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Landfill Mining Term Paper

… ECONOMIC BENEFITS of LANDFILL MINING & RECLAMATION

Recycling has become a big industry, employing many individuals across many various sectors of materials of recyclables and across a range of various recycling or reclamation efforts. One of these sectors in recyclable or reclamation is the landfill reclamation sector, which recycles various materials including metals, gases, detergents, as well as others. Each of the sub-areas of landfill reclamation is combined with a process referred to as 'soil amendment recovery', that is a process of sifting ferrous and other materials from the soil. Mining is known to be a "very toxic business" however, recycling which is called an "old solution to a new problem" has recycling businesses flourishing and specifically noted in the work of Schmidt (2001) is…. [read more]


Treatment Options Solid Waste Peer Reviewed Journal

… Here in this paper we will be using the term open dump to only refer to the disposal sites that are uncontrolled, and which are also the center of discussion here.

Usually leachate is associated with the open dumps and this is in liquid form. The production of leachate takes place in such as manner that when the percolation of rain through the waste dump present on the disposal site takes place, it creates leachate. This water gets accumulated at the bottom of the dump. The organic compounds and the inorganic constituents that are formed by the microbial activity and are present in the actual waste give rise to leachate. In leachate there are traces of the metal such as zinc, lead, manganese, copper and…. [read more]


Environmental Term Paper

… The court disagreed with the site qualifying under Section 404(a)'s definition of 'navigable waters' because of being a habitat for the migratory birds. The courts disagreement was based on the consideration that it would assume the statute did not have any independent significance. The court explained that, in the aggregate, the substantial effects on the interstate commerce were not clear because the petitioner's, SWANCC's, landfill was clearly of commercial nature and clearly not connected to 'navigable waters' and 'waters of the United States' that the statute extends the terms to. The court rejected the request for Administrative deference based on the state and federal balance where Congress extended rights and responsibilities to the States. The aggregate balance of the economic loss of natural resources and…. [read more]


Waste Management as a Result Term Paper

… Waste Management as a result of the RCRA

WASTE Management as a RESULT of the RESOURCE and RECOVERY ACT

Waste management and the landfill industry in general have emerged in the past few decades as an area of concern for citizens, government officials and policy makers alike. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was designed to govern the handling and disposal of "hazardous wastes" at sites that were then currently active. The RCRA affects sites where such wastes were treated, stored or disposed of since November 19, 1980. Thus, any person that generates "hazardous waste" is governed, as are persons that treat, store or dispose of hazardous wastes. This paper will discuss the changes in the waste management and landfill industry as a result…. [read more]


Recycling Should Be Made Mandatory Thesis

… Recycling can lessen down the greenhouse gas emissions from factories and industries thereby saving energy and preventing pollution at the same time.

If a broader perspective is taken, recycling has turned out to be the need of this hour as the world is under constant pressure due to extremely complex environmental issues. It is because rain forests are being cut down for regional developments, paper and timber. The writing and printing paper that is used commonly comes from the rainforest in Australia. This malevolent demolition of the natural environment has left a lot of species of plants and animals on the edge of extinction. This is the high time for people to get well-acquainted with the fact that they are responsible for protecting the environment…. [read more]


LNG Liquefied Natural Gas Essay

… LNG needs only 30% of the space of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) to store the same quantity of energy. In classify to stay the LNG cold, LNG is stored on-board vehicles in thermally insulted storage tanks. When the steam engine in natural gas vehicle (NGV) is in progress, the LNG is heated, changing it back to a gas. From that point on, the fuel provide procedure is alike to the method on CNG-fueled engines (Natural Gas Vehicles for America). On the other hand, Natural gas is an attractive selection to provide as a near-term 'bridge' as we change toward a sustainable power financial system, but we must work to reduce the ecological impacts of its manufacture and us (Union of Concerned Scientists).

LNG needs only…. [read more]


Recycling Should Be Mandatory Term Paper

… For example, many assert that Japan's recycling program is caused not by environmental concerns, but by a lack of landfill space. Compared to Japan, they maintain that there is no shortage of landfill space in the United States (Winston).

This argument fails to address both the economic, environmental and health costs associated with landfills. In addition, the widespread availability of landfill space in the country is a debatable fact, as many landfills are forced to close due to problems of leaching and contamination. Many citizens are also protesting the development of new landfills, particularly when these are being constructed near their cities of residence (Hershkowitz 82-83).

In conclusion, there are also several hidden, long-term benefits to recycling. Businesses that use recycled material incur less overhead…. [read more]


Water Standards Issues in Urban Term Paper

… Due to the nature of nonpoint source pollution of water in urban areas any plan that fails to incorporate collaboration between agencies and public information provision will not be effective because NPS water pollution prevention is necessarily dependent upon these to accomplish its goal of reducing and preventing NPS water pollution.

References

Public Works Department -- Stormwater Services Division (2011) City of Durham, North Carolina Website. Retrieved from: http://www.ci.durham.nc.us/departments/works/stormwater_water_quality.cfm

Indiana Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Management Plan (2011) Watershed and Nonpoint Source Water Pollution. Indiana Government Website. Retrieved from: http://www.in.gov/idem/nps/3153.htm

Nonpoint Source Management Planning Session II (2011) Summary Report - University of Northern Iowa Institute for Decision Making. 29 Apr 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.bcs.uni.edu/idm/news/NPSMP/NPSMP_Session_2_Summary_Report.pdf

Ambrosio, JD, Lawrence, T. And Brown, LC (nd) A Basic Primer on…. [read more]


Environmental Issues and Risk Management Research Paper

… Environmental Issues and Risk Management

Can the construction of hazardous material/waste Contamination storage facilities survive tornadoes at their current protection levels?

Definition of Construction Waste

Construction Waste Generation

Composition of Construction Waste

Motivation

Development of the Research Project

Brief Description of the Research Methodology

Deliverables

Sustainable Development and Construction Waste Management

Sustainability

Sustainable Construction

Construction Waste Management

Waste Management Hierarchy

The increased interest in the construction of hazardous material/waste Contamination storage and rather or not they can survive natural disasters is the recent movement have forced many construction practices to change considerably. Construction waste management, which is one of the most vital respects in all sustainability review systems, also plays a vital role in green building ratings. Current revelations verify that straightforwardly utilizing on-site waste…. [read more]


Deloro Mine Remediation Evaluation of Remediation Technologies Thesis

… Deloro Mine Remediation

Evaluation of Remediation Technologies for Arsenic contamination at Deloro Mine Eastern Ontario Canada

Site

Deloro is a small town of 180 people located in eastern Ontario. For many years, the residents of this town were unknowingly breathing arsenic contaminated air and drinking contaminated water. Recent legal actions have brought this tiny town to the forefront. The pollution stemmed from a 280-hectare mine located on the eastern edge of town. Sampling sites from 18 sites around the village averaged an arsenic level of 723 ppm, with one location as high as 5,500 ppm (McAndrew).

Two likely sources of contamination have been sited as potential culprits. The first is arsenic dust emitted from refinery smoke stack the settled on the soil. However, the refinery…. [read more]


Recycling: How it Improves Term Paper

… Successful recycling programs depend on several factors. There must be a general awareness of the problems caused by solid-waste disposal. There also must be an efficient, low-cost method for separating and collecting the recyclable materials. It also must be economically feasible for industries to use and market recycled materials.

Twenty years ago, only one curbside recycling program existed in the United States, which collected numerous materials at the curb. By 1998, 9,000 curbside programs and 12,000 recyclable drop-off centers had been developed. As of 1999, 480 materials recovery facilities had been established to process the collected materials. Recycling and composting activities prevented about 64 million tons of material from ending up in landfills and incinerators in 1999. Today, this country recycles 28% of its waste,…. [read more]


Biodiversity in the 2014 British Research Paper

… Biodiversity in the 2014 British Commonwealth Games in Glasgow's Arena And Velodrome

Approach and uncertainty:

The expectations are high and so are the costs involved with hosting the 2014 British Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, Scotland. The general approach that will be taken to reduce the carbon emissions that will be associated with the 2014 British Commonwealth Games in Glasgow (hereinafter alternatively "the Games") and the sources of uncertainty that are likely to be important are discussed further below. At present, the city of Glasgow is faced with an imposed regeneration debate concerning the site of the Games in its East End (An iconic stadium 2009). According to the Scottish government, what is known for certain is that a majority of the residents of the East…. [read more]


Domestic Waste Production Research Paper

… The UK ranked 12th among countries in the EU with regard to waste generation in kg per person in 2011, with Denmark, Cyprus, and Luxembourg comprising the top three countries (1). With regard to using recycling as waste management, the UK ranked 10th among EU countries (1). Germany ranked as the country utilizing the most recycling, while Bulgaria ranked last (1). Recycling rates in the UK were demonstrated as slightly less in comparison to the average of European countries (1).

Aims and objective

The amount and types of waste generated within a household are influenced by drivers and behaviors within the household. Attitudes and consciousness toward the environment and the impact our behaviors have on the world around us may be influential with regard to…. [read more]


Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Wastes in the U.S Term Paper

… Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Wastes in the U.S.

The majority of chemicals produced and used by man have proved to be extremely beneficial to the human society and have contributed to a better way of living. However, indiscriminate and improper usage of such chemicals and their toxic byproducts have also led to dangerous levels of pollution that have compromised our quality of life and even threatened the survival of not only human beings but many other species of animals and plants present on our planet. (Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Chemicals) Despite state and federal regulations regarding release of toxic chemicals into the environment, many industries continue to release such products. Across the United States, the volume of toxic chemicals discharged into the environment has been…. [read more]


International Regulation of Tourism Term Paper

… "

Lake Vostok has since become one of the few causes of disagreement between the international college of nations with interests in Antarctica; the Lake Vostok problems will be outlined later in this report. It is notable, however, even before the controversy and scientific quandaries that have vexed scientists and nations the past few years. Not since 1858, when Africa explore John Speke first stood on the banks of Lake Victoria, the headwaters of the Nile, has a formerly undiscovered body of water of such magnitude been added to the map of the globe. (In the case of Lake Victoria, however, it was only a 'discovery' to Europeans and Americans and those of other continents; Africans had known of it all along. The same cannot…. [read more]


Government Policy of Recycling on Campus Essay

… The campus today successfully recycles batteries, florescent light bulbs, and even computers. Yet another university with a clear and well-defined recycling plan is the University of Texas at Arlington. Already, the university has in place what it refers to as an award-winning program of composting and recycling. Some of the items and waste materials the university actively recycles include, but they are not limited to, metals, lamps, food debris, aluminum, and paper. All in all, therefore, a government policy of recycling on campus is largely practical and sustainable.

Next, it should also be noted that thanks to the successful adoption of what is referred to as the single stream recycling system, recycling on campus is now more convenient than ever. As a consequence of the…. [read more]


Solid Waste in Todays Capitalistic Essay

… Most experts agree that the best approach is an integrated method where both of the strategies mentioned above are used.

There are many strategies that an environmentally conscious person can use to effectively deal with the problem of solid waste management. Miller indicates that individuals can reuse, reduce and recycle. An example of reusing can be avoiding one time use items such as plastic or paper bags and instead using a cloth one to do shopping. An example of reducing is becoming more conscious and aware of what products one can do without and avoid purchasing them whenever possible. An example of recycling in turning in material that can be treated and used in the manufacturing of new products like bottles, cans, metals and cardboards.…. [read more]


History of Boston Term Paper

… ¶ … Architecture of Boston

Boston is a city that represents the very heart of what it means to be American. Filled with rich historical significance, Boston serves as a reminder of what America used to be and what it is yet to be. Boston is unique in that it is dear to the heart of America's history. One of America's oldest cities, Boston was founded on November 17, 1630 by Puritans and still retains much of that original Puritan architecture and design. The architecture falls into colonial, federal, Victorian, and contemporary (ihistroy.org 2008). These phases of architecture represent the life of not only Boston but also America in a way that is truly unique. From lifelike statues to its intricate subway system, Boston is…. [read more]


City of Boston Term Paper

… Boston

Of Revolutions and Red Sox: The Historic City of Boston

Boston is one of America's oldest and most historic cities. It is the capital and the most populous city of Massachusetts, one of the thirteen first states of the United States of America. However, Boston's history stretches back even farther than the existence of the American union. It was founded on November 17, 1630 by Puritans, and the city in its oldest cobblestone and brick quarters still retains much of its distinct Puritan look in its architecture and design ("Boston, Massachusetts: City History," CityLights, 2008). Some wits might also say that it does so in some of its attitudes, such as the fact that Boston's public transportation system the 'T' closes shortly after midnight,…. [read more]


Sustainability Movement Term Paper

… Sustainability

For the planet and her people to survive, the world's people must embrace the sustainability movement, for modern man is using up the Earth's resources at an alarming, and perhaps catastrophic rate.

Define Sustainability

Use national and international definitions.

Also define sustainability and natural resources.

Describe the sustainability movement, and use some specific examples

Biodiversity

Ecology

Community

Commerce

Natural Resources

Biospehre

Biodiversity

Describe how biodiversity and sustainability support one another.

Use "biodiversity in food" to show how consumers can make a difference when they buy food.

Sustainability and Natural Resources

Describe how the natural world works in relationship to sustainability.

Discuss the overfishing of the oceans.

Discuss genetic crops

Discuss the natural world and the effects of global warming.

Discuss other natural resource issues,…. [read more]


Nuclear Power: Alternative to Fossil Fuel? Essay

… In a "boiling water reactor" the fission process actually boils water which turns turbines and produces electricity (Duke).

From time to time, about "one-third of the fuel assemblies in a reactor must be replaced," but that "spent fuel" remains highly radioactive that "must be managed to protect workers, the environment, and the public" (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC). The NRC explains that the spent fuel assemblies are stored in "fuel pools" outside the plant, are "robust," and "have large safety margins, including about 20 feet of water above the top of the fuel" which gives those operating the plant "time to correct any problem that may arise" (NRC). The NRC asserts that health risks arising from loading and from storing spent fuel "are very…. [read more]


Political Framework of EU Thesis

… As a result, European nations looked forward to developing nations such as Asia, Africa and South America for the purchase of these necessities. For developing nations this was an opportunity to become known as suppliers of grist, therefore, they were willing to enter into this trade agreement. However, what European Leaders wanted was more than a simple trade agreement; their aim was to enforce their rules on these nations, making them colonies of the infinite European empire. Therefore, they entered into the agreement after setting out a lot of rules for the dependent nations to follow. As time passed by, these rules made the European leaders indirectly administer the nation, thus the nations became a part of European empire. History reveals that the imperialism is…. [read more]


Provide Research Paper

… Coal Production in Philadelphia:

Similar to other cities in Pennsylvania State, coal-production is one of the major activities in Philadelphia. Actually, the city is among leading coal-producing cities in the United States and is the only region that mines anthracite coal. In addition to this, Philadelphia also manufactures natural products, sand, petroleum, gas, and limestone, which is used for roadbeds and cement. The process of mining coal produces coal ash that is more radioactive as compared with nuclear waste and coal combustion waste such as bottom ash, flue gas desulfurization sludge, fly ash, and boiler slag.

Coal Combustion Waste:

Coal production in Philadelphia produces coal combustion waste, which is regarded as the second largest industrial waste flow in the country. The waste is generated when…. [read more]


2010 World Cup South Africa Essay

… In order to analyze the socio economic dynamics of South Africa let us compare it with China, an economy seeing fresh but rapid growth. The primary reason behind choosing China is the fact that the country hosted the international summer Olympic Games around the same time when FIFA was hosted in South Africa. At the On contrary to that, China is a transition economy which has a history of belonging to the communist bloc. Before the Chinese revolution, China had one of the least developed and slowest growing economy with a very low standard of living. This was due to a very high population in China, combined with economic inefficiency as the country was run on the lines of command economy system. However, after China…. [read more]


International Political Economy Research Paper

… International Political Economy

The issue of multinational corporate ethics in the area of sustainable development has forced the hand of many CEO's to act in what is perhaps against the better wishes of their shareholders, but perhaps not of the stakeholder. The question many embattled CEO's must continuously ask is the following. As the executive leader of this company, should I enact a sustainability plan at the cost of short-term investment for the promise of engaging a long-term sustainable development strategy for environmental stewardship?

To answer this question, it is important to identify what the global perspective is and the nature of the governmental agreements that have put pressure on corporations to comply with increased environmental controls to limit pollutants and contaminants released into the…. [read more]


GIS Ireland Conference Report Research Proposal

… GIS Ireland 2009 Conference Report

The nature, scope and purpose of the meeting.

The GIS Ireland 2009 Conference took place on October 14, 2009 at the Guinness Storehouse in Dublin, Ireland in an effort to provide a venue for presenting current information concerning global information systems and how they are being used. The scope of the conference was based on the conference's theme which was "Geographical Information/GIS / Spatial Data Infrastructures and the Current Economic/Crisis." The purpose of the conference was to bring together a wide variety of organizations competing in the public and private sectors as well as students with a common interest in identifying opportunities for using global information systems (GIS) to their maximum advantage in innovative ways with a specific focus on…. [read more]


Zeolite Membranes Term Paper

… Zeolite Membranes

Catalyst

Catalyst is a substance that can cause a change in the rate of a chemical reaction itself being consumed in the reaction; the changing of the reaction rate by use of a catalyst is called catalysis. Substances that increase the rate of reaction are called positive catalysts or, simply, catalysts, while substances that decrease the rate of reaction are called negative catalysts or inhibitors.

Zeolites

Compositionally, zeolites are similar to clay minerals. More specifically, both are alumino-silicates. They differ, however, in their crystalline structure. Many types of clay have a layered crystalline structure (similar to a deck of cards) and are subject to shrinking and swelling as water is absorbed and removed between the layers. In contrast, zeolites have a rigid, 3-dimensional…. [read more]


Kyoto Treaty Addresses the Problem With Increasing Term Paper

… ¶ … Kyoto Treaty addresses the problem with increasing worldwide emissions by the burning of fossil fuels. By slowing and stopping the upward trend in greenhouse gas emissions that started in industrialized countries 150 years ago, the Kyoto Treaty hopes to move the world toward preventing dangerous interference with the climate system. Countries that have accepted the Kyoto Treaty has committed to reducing their emissions of six key greenhouse gases by at least 5%. These six gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20). The three most important gas emissions that need to be reduced immediately are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20). Although chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, are responsible for depleting the…. [read more]


Ozone a Little Is Good Term Paper

… Ozone

a Little is good, Too Much May Cause Death-

The purpose of this paper is to examine and explore the subject of the Ozone layer. Further to not only understand the facts but to research and give consideration to the implications of predictive future developments in relation to the Ozone layer's condition.

Scientists as well as grassroots and Greenpeace groups all issued a warning in the 1970's that has culminated in just what was predicted as is demonstrated by a November 17th 2004 Newsday report that reveals that the rise of deaths "among urban dwellers immediately following a peak in ground-level ozone, according to researchers who analyzed pollution in 95 cities nationwide."

The report stated that there was a link between death and pollution…. [read more]


Ocean Pollution Term Paper

… All in all, marine pollution affects marine populations all over the world, and some face extinction because of it. To save the marine populations, strict pollution guidelines have been developed in some countries.

The Clean Water Act, first passed in the United States in 1972, was a major step forward in protecting the world's oceans. Since its' passage, the Act has been updated several times, the last in 1996. The Act contains measures regulating dredging, dumping, wastewater discharge, and more. While the Act has helped clean up the oceans, there is much more to be done.

People already feel the consequences as damaged marine systems stop delivering myriad "free" services. Islands wash away during storms. Formerly stable shorelines sink and erode. Tropical nations watch tourism…. [read more]

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