuits, our civil justice system discourages employers from expanding their operations and creating more employment for everyone." study conducted by the California Employment Law Council revealed that California's strict labor laws have had a negative effect on the state's business climate. The study revealed that labor laws have resulted in the following (Sullivan, 1996):

53% of firms…. [read more]


Charges of Unfair Labor Practices Case Study

… , 2011).

With respect to alcohol abuse testing, alcohol is a drug and subject to the same kinds of abuse and dependency concerns as any other drug. According to the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, alcohol is one of the most widely used drug substances in the world. They point out the following public health problems associated with alcohol use:

Alcohol is used by more young people than tobacco or illicit drugs.

Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with approximately 75,000 deaths per year.

Alcohol is a factor in approximately 41% of all deaths from motor vehicle crashes.

Long-term alcohol misuse is associated with liver disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological damage as well as psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, and antisocial…. [read more]


From Welfare to Recovery Unemployment and Public Policy in Illinois Research Paper

… ¶ … Welfare to Recovery

PWORA vs. Key Concepts from A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis: The Eightfold Path to More Effective Problem Solving

Annotated Bibliography

Over the last several years, the total number of people who are receiving welfare assistance has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because of shifts in the way these programs are run with increased accountability and transparency. In the state of Illinois, these transformations are more pronounced with the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). ("Public Law 104 -- 193," 1996) (Grogger, 2009)

This is a federal law that shifted the way welfare assistance is provided to the poor. These changes are occurring in several different areas including: Temporary Assistance…. [read more]


Superheadism Policy of the Labour Party Term Paper

… Education

Throughout the world there is an emphasis placed on education; the United Kingdom is no exception. The United Kingdom has long been revered for the educational structure that exist with the country, The country has always believed that headmasters play a vital role in ensuring that educational institutions provide students with the best instruction possible. More specifically the Labour Party has initiated a policy of Superheadism. The purpose of this discussion is to describe the aforementioned initiative and discuss what role it plays in fostering school improvement. In addition, the essay will discuss other education initiatives that have been wrought by the Labour Party. We will also discuss the likely success or failure of the superheadism initiative.

Origins of the Education problem in the…. [read more]


Dol Policies Term Paper

… Hard-to-value alternative investments lacked appropriate and independent valuation. Approximately 90% of plans we sampled either did not obtain independent valuations or did not demonstrate an analytical process to determine their fair market value. These plans also relied on client statements and general partners' estimated values without additional analysis to ensure that the alternative investments were reported at fair market value." This is illustrating how a new approach must be taken. To address these changes, requires having more clarity as to what they should be valued and the standards they use. ("Semi Annual Report to Congress," 2013)

In many ways, one could argue that the loopholes in these areas are what encourages fraud inside various corporations. For instance, one the ways Enron was able to defraud…. [read more]


Grant and Wilson Public Policy as Governments Research Paper

… Grant and Wilson Public Policy

As governments evolved and adapted from the ancient city states it became necessary to implement projects that were designed to improve the structure and function of the government. Public policy is a guide for the administrative function of the state to implement laws, regulatory measures and funding priorities that will benefit the citizenry. Generally, it is embodied within macro constitutional or legislative documents and acts, and/or judicial decisions (Schuster, 2009).

In general, when Ulysses Grant came into office, he preferred to try his best to avoid the political infighting that resulted after Lincoln's assassination. Rather than form public policy based on party lines, he sought to surround himself with people who would give him accurate advice and a continuation of…. [read more]


Theory and Social Policy Essay

… ¶ … Social Policy: KiwiSaver as a Social Policy

A vitally important social / economic policy that the New Zealand Government launched - thanks in part to the progressive influences of the Labour Alliance Coalition and cooperation from private providers and employers - is called KiwiSaver ("Poua he Oranga"). KiwiSaver is a kind of savings program to help all citizens prepare financially for their retirement, or whatever their future plans happen to be. The benefits are many, and the program is flexible. This program was certainly not designed with Maori needs in mind exclusively, but indeed KiwiSaver offers returns to individuals - if they take advantage of it - that may not be as well off financially as they would like to be in terms…. [read more]


Russia's Foreign Policy Towards Germany's Demand for a Permanent Seat in the UN Security Council Term Paper

… Russia's foreign policy towards Germany's demand for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council

The Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union may have been consigned to the historical dustbins of failed experiments, but the Russia that emerged from these fiascoes retains many of the same problems and foreign policy goals of its former empire. Likewise, the Germany of today may not resemble the divided nations that existed a few years ago, but its foreign policy goals have changed in substantive ways. As the nations of Europe continue their inexorable march towards a United States of Europe (GmbH), Germany stands to play an increasingly important role in world affairs, challenging the former Soviet Union's global leadership role in unprecedented ways. Clearly, there are some fundamental…. [read more]


Sex Trafficking in Europe Term Paper

… The existence of a well-known and well-traveled route for traffickers makes it far easier for them to facilitate the passage of victims and also to track them down and punish them if they escape. "The so-called 'Eastern Route' through Poland and into Germany is a key overland corridor for smuggling women into the European Union from Russia, Ukraine, Romania, and the Baltics. The cities of Prague, Amsterdam, and Frankfurt also are common destinations. Large numbers of these women also reportedly end up in Italy, Greece, Belgium, Austria, and France" (Synovitz 2005). Other common routes include a Balkan route which recruits from Montenegro, Croatia, Albania, Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Kosovo and a third via southern Bulgaria into Greece (Synovitz 2005).

Some women, like Katya, are taken by…. [read more]


Evolution of Labor Unions Essay

… Evolution of Labor Unions

SOLIDARITY THROUGH THE YEARS

Definition, History and Evolution

Growth and Decline

Organization

Membership Policies

Labor Legislation

Vision and Direction

A New Global Federation

A labor union refers to a group of workers who share common goals in terms of wages, hours and work conditions (Boone and Kurtz, 2005 as qtd in Maxwell, 1999). In the beginning, labor unions in the United States consisted only of male, blue-collar workers. But as the economy evolved, white-collar and female workers were admitted as members (Maxwell).

History and Evolution

Workers in the 1700s and 1800s recognized the need to band together in response to inhuman working conditions, low wages and long work hours (Encyclopedia of Small Business, 2002; Maxwell, 1999). Labor unions flourished during the…. [read more]

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