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Language Learning Acquisition Essay

… Because of that, 29 out of 33 students in the class (including me) failed the final exam.

Once I got to America I took Japanese classes again and was more serious about learning the language. I also had a Japanese girlfriend, and talking to her helped me to learn more about the language. It was fun to be able to converse with her in her native language, and I found it thrilling to be able to speak another language so well. Eventually, I was at the point where I was able to converse in Japanese very well, and I had no problem communicating with people in that language. I could even converse with native speakers and they had no trouble understanding me. That made me…. [read more]

Language Policy and Planning Essay

… One is the challenge of fear of heritage language loss whereby the indigenous communities feel that language policy will make their languages irrelevant. The loss of an indigenous language is terminal, because there are usually no external speakers of the language outside of the community itself. Therefore the indigenous communities try to avoid this at all costs Little & McCarty, 2006()

Another challenge is that language policy is deemed to reduce the cultural responsiveness of the young children. As a result of using one official and primary language, the culture of the natives is deemed to fade away slowly. Thus the natives usually resist language policy and efforts of language planning Little & McCarty, 2006()


Language policy and planning is an important domain in…. [read more]

ESL Vocab Acquisition Deriving a Pedagogical Strategy Research Paper

… ESL Vocab Acquisition

Deriving a Pedagogical Strategy for Vocabulary Acquisition Instruction

Among ESL Students

Learning a new language is among the most confounding of challenges to those entering into new countries of school systems. In addition to the conceptual and practical challenges that impact this process, there are considerable cultural and structural obstacles that the learner must face. This is why the discussion on English Second Language (ESL) instruction is so highly beset with philosophical and pedagogical disagreement. As the research hereafter will consider, the task of providing English language instruction to a classroom of learners should be informed by strategies proven effective by cogent research. But as a focus in instruction widens from an emphasis on generative linguistics to an inclusion of vocabulary acquisition…. [read more]

Memory and Language Semantic Term Paper

… The primary motor cortex send this message to these muscles and the response is articulated (Poeppel & Hickok, 2004). While the Wernicke -- Geschwind model has been popular for many years, with the advent of neuroimaging it is been discovered that multiple areas of the brain are activated during language production and not just the areas in this particular model. Moreover, patients with certain types of aphasia can have variable damage in the brain not specifically in these language production and language reception areas identified by the model (Poeppel & Hickok, 2004). Nonetheless, this model of language comprehension and language expression remains popular.

One interesting proposition regarding the Wernicke-Geschwind model is the notion of mentalese. Psycholinguists have proposed that some form of mentalese, a mental…. [read more]

Language Acquisition Research Paper

… Language Acquisition

The procedure of production, perception and use of words among human beings to understand each other and communicate is what is referred to as Language acquisition. The language could be the vocalized language like in speech or by sign language. Both involve the imbibing of the phonetics and phonology, syntax, vocabulary and their meaning. However, language acquisition more often than not points to the child's acquisition of the native or first language, than to adults acquiring a second language.

Human beings' ability to acquire a language and effectively use it for communication is what sets them apart and above the other animals or organisms. In the animal world, they have means of communication but these means are rudimentary and limited to nonsyntactical structures…. [read more]

Second Language Learning Essay

… Language Acquisition

First and second language acquisition: Unnecessary differences and encouraging similarities

Language acquisition is a complex process that is still not entirely understood. The speed and apparent method by which infants acquire their native language continues to baffle researchers in linguistics, psychology, and neurology; no entirely valid explanation has been put forth that sufficiently explains the phenomenon given what is known about language acquisition later in life (Galasso 2003). This fact alone, though, has led to some interesting hypotheses and research regarding second language acquisition in both children and adults, with increasing evidence that the specific subconscious mechanisms of language acquisition -- whatever they may be, as they are still not fully understood -- can be used to help second-language learners later in life…. [read more]

Language Development Among the Very Young Term Paper

… Language Acquisition

The ways in which young people go about learning how to talk have been the subject of an increasing amount of research in recent years. The research to date suggests that there are some commonalities involved that can help better understand how language acquisition operates and what educators and parents can do to facilitate the process. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of language acquisition among very young people, as well as what steps can be taken to help them along the way and what interventions should be avoided. A description of the research design is followed by a discussion of the findings. A summary of the research is provided in the conclusion.

Language Development among the Very Young…. [read more]

Linguistics, Language Acquisition, and Pronoun Term Paper

… In other words, overextension is pushing oneself beyond one's bounds. Consider the example of overextending the range of flexibility in a joint or a muscle as an analogy. Language is a muscle; the use of language exercises a muscle -- the brain. Language exercises very specific areas of the brain. Thus, just as in muscle growth in other areas of the body, there will be some trial and error before mastery occurs. This pronoun error may be an example of growing children, in attempts to develop and strengthen their linguistic muscles, overextending their linguistic capability in a specific pattern indigenous to a very specific age group of children.

Rispoli certainly defends the fortitude of the explanation for this occurrence with syntactic theory, but he also…. [read more]

Acquisition of Form Function Mapping of Morphology and Function Words Term Paper

… Language Acquisition: Nature, Nurture, or Both?

How exactly do children learn to connect language with the things around them? Though virtually all of us were participants in this complex process, a full understanding of how children learn language and learn through language is a matter of debate. Primarily, the debate takes on two major points on view. Those who argue for a nativist theory find that children have some built in or learned knowledge of ideas before the actual development of language (Shanker 481; Slobin 407). These theorists believe that functions of language are universal and innate. This is the "nature" side of the argument. In contrast, functionalists and anti-nativists argue that culture and language itself shape the meanings behind language (Bowerman and Choi 475;…. [read more]

Language Is Fundamentally a Verbal Communication Code Term Paper

… Language is fundamentally a verbal communication code. Although animals do not develop the complex lexicons humans do, many species do engage in some form of linguistic discourse. Human beings are by far the most linguistically rich species on Earth, and we use language systematically and regularly. No culture on the planet is devoid of language and therefore language is integral to the human experience. Language is far more than a canon of lexicons and system of grammatical rules, however. Language conveys culture, emotional state, point-of-view, and demographics. in-group and out-group exclusion can be accomplished through the use of language. Colloquialism and the implementation of informal languages convey hidden or subtle meanings that the words themselves do not. Similarly, formal systems of grammar and vocabulary often…. [read more]

Language and Literacy Development in Young Children Essay

… Language and Literacy Development

There are a number of factors that affect the readiness for an individual's acquisition and development of written communication skills. Both muscular and cognitive development must progress to a certain point in order to facilitate the ability to make meaningful communications through a written medium. For most children, the muscular development occurs first, with the ability to grasp a writing implement such as a crayon progressing to the drawing of scribbles, and to eventually to more purposefully formed though still awkward shapes. After this, the cognitive recognition of letters and the knowledge of their shapes and sounds are necessary for the progression of written communication skills. Such knowledge coupled with the motor abilities enabling the "drawing" of specific and intentional letter-shapes…. [read more]

Language Is Arbitrary Term Paper

… The ability to learn language is hard-wired into the cognitive structure of the human brain, as notes Steven Pinker, a psycholinguist whose book The Language Instinct suggests that language is an instinct, an evolutionary adaptation as well as something learned. Communal verbal exchanges may have evolutionary roots, but the structures exchanges these take, so they can be understood and generated socially, are specific rather general to the human animal. Even the deaf uneducated in sign language strive to communicate, within their linguistic parameters and ability to understand through the sensory data they do possess, of the body and hand.

Language is an instinct to acquire, but an art to perfect, says Pinker. Its morphological structure and the syntactic meaning of different words are arbitrary. There…. [read more]

ELL Language Acquisition in English Language Learners Term Paper


Language Acquisition in English Language Learners


Language Acquisition in English Language Learners

The United States is a country of immigrants, and has been since its inception. However, until relatively recently, immigration did not pose a significant problem for the United States educational system or for many Americans because of the rigid cultural and social expectations for immigrants. New immigrants were expected to assimilate aspects of American culture, especially speaking English, as quickly as possible. Furthermore, schools were not responsible for teaching a new language to immigrant children; on the contrary, these students were expected to learn, in English, even if they did not know any English at all. The task of English acquisition was often left to members of individual immigrant communities. Non-English…. [read more]

First Language (L1) Essay

… When there is a similarity between two languages, a leaner may not observe learning difficulties. The greater degree of difference in two languages, the more difficulties will be presented in learning the language. Typically, Contrastive Analysis influenced the American linguistics in 1960s.

Gramley et al. (2008) argues the major influence of Contrastive Analysis is its usage in the prediction of error in the L1 classroom. Typically, Contractive Analysis points out that theory is able to identify learning difficulties of learners, which generally assists in predicting errors on n the usage of L1. To predict errors, Contractive Analysis assumes that difficulty and errors can be equated. Before the formulation of Contrastive Analysis, errors have the central concern in audio-lingual approach and language teaching. Typically, errors are…. [read more]

Second Language Oral Production in High School Within the Context of CLIL Research Proposal


This study is motivated by theoretical and pedagogical interests: to inform instructional design intended to integrate language and content and to explore how form and meaning intersect in SLA (second language acquisition). Both interests draw on an extensive body of research that encompasses theory and practice underlying three different yet related frameworks and lines of inquiry: content-based language teaching, form-focused instruction and attention and awareness in SLA (second language acquisition). All three of these areas are linked by a concern with the intersection of form and meaning in second language classrooms. Content-based language instruction was originally inspired as an alternative to traditional approaches to language teaching that favored form over meaning. Form-focused…. [read more]

Second Language Learning Essay

… On the same English tests, Swedish-speaking Finns consistently did better than Finnish speakers. Because the students came from similar backgrounds, one likely explanation was that, when completing the English tasks, the Swedish speakers get more help from their L1 than Finnish speakers, as Swedish, but not Finnish, is related to English.

Supporting this view is Robert & Williams, (2009) finding that Swedish children already knew a lot of English words when they started instruction in English because of the cognates in Swedish and English. However, it is also possible that some readers are not aware of cognates and cannot exploit this source of information to facilitate their reading comprehension (Cook, 2001). In a recent study, we focused on the English reading comprehension of upper elementary…. [read more]

Vocabulary Acquisition Literature Review

… Laufer Min

Language Acquisition: Literature Review

Laufer, B. & Rozovski-Roitblat, B. (2011). Incidental vocabulary acquisition: The effects of task type,-word occurrence and their combination. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 391-411

For some number of decades, it had been more commonplace for second language acquisition to revolve primarily on strategies of 'generative learning' than in vocabulary-acquisition learning. Laufer & Rozovski-Roitblat (2011) -- noted scholars in the field -- acknowledge that until the later part of the 20th century, the emphasis was largely placed on constructing a rules-based use of language that could ultimately facilitate vocabulary expansion. By contrast, Laufer & Rozovski-Roitblat observe, increasing emphasis on the value of language-acquisition strategies has prompted a host of investigations into those methods which are most optimal. Their article, "Incidental vocabulary…. [read more]

Language Teaching and Learning Methods Essay

… Language Teaching and Learning Methods: Focus on the Natural Approach of Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language

One of the oldest and most widely-cited beliefs involving learning as a process is one that is noted in an ancient Chinese proverb which reads, "Tell me, I forget. Show me, I remember. Involve me, I understand." Such a notion is highly relevant when delving into the issue of language teaching and learning methods, especially in the area of foreign language instruction. Many theorists and scholars have developed a vast and varied series of approached when it comes to the search for the most successful way to teach learners. In the area of language instruction, the key to success is retention and understanding, and the key…. [read more]

Baby Acquire Language Term Paper

… Language Acquisition

It is unclear exactly how babies and young children acquire language. In humans, language acquisition seems to be instinctual and innate: babies begin making nonsense noises very soon after birth and before long are imitating the sounds they hear in the environment. Because babies can vocalize sounds and syllables, it would seem that language acquisition is at least in part instinctual and innate. On the other hand, learning the complexities of grammar, structure, and usage require memorization and rote skills. Very much like many other things children learn, language involves part innate nature, part environmental nurture.

When children learn basic sensory-motor skills, from manipulating their eating utensils to walking to throwing a ball, they also rely on learning tools such as imitation and…. [read more]

Language Development Research Paper

… ¶ … Language Acquisition" (2004), the authors have put together an array of information on the development and origination of language in infants. Two of the most over bearing theories in language development is whether language is in fact due to nature or due to nurture. The debate is whether language is preprogrammed in the brain and works like an on and off switch when certain parts are triggered, or whether it is learned through proper teaching and a literacy upbringing. In the first six months of life, infants are exposed to so many different sounds and they see so many different mouthed movements that they capture all that into their system.

When disorders are found in language, it makes it interesting to analyze because…. [read more]

Real-Time Language Change "The Moral Essay

… Using the past to understand the future becomes a key element of what real-time assessments have to offer (Turell, 2003:7).

In many ways, this approach is favored because it mirrors many of the techniques that quality social sciences expect to have value. Returning to groups or places many years later and looking at what they did is one way to achieve a level of authenticity, as might be turning directly to the same people who were previously studied. Sampling and replication studies where considered good models for this kind of review (Turell, 2003:8). But so too, if they could be found, would be actual data collection archives. These types of "dialect atlases" have begun to be uncovered, only to discover that the complexity of what…. [read more]

English as a Global Language Essay

… English also makes creative expression easier for everyone. With national boundaries blurring significantly in recent times, English is no longer the language for the native speakers alone when it comes to creative expression. Gupta (1970) explains:

Mankind is no longer exclusively or even mainly national in its outlook; it cannot remain so if it is to progress, to take the next step in evolution. We say if mankind overpasses the nationalistic stage and attains something of the international consciousness and disposition, it would be possible and even natural for a few at least among the educated to express themselves in and through the wider world language, not merely as an instrument of business deal, but as a vehicle of literary and aesthetic creation (pp. 289…. [read more]

Language Acquisition Theories Term Paper

… Linguistics

Language and Culture: An Important Intersection

While language acquisition has been a popular theory since Noam Chomsky's emergence into the field of linguistics, understanding the exact ways in which language acquisition occurs is still explored. While the connection between language and culture has long been explored, true believers in language acquisition might dismiss the fact that the two are related. Still, in their article "The Symbolic World of the Bilingual Child: Digressions on Language Acquisition and Process of Thinking," Nowak-Fabrykowski and Shkandrij suggest that culture and language acquisition share an important bond that cannot be broken. Through an explanation of their theories, as well as an application to classroom learning, a better understanding of language acquisition and its facets can be grasped.

First, the…. [read more]

Language Diversity Crawford Begins Term Paper

… It is specifically interesting to me how the adamant criticism received by the above theorists have not been specifically addressed. It appears that the language acquisition community of academics are more interested in promoting their own pioneering ideals than in addressing the needs of language learners. Addressing such needs would mean not only criticizing the newest of theories, but also debating these until improvements or confirmations are arrived at that would benefit learners.

The situation explained in the article appears to be counter-productive in terms of effective language teaching in schools. Instead of merely criticizing, evidence should be taken into account and testing should be done to either confirm or negate the effectiveness of existing theories. Also, the theorists criticized should address the specific issues…. [read more]

Second Language Acquisition Term Paper

… Second Language Acquisition

The objective of this work is to examine how children acquire a second language through social interaction and environment through supporting Vygotsky's theory in second language acquisition with a focus on school age children seven years of age and older.

Vygotsky viewed language as a "critical bridge between the sociocultural world and individual mental functioning" (Berk & Winsler, 1995; paraphrased; as cited in Clark, nd) and held that the acquisition of language is the most important achievement in the cognitive development of children. If language is what forms a "critical bridge" between the individual's mental functioning and the sociocultural world then this must be true in the initiative of second language acquisition as well.


Bilingual First Language Acquisition Term Paper

… Infants use multiple cues to determine word boundaries between the ages of six months to 24 months. As early as 7.5 months of age, infants can detect stress patterns in speech and later, phonotactic nuances (i.e., acceptable consonant clusters at the beginning of a word).

Oller's research was aimed at providing empirical research in an effort to support parents who are in search of reliable data with which to base their decisions on child rearing. Oller's methodology included a study that contrasted and compared children who were either being raised in a monolingual English environment or in a bilingual Spanish and English environment. The children were all two months old at the onset of the study. The bilingual children were exposed to both languages equally.…. [read more]

Socio-Cultural Influences in English Language Learning Research Paper

… This can be used to help structure language and cultural learning while the student is at home, even if his or her parents do not speak English at all. Watching television in English or listening to English song lyrics can help expose the language to the learner, while also teaching valuable lessons about mainstream American culture as well. This intrinsic style of learning happens most often without the student even realizing that there is learning going on. It is thus subliminal and is there to support future language and cultural development. Such media allows the individual learner to immerse him or herself in the culture and language in their own home environments.

Moreover, there are other individuals who can also serve as a support system…. [read more]

Childhood Second Language Learning Term Paper

… One criticism of Polinsky's 1995 research is that for some of his groups of speakers, only a few members participated. Then there were other groups that consisted of 20 members, such as the Russian speakers, and in the Reduced Lithuanian Group, there were only 4 speakers. A future research study could even out the numbers of speakers, unless this would be nearly to accomplish, as in the case of some "dead" languages.

Genesee Research

Genesee (2001) built on previous research which held that although bilingual children are exposed to different sets of linguistic input, they go through an initial stage where they have one linguistic system. According to Genesee (2001), current evidence indicates that bilingual children can use their developing languages differently and more appropriately…. [read more]

Approaches to Second Language Classroom Interaction Term Paper

… SLA Second Language Aquisition

As the world has become increasingly more global, interests in second language acquisition has also increased. More specifically second language acquisition as it pertains to the second language classroom has become a focal point. The following research will examine three methods that are utilized in Second Language research including conversation analysis, stimulated recall and the Think Aloud Method. For the purposes of this discussion, we will explore the relationship of each approach to theory and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system. Illustrate your argument through the use of transcribed extracts from second language classroom interaction. Let us begin the discussion with some background information about second language acquisition and second language classrooms.

Second language acquisition and second language classrooms…. [read more]

Second Language Acquisition Essay

… Second Language

Lightbown and Spada Chapter 1 and 2: Language Learning in Early Childhood

This chapter was a bit surprising because it did not address learning a second language but instead focused on how children learn their first language. It was also surprising to read about children since those reading this textbook are obviously no longer children. However, perhaps the main benefit of the approach taken by chapter 1 and 2 is that it really exposes just how difficult it is to learn even one language, let alone two. I was particularly surprised by the fact that word acquisition (during the early school years) occurs at a rate of several hundred to 1000 words per year. Still, I am curious as to how exactly such…. [read more]

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