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Cognitive Development Essay

… The first study focused on racial attitudes and socially acceptable beliefs for children from 6 -- 16 years of age; researchers manipulated the children's perceptions of accountability for their beliefs and their expressed attitudes were measured explicitly and implicitly. The second study used the same methodology but the focus was on national attitudes between groups. Among other findings, the studies concluded that: children ages 6 -- 9 were highly motivated by external pressures to inhibit their biases; children ages 10 -- 16 were internally motivated to inhibit their biases; children in the racial study you had poor internalization of norms were more controlled by external pressures than were children in the nationalism study; early social cognitive development and social adult cognition are linked (Rutland, Cameron,…. [read more]

Cognitive Psychology Borrows Heavily Essay

… Another key milestone in the development of cognitive psychology as a discipline is the development of generative grammar in linguistics. This was done by Noam Chomsky. Chomsky's publications in the late 1950s heavily impacted the nascent cognitive psychology (Chomsky, 1959). His 1957's Syntactic Structures focused on the mental structures needed to represent the needed to represent linguistic knowledge a competent speaker of a language ought to have (Schacter, 1987). He averred that associations and phrase structure grammars hardly represent an individual's knowledge of syntax and that a component capable of transforming one syntactic structure to another was integral. Chomsky's proposals changed the intellectual landscape of linguistics and indeed introduced the psycholinguistics concept. His Verbal Behavior publication reviewed B.F. Skinner's language learning. This review undermined behaviorism's…. [read more]

Psychology Essay

… Pattern recognition theories are a manner of explaining how the mind makes associations, either by recognizing components, templates, features, or objects.

4. There are many ways that we think and talk about "attention." Compare and contrast Input Attention vs. Controlled Attention. Discuss the similarities, differences; is one better than the other?

Input and Control attention are two types of attention. Each of these has a different set of variables that are part of it. Discussing each in turn, we have components such as alertness or arousal, orienting reflex or response, and spotlight attention for Input Attention.

Alertness or arousal refers to the prerequisite that in input attention, the mind should be aware, and awake, present to the situation in order to take the input from…. [read more]

Cognitive Psychology Absolutely Nothing Interests Essay

… Ultimately, it was this adamant denial which allowed for the rise in cognitive psychology which chose to acknowledge the connection (Davenport, 2001).

With the advent of the computer, came a dramatic change in the way psychology is viewed. The technology allowed psychologists to theorize about the internal human mechanisms making decisions regarding behavior as computers used programming to come to logical ends. It was this comparison to the human mind that provided cognitive psychology with a model upon which to speculate about human behavior (Stone, 20011). Thus, this milestone became known in psychology as the computer metaphor (Stone, 2011). While the human brain cannot actually be reduced to mechanistic functions like a computer can be, how a computer operates can help explain how the brain…. [read more]

Psychology Essay

… Both positive and cognitive psychology uses the scientific technique to clarify the association that is among reasoning and behavior. Meanwhile positive psychology could couple with any other methods, cognitive psychology has lived without argument for practically four periods (Sweetland, 2009). In the 21st century, progress and technology go hand-in-hand; as a result, the formation of artificial intelligence will probable outcome in new theories concerning thought.

Theories of Psychology

There are a lot of theories in psychology that are examined for instance the theories of Gestalt psychology where he says "Humans are psychologically troubled and frequently intensely distressed by inequity, disorder, disorder, tension and battles…We are contented merely when we feel in symmetry, that is, control and in balanced." (Barnes, 2008) These two statements label the…. [read more]

Cognitive Changes Developmental Cognitive Occur Essay

… The second stage is the achieving stage where one's task during early adulthood is to apply his or her intelligence so as to attain career and family goals.

The third stage is the responsible stage that's between early adulthood and middle adulthood where one's task is safeguarding family and career.

The fourth stage is the executive stage where one's task is to shift focus to the community level, this occurs later in the middle adulthood but it's said to be a common trait in all adults.

The fifth stage is the reiterative stage one's task at this stage will be applying intelligence to issues of great personal concern during late adulthood (Schaie, 2000, p 257- 266).


The human life and body goes through various…. [read more]

Cognitive Theories of Development Essay

… Cognitive Theories of Development:

Piaget's Theory:

Given that he was initially trained in biology and philosophy fields, Jean Piaget was mainly interested in the impact of biological influences on cognitive development (Huitt & Hummel, 2003). As a result of his extensive work in this field, he is regarded as one of the most important researchers in developmental psychology. In his theory of cognitive development, Piaget suggests that human beings cannot obtain information that they immediately use and understand. Therefore, human beings develop their own knowledge through experiences which enable them to build mental models in their minds.

During his work in Paris, Piaget noticed that the answer of younger children were qualitatively different from those of their older counterparts. These answers were not because the…. [read more]

Language and Cognition the Relationship Essay

… Specialization. Language can stand-in for action (Williamson, 2009). Because language represents actions that have taken place and actions that could or will take place, arbitrary words can substitute for those actions (Williamson, 2009). This function is called specialization (Williamson, 2009).

Cultural transmission. Through the use of language, human beings are able to transmit cultural information from one generation to another (Williamson, 2009). Without the capacity of language to represent experiences and knowledge, there would not be a collective historical memory (Williamson, 2009). This would mean that every generation would have to start from the very beginning with all aspects of their culture (Williamson, 2009). Normative behavior could not be established and values and traditions could not be shared -- a condition which would generate chaotic…. [read more]

Cognitive Psychology Essay

… It is also dedicated to looking at the various mechanisms for an individual to navigate this social world that is complex.

b. The importance of behavioral observation in cognitive psychology.

The observation of the behavior of an individual is important in cognitive psychology since it is the gateway to the inner emotional disposition of the individual or the group that the psychoanalyst is dealing with at that time.

It is through the study of the behavior that the psychotherapist will be able to analyze a behavior and accordingly categorize it and be able to find a possible solution. For instance dysfunctional emotions, cognitions and behaviors can be diagnosed through a goal oriented systematic procedure. It is from here that the correct approach of the Cognitive…. [read more]

Cognitive Disability and Family Thesis

… Cognitive Disabilities and Family

Cognitive Disability and Family

Families with a cognitive disability, such as mental retardation, Alzheimer's or related conditions, face many challenges. Families must make many adjustments and must be able to adapt to the condition. Some families adapt easily, while others struggle to come to terms with the reality of the situation. The following will explore literature related to cognitive disability and their families.

Impact on Family

The news that one's child has a severe cognitive disability can have a significant impact on the family's ability to adjust. This news means many adjustments and changes in plans for many. Psychologists have searched for ways to measure and predict the ability of families to adjust to cognitive disability in their children. A recent…. [read more]

Cognitive and Affective Psychology Essay

… Cognitive and Affective Psychology

According to Eysenck and Keane (2005, p. 1), cognitive psychology focuses upon how the human faculties make sense of th einvrionment, as well as the processes involved in making decisions regarding appropriate responses to the environment. The specific processes involved in cognitive psychology include attention, perception, learning, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning and thinking.

According to the authors, there are four major approaches to human cognition (Eysenck & Keane, 2005, p. 3): experimental cognitive psychology; cognitive neuropsychology; computational cognitive science; and cognitive neuroscience.

Affective psychology concerns human emotion and the effect of this upon behavior; in other words, the outward expression of inner feelings. According to Brett et al. (2003), many professionals regard the affective domain as including three subcomponents: feeling,…. [read more]

Conceptualization of Psychological Distress Psychology Essay

… They suppose that other people are talking and are afraid of madness (Hayes, 2008).

Cross-cultural and historical evidence shows how the mainstream society feared and excluded the psychologically distressed persons. In the mid-eighteenth century, it is evident that fear emerged in medical terms but moral myths animated them. At the same time, the fear of madness developed as the dread of unreason (Lebow, 2012b). As a result, the two forms of obsession, dependent on each other, advanced to reinforce each other. Longitudinal studies in remote areas of France demonstrate the persistence of exclusionary and alienating practices towards psychologically distressed despite their official and deinstitutionalization integration into the society. The rhetorical acknowledgement of such individuals in the society has not been aligned with the reality of…. [read more]

Cognitive Development in Toddlers Research Paper

… Work Cited

Adolph, K.E. (1997). Learning in the development of infant locomotion.

Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 62 (3,

Serial No. 251).

Bjorklund, D . F. (Ed.). (1990).C hildren'ss trategies:C ontemporaryv iews of cognitive development Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Connolly, K.J. (1986) A perspective on motor development. In:

Motor Development in Children: Aspects of Coordination and Control (eds M.G. Wade & H.T.A. Whiting), pp. 3 -- 21.

Martinus-Nijhoff, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

Edelman, G.M. (1987) Neural Darwinism. Basic Books, New York,


Getchell, N., McMenamin, S., & Whitall, J. (2005). Dual motor task coordination in children with and without learning disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 22,

21 -- 38.

Gleitman, H. (1981). Psychology. New York:

W.W. Norton and Company.

Gottlieb, G. (1970)…. [read more]

Cognitive Behavior Abilities in Men Essay

… A significant disparity in arithmetic abilities of the two genders is however reported in their last year of high school (Ballinger, Hudson, Karkoviata, & Wilcox, 2011). Additionally, larger differences are reported in gifted populations where females are outwitted by their male counterparts by about a half a standard deviation. Usually, a look at primary arithmetic skills reveals no disparity in the performance by the genders. Conversely, marked differences in the performance of males and females in the secondary arithmetic skills are reported. The researches in secondary cognitive abilities reveal that men outperform women in secondary arithmetic tasks such as solving word problems and geometry (Ballinger et al., 2011).

The reason behind the cognitive differences discussed above is still unclear, although it is broadly assumed that…. [read more]

Psychology Assessment Multiple Choice Questions in Light Assessment

… Psychology Assessment

Multiple Choice Questions

In light of problems posed by the concept of drive, Premack, one of Skinner's followers, proposes that we consider reinforcement:

In terms of the power of discriminative stimuli.

Responses that are intermittently rather than continuously reinforced are:

All of the above.

Skinner's attitude toward the theory of natural selection seemed basically:


Skinner argued that internal events such as thoughts:

Should only be studied if they can be observed and measured.

According to the text, the most basic difference between Skinner and the developmentalists has to do with:

The source of developmental change-inner or outer.

The text considers research on televised aggression as:

Supporting some theorists but not others.

In Bandura's theory, direct reinforcements primarily affect:

D. Performances rather than…. [read more]

Language Defines Identity, and Creates Creative Writing

… Language can be used to keep others out of the group: as when people will speak in the tongue that is not understandable by the outsider. Or, language can be used as a means of inclusion, as by adapting tongues to welcome newcomers.

Language has been shown to have direct impacts on the construction of reality -- and not just socio-cultural reality. For example, Hudson points out that different cultures have different "linguistic strategies" for describing spatial and temporal realities (94). For example, different cultural-linguistic groups have different means of conceptualizing direction. "Some people consistently used a left/right approach, and others consistently used compass-points; very few people mixed the two," (Hudson 94). The difference seems mundane and inconsequential, but it can highlight core ways language…. [read more]

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline Essay

… Evolution of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline

The advancement of cognitive psychology since the era of Thomas Aquinas, who was the foremost person to divide behavior into two distinct areas; cognitive and affective has tremendously evolved. The lodging of research on the field provides practitioners a clear view of the subject matter. Cognitive psychology has been existent for centuries in diverse forms based on its defining culture (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). As science progressively gets sophisticated, numerous theories and beliefs have fallen aside in favor of more legitimate evidence towards contemporary developments in the discipline. Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes. During the nineteenth century, cognitive psychology became an emergent theme of concern in the discipline of psychology. This epoch saw numerous psychologists…. [read more]

Language (Cognitive Psychology) Thesis

… Language (Cognitive Psychology)

Language is considered to be an exclusively human mode of communication although other animals make use of quite sophisticated communicative systems, sometimes casually referred to as animal language, none of these are known to make use of all of the properties that linguists use to define language but when discussed more technically as a general phenomenon, "language" always entails a very particular way of human thinking which can be present even when communication is not the result, and this way of thinking is also sometimes treated as indistinguishable from language itself (Language, n. d.).

Definition of Language and Lexicon

Language is defined in Wikipedia (Language, n. d.) as a form of symbolic communication in which elements are combined to represent something other…. [read more]

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology Research Paper

… In his work, Wundt embraced introspection as a research methodology based on his belief that adequately trained psychologists should make observations of their experiences in similar ways to those of properly trained physicists. By using objective measures of performance like reaction time, the main focus of this psychologist was on the conscious experience that heralded the response. However, he was not concerned with the unconscious processes that are used to respond to simple stimuli i.e. The speedy information-processing operations because he regarded these factors as aspects of physiology rather than psychology (Braisby & Gellatly, n.d.).

Kulpe, the leader of Wurzburg school of introspection opposed Wundt's perspective by developing the other concept of conscious experience that could be revealed by introspection. Unlike Wundt's perspective, Kulpe stated…. [read more]

History of Psychology Research Paper

… History Of Psychology

Psychology is a science that grew out of other pursuits, including philosophy and physiology. Throughout its history, there have been a number of philosophers and scientists who have made significant contributions to the development of psychological thought and research and who have shaped the fundamental debates that inform the field. From the very beginnings, the argument of nature vs. nurture can be found in the differing perspectives of Rene Descartes and John Locke (Goodwin, 1999). It is difficult to select a single era of psychology's history that could be considered the most influential with respect to modern psychology, especially considering that modern psychology itself is made up of many different areas of research and investigation. However, if one area were to be…. [read more]

Language Learning One of the Major Debates Thesis

… Language Learning

One of the major debates in psychology today concerns the human ability to develop and utilize language skills, the feature of humanity that has long been thought to separate us from the rest of the animal kingdom. On one side of the argument are the neurobiologists and other scientists and researchers who study the brain, many of whom believe that language is a skill we are innately born to; that is, they believe that human beings are hard-wired for language, and that it is something that would develop in an individual regardless of their cognitive or learning circumstances. The other side of te argument s, as might be expected, that language is a learned trait just like most other aspects pf human behavior…. [read more]

Diverse Nature of Psychology Essay

… These are most often examples of clinical psychology, where psychologists "assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders" which can range from "short-term crises, such as difficulties from adolescent rebellion, to more severe, chronic conditions, such as schizophrenia" (Landrum 2010 p 14). Behaviorism focuses on understand reasoning for particular behaviors within groups in vastly different settings. Behavioral theories can aim to explain as diverse actions as aggression, cheating, and even binge drinking. According to behaviorism, there are a number of elements that can combines depending on the specific situation to produce very unique behaviors. Thus behavior is the result of very diverse factors functioning together to create very specific results.

Additionally, there is the genre of cognition within modern psychology that often deals with subcategories…. [read more]

Psychology Throughout Its History Essay

… This led Darwin to believe that facial expressions, such as smiling and frowning, could be cultural responses rather than instinctive ones. While physiological responses to danger could be the result of ancient evolution, some of the responses we display today could be the result of cultural evolution rather than instinct. While Darwin never had the opportunity to gather enough evidence to support his view, his work was continued by other psychologists. Only in the 1970s were psychologists able to establish that the facial expressions and even posture triggered by certain emotional states were indeed instinctive across the human race, regardless of culture or personal history.

Evolutionary psychology plays a role when the individual learns to override inappropriate instinctual responses by means of control mechanisms. Not…. [read more]

Behavioral Psychology the Main Link Term Paper

… (Signmund, 1925)

In the oral stage, the oral cavity is the primary focus of libidal energy. During this period, the infant is preoccupied with nursing and bringing objects to the mouth. Infants who have been refused nursing at this stage, or who have truncated nursing sessions early are characteristically pessimists, filled with envy, suspicion and sarcasm. On the other hand, infants who have over-indulged oral character, through prolonged nursing, are optimistic and gullible. (Sigmund, 1925)

By approximately one and a half years of age, the child enters the anal stage, which is the toilet training period. This stage reflects a conflict between the id, which is the pleasure of getting rid of bodily wastes, and the ego and superego, which is the practical and societal…. [read more]

Linguistics, Language Acquisition, and Pronoun Term Paper

… In other words, overextension is pushing oneself beyond one's bounds. Consider the example of overextending the range of flexibility in a joint or a muscle as an analogy. Language is a muscle; the use of language exercises a muscle -- the brain. Language exercises very specific areas of the brain. Thus, just as in muscle growth in other areas of the body, there will be some trial and error before mastery occurs. This pronoun error may be an example of growing children, in attempts to develop and strengthen their linguistic muscles, overextending their linguistic capability in a specific pattern indigenous to a very specific age group of children.

Rispoli certainly defends the fortitude of the explanation for this occurrence with syntactic theory, but he also…. [read more]

Structural Therapy Positive Psychology (PP) Literature Review

… Structural Therapy

Positive Psychology (PP) and Structural Family Therapy (SFT): A Literature Review

Abelsohn, D. & Saayman, G.S. (1991). Adolescent Adjustment to Parental Divorce: An Investigation from the Perspective of Basic Dimensions of Structural Family Therapy Theory. Family Process, 30(2), 177-191.

The study by Abelsohn & Saayman provides some empirical evidence of the need for Structural Family Therapy (SFT) for children of divorce by proving setting out to prove that adolescent children of divorce with more structurally sound family dynamics experienced better adaptation to new circumstances than did their counterparts in structurally unsound homes. (p. 177)

The study by Abelsohn & Saayman gathered a sample of 45 adolescent children and monitored their adjustment based on 'four family-based, clinical dimensions.' (p. 178) the adolescents, all sharing…. [read more]

Second Language Oral Production in High School Within the Context of CLIL Research Proposal


This study is motivated by theoretical and pedagogical interests: to inform instructional design intended to integrate language and content and to explore how form and meaning intersect in SLA (second language acquisition). Both interests draw on an extensive body of research that encompasses theory and practice underlying three different yet related frameworks and lines of inquiry: content-based language teaching, form-focused instruction and attention and awareness in SLA (second language acquisition). All three of these areas are linked by a concern with the intersection of form and meaning in second language classrooms. Content-based language instruction was originally inspired as an alternative to traditional approaches to language teaching that favored form over meaning. Form-focused…. [read more]

Psychology Testing: Psychometric Emotional Intelligence (Eq) Durrenmatt Term Paper

… Psychology Testing: Psychometric Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

Durrenmatt (1996) may have had it right when he said, "Emotions have no place in business, unless you do business with them." Or perhaps, he was wrong. Only the test of time, however, will tell. At this time, nevertheless, this researcher proposes to invest time to:

Define EQ and expand on its role in today's global world.

Compare questions asked in EQ tests with questions asked in IQ Tests.

Identify current tests and/or theories are available for assessing EQ.

Assess accuracy of EQ's assumptions for individuals.

Examine numerous studies testing the reliability of EQ.

This research is expected to gather and assess relevant data from literature related to EQ to determine its scope of accuracy, acceptability and availability. Determinations…. [read more]

Psychology on a Medical Radiologist Term Paper

… This will help with developing understanding and a good working relationship. I can also use what I learnt about personality and behavior to understand how my superior reacts to things and to find hidden meanings. For example, I have been in other work situations where a boss has said everything is fine, when really they are unhappy about something. By using my knowledge of psychology I can assess my superior's real feelings. This will help me to deal with situations, rather than have a situation occur where the relationship becomes strained.

Secondly, I will have to develop relationships with peers and people in other departments. My knowledge of perceptions, communication, personality and behavior will all help manage these relationships. I can use empathy to consider…. [read more]

Psychology-Cognitive Attention in Humans Essay

… Psychology-Cognitive


In order for humans to survive there is a constant need to monitor the events that are occurring in our external environment along with the events in our internal environment like our thoughts. This process of monitoring events is known as attention. Attention is strategic and becomes actively manipulated as we attempt to examine, consider, manage, and respond to events. The processes that allow us to perform these vibrant cognitive functions on the information that is held in consciousness makes up what is referred to as working memory (Robinson-Riegler and Robinson-Riegler, 2008).

Working memory is actually a number of closely interacting subsystems that combine to sub-serve a host of higher-level mental processes. These processes include language comprehension, problem solving, and reasoning. Working memory…. [read more]

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