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Language-In-Use Term Paper

… " The article has an official air, as the information is supported by verified facts: the weddings were cancelled, according to a statement belonging to Clijsters, published on her official website. Furthermore, the story is not intended to create more public pressure on the two sportspersons, who intend to keep "distance ... from the malicious gossip which inevitably surfaces in this kind of situation."

The way the article is constructed and the information transmitted to the reader shows that the intention of the reporter was to simply present the facts, with a slight emphasis on the sad part of the story, without getting involved in gossip and trying to uphold the right to privacy of the two tennis players, while also completely and accurately informing…. [read more]

Language Practices Essay

… Overall, language is highly complex and provides human beings with such a high level of interaction that there are bound to be good and bad influences involved in it. How people see themselves is tied to how they speak about themselves, but also how others speak about them and their choices (Kandel, Schwartz, & Jessell, 2000). Additionally, children are shaped by what is said about them when they are young, and that can greatly affect who they become and how they react to life when they are older. Linguists study how language is constructed and how it came about, but many other professions use language to determine how people are shaped. Psychologists, for example, can get to the root of a problem that may have…. [read more]

Language/Identity Language Essay

… The story of the SS Windrush was that it docked in Jammaica when on a home bound journey from Australia. The year was 1947, and there was a glut of low paying jobs that the English could not fill due to the losses experienced in WWII. Many Jamaicans were taken over to fill these vacancies and the SS Windrush was the original conveyance (Turnham Primary School). Bennett-Coverly demonstrated how the people may have left Jamaica, but they did not leave their roots behind.

"Wat a joyful news, Miss Mattie

I feel like me heart gwine burs

Jamaica people colonizin

Englan in reverse.

By de hundred, by de tousan

From country and from town,

By de ship-load, by de plane-load

Jamaica is Englan boun.

The people…. [read more]

Language and Social Grouping Essay

… The way language is used by an individual can also change with social and geographic factors, such as getting married and the spouse uses languages different. The language changes to communicate with the spouse on their own level. Sometimes languages change when individuals go to social groups that speak and use language different, the individual will change in order to communicate with the new group.

People adjust the way they talk according to their social situation (Eble). As individuals move from one social group to another, they change the way they use language. For example, someone would not talk the same to a peer social group as the way they talk to their parents. In the same respects, the individual would change the way language…. [read more]

Language and Language Diversity Play Term Paper

… Though language is generally empowering, it also presents limitations, especially with the wide variety of languages that have developed through time. Differences in language use results to different worldviews, or the perspective in which the individual tries to analyze and understand his/her reality. Instead of promoting unity and understanding among humans in general, language diversity creates sub-human cultures and creates misunderstanding because of the non-universality of each of these languages. In effect, though language and the capability to communicate is deemed as vital to human society, diversity and differences in terms of language (i.e., codes or symbols) limit people from their respective cultures, and cannot establish universal understanding and unity.

3. In the process of critical thinking, one is able to process information that she…. [read more]

Language and Culture Essay

… " It is time for the collective to mature and understand that by imprisoning speech through censorship mirrors the primitive culture that we have created. America is weak and pitiful when it comes to its ideas on guilt and self-hatred. To loathe words to the point of extinction is to loath oneself into extinction.

According to the American Civil Liberities Union "The First Amendment to the United States Constitution protects speech no matter how offensive its content. How much we value the right of free speech is put to its severest test when the speaker is someone we disagree with most. Speech that deeply offends our morality or is hostile to our way of life warrants the same constitutional protection as other speech because the…. [read more]

Language and Cognition the Relationship Essay

… Specialization. Language can stand-in for action (Williamson, 2009). Because language represents actions that have taken place and actions that could or will take place, arbitrary words can substitute for those actions (Williamson, 2009). This function is called specialization (Williamson, 2009).

Cultural transmission. Through the use of language, human beings are able to transmit cultural information from one generation to another (Williamson, 2009). Without the capacity of language to represent experiences and knowledge, there would not be a collective historical memory (Williamson, 2009). This would mean that every generation would have to start from the very beginning with all aspects of their culture (Williamson, 2009). Normative behavior could not be established and values and traditions could not be shared -- a condition which would generate chaotic…. [read more]

First Language (L1) Essay

… When there is a similarity between two languages, a leaner may not observe learning difficulties. The greater degree of difference in two languages, the more difficulties will be presented in learning the language. Typically, Contrastive Analysis influenced the American linguistics in 1960s.

Gramley et al. (2008) argues the major influence of Contrastive Analysis is its usage in the prediction of error in the L1 classroom. Typically, Contractive Analysis points out that theory is able to identify learning difficulties of learners, which generally assists in predicting errors on n the usage of L1. To predict errors, Contractive Analysis assumes that difficulty and errors can be equated. Before the formulation of Contrastive Analysis, errors have the central concern in audio-lingual approach and language teaching. Typically, errors are…. [read more]

Second Language Learning Essay

… On the same English tests, Swedish-speaking Finns consistently did better than Finnish speakers. Because the students came from similar backgrounds, one likely explanation was that, when completing the English tasks, the Swedish speakers get more help from their L1 than Finnish speakers, as Swedish, but not Finnish, is related to English.

Supporting this view is Robert & Williams, (2009) finding that Swedish children already knew a lot of English words when they started instruction in English because of the cognates in Swedish and English. However, it is also possible that some readers are not aware of cognates and cannot exploit this source of information to facilitate their reading comprehension (Cook, 2001). In a recent study, we focused on the English reading comprehension of upper elementary…. [read more]

Real-Time Language Change "The Moral Essay

… Using the past to understand the future becomes a key element of what real-time assessments have to offer (Turell, 2003:7).

In many ways, this approach is favored because it mirrors many of the techniques that quality social sciences expect to have value. Returning to groups or places many years later and looking at what they did is one way to achieve a level of authenticity, as might be turning directly to the same people who were previously studied. Sampling and replication studies where considered good models for this kind of review (Turell, 2003:8). But so too, if they could be found, would be actual data collection archives. These types of "dialect atlases" have begun to be uncovered, only to discover that the complexity of what…. [read more]

Language Instinct Essay

… ¶ … Language Instinct

How are the Esthetic Systems of Music and Dance Related to the Language Instinct?

Steven Pinker asserts that all languages have a grammar, or a set of rules for word placement that affects not only the esthetic quality, but also the meaning of the communication. Words, sounds and signs can be arranged in an infinite number of patterns, although not all of those patterns follow the innate grammar of the language, and can therefore lack meaning.

Music is also a language with a set of sounds as well as a written form. The sounds and symbols follow grammars which allow meaning to be conveyed. If there are 500 human languages, there are a similarly impressive number of music languages. Every culture…. [read more]

Linguistics, Language Acquisition, and Pronoun Term Paper

… In other words, overextension is pushing oneself beyond one's bounds. Consider the example of overextending the range of flexibility in a joint or a muscle as an analogy. Language is a muscle; the use of language exercises a muscle -- the brain. Language exercises very specific areas of the brain. Thus, just as in muscle growth in other areas of the body, there will be some trial and error before mastery occurs. This pronoun error may be an example of growing children, in attempts to develop and strengthen their linguistic muscles, overextending their linguistic capability in a specific pattern indigenous to a very specific age group of children.

Rispoli certainly defends the fortitude of the explanation for this occurrence with syntactic theory, but he also…. [read more]

Inquiry of George Orwell's Politics and the English Language Essay

… ¶ … Language Political or Historically Based?

In George Orwell's essay, "All Art is Propaganda" he tells us the English language is intrinsically politically manipulative. 'The English language, " says Orwell, " Is in a bad way" and he goes on to demonstrate how this is so. There are many words and phrases that he uses to make his point.

According to Orwell, and this is where all linguistics agree, language is a natural outgrowth of one's culture. It echoes the way we think and objectives our socialization and transmitted values. Language is a semantic instrument fashioned by a specific culture and the values and principles of that specific culture are sewn into the fabrics of the words that make up that specific language. In…. [read more]

Second Language Acquisition Essay

… Second Language

Lightbown and Spada Chapter 1 and 2: Language Learning in Early Childhood

This chapter was a bit surprising because it did not address learning a second language but instead focused on how children learn their first language. It was also surprising to read about children since those reading this textbook are obviously no longer children. However, perhaps the main benefit of the approach taken by chapter 1 and 2 is that it really exposes just how difficult it is to learn even one language, let alone two. I was particularly surprised by the fact that word acquisition (during the early school years) occurs at a rate of several hundred to 1000 words per year. Still, I am curious as to how exactly such…. [read more]

Language Development Research Paper

… ¶ … Language Acquisition" (2004), the authors have put together an array of information on the development and origination of language in infants. Two of the most over bearing theories in language development is whether language is in fact due to nature or due to nurture. The debate is whether language is preprogrammed in the brain and works like an on and off switch when certain parts are triggered, or whether it is learned through proper teaching and a literacy upbringing. In the first six months of life, infants are exposed to so many different sounds and they see so many different mouthed movements that they capture all that into their system.

When disorders are found in language, it makes it interesting to analyze because…. [read more]

ELL Language Acquisition in English Language Learners Term Paper


Language Acquisition in English Language Learners


Language Acquisition in English Language Learners

The United States is a country of immigrants, and has been since its inception. However, until relatively recently, immigration did not pose a significant problem for the United States educational system or for many Americans because of the rigid cultural and social expectations for immigrants. New immigrants were expected to assimilate aspects of American culture, especially speaking English, as quickly as possible. Furthermore, schools were not responsible for teaching a new language to immigrant children; on the contrary, these students were expected to learn, in English, even if they did not know any English at all. The task of English acquisition was often left to members of individual immigrant communities. Non-English…. [read more]

Bilingual First Language Acquisition Term Paper

… Infants use multiple cues to determine word boundaries between the ages of six months to 24 months. As early as 7.5 months of age, infants can detect stress patterns in speech and later, phonotactic nuances (i.e., acceptable consonant clusters at the beginning of a word).

Oller's research was aimed at providing empirical research in an effort to support parents who are in search of reliable data with which to base their decisions on child rearing. Oller's methodology included a study that contrasted and compared children who were either being raised in a monolingual English environment or in a bilingual Spanish and English environment. The children were all two months old at the onset of the study. The bilingual children were exposed to both languages equally.…. [read more]

Second Language Oral Production in High School Within the Context of CLIL Research Proposal


This study is motivated by theoretical and pedagogical interests: to inform instructional design intended to integrate language and content and to explore how form and meaning intersect in SLA (second language acquisition). Both interests draw on an extensive body of research that encompasses theory and practice underlying three different yet related frameworks and lines of inquiry: content-based language teaching, form-focused instruction and attention and awareness in SLA (second language acquisition). All three of these areas are linked by a concern with the intersection of form and meaning in second language classrooms. Content-based language instruction was originally inspired as an alternative to traditional approaches to language teaching that favored form over meaning. Form-focused…. [read more]

Approaches to Second Language Classroom Interaction Term Paper

… SLA Second Language Aquisition

As the world has become increasingly more global, interests in second language acquisition has also increased. More specifically second language acquisition as it pertains to the second language classroom has become a focal point. The following research will examine three methods that are utilized in Second Language research including conversation analysis, stimulated recall and the Think Aloud Method. For the purposes of this discussion, we will explore the relationship of each approach to theory and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system. Illustrate your argument through the use of transcribed extracts from second language classroom interaction. Let us begin the discussion with some background information about second language acquisition and second language classrooms.

Second language acquisition and second language classrooms…. [read more]

English Language Essay

… Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing, social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail." (Orwell, Page 283)

There is an interesting moment within his writing, in the midst of his linguistic rant, that Orwell acknowledges that he has engaged in some of the behaviors and practices he admonishes against in the writing itself. It is less notable that he breaks his own rules and more notable that he has the self-awareness as a writer to know when he has committed the…. [read more]

Communicative Language Teaching Essay

… Communicative Language Teaching Results Summary

Unfortunately in Libya, there are issues where there are little resources to provide sufficient training in regards to the CLT Approach. In order to better understand the current context, a mixed methods approach was taken and this current research examined 24 Libyan EFL teachers to evaluate their understanding and capabilities within the use of CLT. For the questionnaire, a 5-point Likert scale was used and then analyzed using SPSS methods. Interviews were then used as a follow-up in the Misurata region of Libya. These interviews asked teachers their thoughts on the effectiveness of CLT approach strategies in EFL classrooms, especially in regards to the combination of stuffy of linguistic forms and communicative functions.


Teachers with an Education Background

The…. [read more]

Korean Linguistics the Korean Language Term Paper

… Korean Linguistics

The Korean Language and Linguistics

The Korean language, a member of the Altaic family of languages, is spoken as a native language by peoples of Korean ethnic derivation living in the Korean peninsula, southern and eastern Manchuria, the Russian Far East (eastern Siberia), Kazakhstan, Japan, North America, and in other communities scattered throughout the world. The total number of speakers of the Korean language now numbers over 69 million persons, more than 67 million of whom live on the Korean peninsula (Kim, 1995). Based upon the sub-cultural regions of the Korean peninsula, there are six principal dialects, the dialects of the north- eastern, northwestern, central, southeastern, and southwestern regions plus the dialect spoken on the island of Cheju (Gruzdeva, 1987). The latter dialect…. [read more]

English as a Global Language Essay

… English as the Global Language

As the world moves towards becoming a global community, communities within the global community will have to address the problem of language communication. This is actually a sensitive issue, because it goes to the heart cultural identity and heredity. Most everyone is proud of their ethnic origins, the country of their birth, and that is evidenced, among other ways, by what has been described as the beautiful rhythm, sounds, and command of language. French has been described as one of the most beautiful languages in the world, but it is English that is fast becoming the communication tool for bridging the gap in global communications. There are arguments against English, but it nonetheless remains the logical choice as the global…. [read more]

Object Oriented Database and Languages Research Paper

… Conclusion

The conclusion we can derive from the articles above is that metric do have a practical use in object oriented programming and to a large extent are a reflection of the quality of the software design. The quality most affected includes complexity of the classes and methods, design of package structure as well as the level of abstraction of the system.


Aggregation. (n.d.)(2010). The Free Online Dictionary of Computing. Retrieved November 28, 2010, from website:

Basili, V.R., L.C. Briand and W.L. Melo, (1996). Avalidation of object-oriented design metrics as quality indicators. IEEE Trans. Software Eng.,22: 751-761. DOI: 10.1109/32.544352

Batory, D,. Sarvela, J. N and Rauschmayer. A. (2004) Scaling step-wise refinement. IEEE

Transactions on Software Engineering, 30:355-371

Briand, L., Devanbu, P., Melo,…. [read more]

Syntax Analysis There Is Conflict Research Proposal

… ¶ … Syntax Analysis

There is conflict whether syntax is innate or whether it is learned. Based on a 1973 study that investigated whether L2 (second language) errors that children make are created by 'creative construction" or "habit formation," this study plans to conduct a replication of that study with the difference that the phenomenon of "unique errors" (explained later) will be the syntactic element that will be investigated.

At one time, behaviorism held the center place positing that syntax was an element that was picked up from one's environment. In the 1960s, however, Chomsky showed that rather than picked up from environmental factors, syntax / grammar was innate in a person. Dulay, & Burt (1973) conducted research investigating whether advanced syntax of L2 was…. [read more]

Iraqi Students the Literature Review Literature Review chapter

… What skills are required to communicate?

It is not necessary to have acquired all the communicative skills in order to communicate. For example, an infant can communicate in a general sense the fact that he or she is dissatisfied with the present state of affairs simply by letting out a good bit of yelling. Such an act may not inform the parent of the exact problem, but at least it allows the parent to be informed that a problem exists.

This is not a good example of effective communication and in fact effective communication can be described as; the ability to send messages that are clear, concise and convey the meaning of the message in an effective manner.

At the same time good communication means…. [read more]

Tame a Wild Tongue Language Essay

… e. acknowledgement and acceptance of diversity.


The work How To Tame a Wild Tongue is a real expression of the identity of a growing population in the U.S., people of Spanish speaking native cultures who grew up in America and who are living on the borderlands in both reality and ideology. The work demonstrates both the historical underpinnings of language as a tool used against individuals, culturally, politically and socially by both those who self-identify as similar and the dominant culture. Anzaldua offers an autobiographical outline of just how such language variations become a cultural strength and stigma, leaving the individual to self-identify as flawed and therefore without a cultural home, on one or another side of the border, but instead somewhere in the…. [read more]

Human Language Series Term Paper

… ¶ … Human Language Series, Part 1:

Is language innate?

All day long, from when we get up in the morning to when we go to bed, even when we dream, our minds are producing language in some way or another. We are linguistic beings, whether we are in dialogue with ourselves, listening and speaking with others, or even receiving electronic or print media. But given that most of us cannot remember a time when our consciousness was not organized by language, how can we determine if the ability and/or need to use language is innate to the human brain? Starting in 1957, Noam Chomsky reframed the traditional study of language in his book Syntactic Structures, which shifted the focus of linguistics away from language…. [read more]

Childhood Second Language Learning Term Paper

… One criticism of Polinsky's 1995 research is that for some of his groups of speakers, only a few members participated. Then there were other groups that consisted of 20 members, such as the Russian speakers, and in the Reduced Lithuanian Group, there were only 4 speakers. A future research study could even out the numbers of speakers, unless this would be nearly to accomplish, as in the case of some "dead" languages.

Genesee Research

Genesee (2001) built on previous research which held that although bilingual children are exposed to different sets of linguistic input, they go through an initial stage where they have one linguistic system. According to Genesee (2001), current evidence indicates that bilingual children can use their developing languages differently and more appropriately…. [read more]

William Shakespeare Should Shakespeare's Work Essay

… Laura wrote,

"One night three men were keeping watch outside the homestead of the great chief, when suddenly they saw the former chief approach them.'

'Why was he no longer their chief?'

'He was dead,' I explained. 'That is why they were troubled and afraid when they saw him.'

'Impossible,' began one of the elders, handing his pipe on to his neighbor, who interrupted. 'Of course it wasn't the dead chief; it was an omen sent by a witch. Go on."It is clear from this excerpt that in native Africa, Witch crafting and black magic are accepted arts and are considered as part of regular lives. The very idea of a soul has been replaced by the work of witch. Laura further wrote, "Slightly shaken,…. [read more]

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