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Language Practices Essay

… Overall, language is highly complex and provides human beings with such a high level of interaction that there are bound to be good and bad influences involved in it. How people see themselves is tied to how they speak about themselves, but also how others speak about them and their choices (Kandel, Schwartz, & Jessell, 2000). Additionally, children are shaped by what is said about them when they are young, and that can greatly affect who they become and how they react to life when they are older. Linguists study how language is constructed and how it came about, but many other professions use language to determine how people are shaped. Psychologists, for example, can get to the root of a problem that may have…. [read more]


Language Is the Perfect Instrument of Empire Term Paper

… Language Is the Perfect Instrument of Empire:

Case for Teaching English Globally

Though the British empire over half a century ago, the mark it left on the world remains. The many countries colonized by Britain continue to use English colloquially to this day. There's really no surprise in that; English hegemony in matters of politics and economics was accompanied by occasionally draconian processes for teaching the native inhabitants the language of the Empire. This is, of course, the reason why English is the primary language of America, Canada, Australia and its surrounding islands, and even continues as an official language in countries like India where over 400 native languages still eke out a speaking. Where Britain colonized, she brought not only military might but also…. [read more]


Second Language Learning Essay

… On the same English tests, Swedish-speaking Finns consistently did better than Finnish speakers. Because the students came from similar backgrounds, one likely explanation was that, when completing the English tasks, the Swedish speakers get more help from their L1 than Finnish speakers, as Swedish, but not Finnish, is related to English.

Supporting this view is Robert & Williams, (2009) finding that Swedish children already knew a lot of English words when they started instruction in English because of the cognates in Swedish and English. However, it is also possible that some readers are not aware of cognates and cannot exploit this source of information to facilitate their reading comprehension (Cook, 2001). In a recent study, we focused on the English reading comprehension of upper elementary…. [read more]


Second Language Oral Production in High School Within the Context of CLIL Research Proposal

… ¶ … SECOND LANGUAGE ORAL PRODUCTION IN HIGHSCHOOL WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF CLIL

This study is motivated by theoretical and pedagogical interests: to inform instructional design intended to integrate language and content and to explore how form and meaning intersect in SLA (second language acquisition). Both interests draw on an extensive body of research that encompasses theory and practice underlying three different yet related frameworks and lines of inquiry: content-based language teaching, form-focused instruction and attention and awareness in SLA (second language acquisition). All three of these areas are linked by a concern with the intersection of form and meaning in second language classrooms. Content-based language instruction was originally inspired as an alternative to traditional approaches to language teaching that favored form over meaning. Form-focused…. [read more]


First Language (L1) Essay

… When there is a similarity between two languages, a leaner may not observe learning difficulties. The greater degree of difference in two languages, the more difficulties will be presented in learning the language. Typically, Contrastive Analysis influenced the American linguistics in 1960s.

Gramley et al. (2008) argues the major influence of Contrastive Analysis is its usage in the prediction of error in the L1 classroom. Typically, Contractive Analysis points out that theory is able to identify learning difficulties of learners, which generally assists in predicting errors on n the usage of L1. To predict errors, Contractive Analysis assumes that difficulty and errors can be equated. Before the formulation of Contrastive Analysis, errors have the central concern in audio-lingual approach and language teaching. Typically, errors are…. [read more]


Language Development Among the Very Young Term Paper

… Language Acquisition

The ways in which young people go about learning how to talk have been the subject of an increasing amount of research in recent years. The research to date suggests that there are some commonalities involved that can help better understand how language acquisition operates and what educators and parents can do to facilitate the process. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of language acquisition among very young people, as well as what steps can be taken to help them along the way and what interventions should be avoided. A description of the research design is followed by a discussion of the findings. A summary of the research is provided in the conclusion.

Language Development among the Very Young…. [read more]


Linguistics, Language Acquisition, and Pronoun Term Paper

… In other words, overextension is pushing oneself beyond one's bounds. Consider the example of overextending the range of flexibility in a joint or a muscle as an analogy. Language is a muscle; the use of language exercises a muscle -- the brain. Language exercises very specific areas of the brain. Thus, just as in muscle growth in other areas of the body, there will be some trial and error before mastery occurs. This pronoun error may be an example of growing children, in attempts to develop and strengthen their linguistic muscles, overextending their linguistic capability in a specific pattern indigenous to a very specific age group of children.

Rispoli certainly defends the fortitude of the explanation for this occurrence with syntactic theory, but he also…. [read more]


Language Acquisition Research Paper

… Language Acquisition

The procedure of production, perception and use of words among human beings to understand each other and communicate is what is referred to as Language acquisition. The language could be the vocalized language like in speech or by sign language. Both involve the imbibing of the phonetics and phonology, syntax, vocabulary and their meaning. However, language acquisition more often than not points to the child's acquisition of the native or first language, than to adults acquiring a second language.

Human beings' ability to acquire a language and effectively use it for communication is what sets them apart and above the other animals or organisms. In the animal world, they have means of communication but these means are rudimentary and limited to nonsyntactical structures…. [read more]


Language and Comprehension Thesis

… Language and Comprehension are both skills that are essential for learning. Without these two entities, society would not have the capacity to function. A great deal of research has been conducted concerning the importance of these two elements, specifically as it pertains to education and classroom practices.

Pinell (1975) and Ketch (2005), both have views on the importance of language and comprehension. Their views involve very precise concepts and language and comprehension and how they should be used by children. The authors also provide guidance as it pertains to the manner in which educators should encourage students in the areas of language and comprehension.

The purpose of this discussion is to provide a summary and reaction to the articles Conversation: The comprehension connection and Language…. [read more]


ELL Language Acquisition in English Language Learners Term Paper

… ELL

Language Acquisition in English Language Learners

Significance

Language Acquisition in English Language Learners

The United States is a country of immigrants, and has been since its inception. However, until relatively recently, immigration did not pose a significant problem for the United States educational system or for many Americans because of the rigid cultural and social expectations for immigrants. New immigrants were expected to assimilate aspects of American culture, especially speaking English, as quickly as possible. Furthermore, schools were not responsible for teaching a new language to immigrant children; on the contrary, these students were expected to learn, in English, even if they did not know any English at all. The task of English acquisition was often left to members of individual immigrant communities. Non-English…. [read more]


Bilingual First Language Acquisition Term Paper

… Infants use multiple cues to determine word boundaries between the ages of six months to 24 months. As early as 7.5 months of age, infants can detect stress patterns in speech and later, phonotactic nuances (i.e., acceptable consonant clusters at the beginning of a word).

Oller's research was aimed at providing empirical research in an effort to support parents who are in search of reliable data with which to base their decisions on child rearing. Oller's methodology included a study that contrasted and compared children who were either being raised in a monolingual English environment or in a bilingual Spanish and English environment. The children were all two months old at the onset of the study. The bilingual children were exposed to both languages equally.…. [read more]


Spirituality in Young Children's Temperament Literature Review

… ..enters a concrete stage; children associate religious identity with particular forms of behavior, kinship or dress, and prayer with specific concrete activities. They also interpret Bible stories concretely depicting God as a man or a power threatening specific action, often in response to specific transgression. (Gottlieb, 2006, p. 244 cited in: Grajczonek, nd, p. 14) This study contributes to the present study in the information provided about children's interpretation of their interactions with God.

The work of Geisenberg (2007) reports a study in which lasted 12 months and in which 56 children between the ages of three and seven years of age were observed and findings stated that "young children live in their spirituality and that young children are very aware of their surroundings and…. [read more]


Child Development in Observing Toby Term Paper

… Furthermore, he is able to identify his emotions by having the correct facial expression for each emotion he expressed. In other words, Toby is a well adjusted five-year-old preschooler that has strong language skills and emotional state for his age group.

Along with strong language ski8lls, Toby's cognitive development is right on target for a five-year-old. As I observed him, he asked his mother to help him with the kid's chemistry set so that he could see how things mixed together and what would happen when those things were mixed. He also wanted his mother to help him sort his blocks in groups of colors. For example, one group would be his blue blocks and another coup would be his red blocks. Then, he wanted…. [read more]


Semantic Memory and Language Production Thesis

… Semantic Memory and Language Production

Introduction and overview of semantic memory

Semantic memory is referred to as an aspect or part of long-term memory which is "…concerned with ideas, meanings, and concepts which are not related to personal experiences" ( What is Semantic Memory?) In other words, semantic memory is that form of memory that deal with concepts and ideas about things and the way that the meaning of objects and things in the external world are recognized and responded to correctly. Because of the way that semantic memory provides access to shared and common concepts and ideas in a society or culture it is an essential component of language production and necessary for the normal functioning of the individual in society.

A distinction however…. [read more]


Foreign Language Education in High Term Paper

… So even on a personal basis, more knowledge means more choices, and that alone would seem to be a cogent reason for foreign language study for any student, college-bound, tech-school bound, or workplace bound. It is worthwhile to note that plumbers generally earn more than elementary school teachers, and could actually better afford foreign travel if they had been enculturated to expect it and sufficiently instructed to be able to handle it linguistically and culturally. As it is, descendants of people from Italy, whether they are plumbers or CEOs, will travel there, so there is no reason not to offer the skills and knowledge to provide other possible choices for those plumbers and CEOs.

Clark offers several other reasons as well for studying a foreign…. [read more]


Opportunities to Help Young Learners "Know Essay

… ¶ … Opportunities to Help Young Learners "Know a Word"

No one is able to predict the exact moment at which young learners will acquire knowledge, but this "ah-ha" moment is familiar to most experienced teachers who recognize when the learning connection has been successfully made. These processes are particularly evident in the acquisition of vocabulary as word after word is learned and used appropriately in context and tense. Some educators, though, may not be familiar with this moment of acquisition or may not recognize what is involved in helping young learners "know a word." To help fill this gap, this paper explains and exemplifies what is involved in "knowing a word," and examines some of the ways in which teachers can help learners acquire…. [read more]


Teaching Foreign Language to Infants Term Paper

… Teaching Foreign Language to Infants

Consider the following facts and/or statistics (http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Bilingual,2004):

Most populace in the regions of southern China, are usually Cantonese-Chinese speaking and Mandarin- Chinese speaking

In ex-Soviet republics and Warsaw Pact countries, many people are fluently speaking Russian, especially in Slavic countries

Brussels is the bilingual capital of Belgium with a total percentage of 15% Dutch-speaking population

10% of the populace of the province of Quebec, are English-speaking while 35% people in the province of New Brunswick, Canada are French-speaking majority of the population in sub-Saharan Africa is bi- or trilingual

Many Koreans living in Japan speak both Korean and Japanese

All the facts and figures stated above supported the idea of bilingualism or knowing a foreign language. Bilingualism or being adept…. [read more]


Approaches to Second Language Classroom Interaction Term Paper

… SLA Second Language Aquisition

As the world has become increasingly more global, interests in second language acquisition has also increased. More specifically second language acquisition as it pertains to the second language classroom has become a focal point. The following research will examine three methods that are utilized in Second Language research including conversation analysis, stimulated recall and the Think Aloud Method. For the purposes of this discussion, we will explore the relationship of each approach to theory and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system. Illustrate your argument through the use of transcribed extracts from second language classroom interaction. Let us begin the discussion with some background information about second language acquisition and second language classrooms.

Second language acquisition and second language classrooms…. [read more]


Process and Goal of Second Language Acquisition Essay

… ¶ … Goal of Second Language Acquisition

Ellis (142) defines two positions of linguistic knowledge. The first, which draws on the work of Chomsky claims that linguistic competence consists of a biological capacity for acquiring languages, commonly referred to as Universal Grammar (UG). Lightbown and Spada (35) explain that "the innate knowledge of the principles of UG permits all children to acquire the language of their environment during a crucial period of their development" and that there is evidence that language learners learn more about the second language than they have exposure to. This suggests that the knowledge of UG has a similar effect on second language acquisition as it does with first language acquisition.

The second position, presented by Ellis (142) is based on…. [read more]


Immigrant Children's Development Children Immigrating Essay

… Immigrant Children's Development

Children immigrating into the United States today represent a particularly diverse range of cultures, and some have had little or no formal education in their native countries. First and second- generation immigrant children are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. child population. Additionally, young immigrants are heavily concentrated in five states; California, New York, Texas, Florida, and Illinois, and 45% of immigrant children enrolled in school are enrolled in California alone. Nationwide, approximately 5 million children currently have at least one undocumented parent, though many of these children are U.S. citizens. There are an estimated 1.7 million undocumented children, many of whom have been living in this country most of their lives and know no other homeland. They have been educated…. [read more]


Human Languages Term Paper

… When between groups comparisons were made on English measures, there was also a bilingual advantage in paradigmatic responding during the 1st elicitation and for verbs.

Meanwhile, according to a paper written by Masahiko Minami (2005) of San Francisco State University, the findings obtained were reminiscent of previous findings that presented proof in support of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, in which Whorf (1956) claimed that from early childhood onwards, children attain a precise worldwide as they acquire language. For example, according to Bloom (1979), people who speak Chinese are less likely than English speakers to present hypothetical interpretations for a hypothetical story that is because Chinese does not use a subjunctive mood in the sense of an obligatory marking in each verb or an identifiable verbal…. [read more]


Breastfeeding Among South Asian Immigrant Women Term Paper

… Breastfeeding Among South Asian Immigrant Women

"Their Future is Now: Healthy Choices for Canada's Children & Youth" states: "More women are now starting to breastfeed their babies (85 per cent in 2003 compared to 75 per cent in 1995) which contributes to healthier babies and strengthens the important bond between mother and child. However, in 2003, only 19 per cent of recent mothers reported breastfeeding exclusively for at least six months, as recommended by the World Health Organization and the Canadian Pediatric Society. This highlights the need for more support for women to breastfeed, and more information on the factors that prevent women from breastfeeding." (2006) the work of the World Health Organization entitled: "Exclusive Breastfeeding" states that breastfeeding is an "unequalled way of providing…. [read more]


Lifespan Development Term Paper

… Lifespan Development: Britney Spears

Many people believe that they know Britney Spears. Having grown up in front of a camera, first on Mickey Mouse Club, and then as a major worldwide pop star, her life was covered by the camera. Unfortunately, Spears might be more notable for her personal problems than for her major life success. She had a public marriage followed quickly by two children and a divorce. However, it was her post-divorce behavior that garnered a significant amount of attention. She engaged in some publicly erratic behavior, which was apparently even more dramatic behind the scenes. The breakdown led to speculation by people that Spears was suffering from a bio-chemical disorder, with most people speculating that she was bi-polar. It also led to…. [read more]


Social Development in Early Childhood Essay

… Other students will have turned five the previous fall, while most will have had spring and summer birthdays. The age of entry into kindergarten depends on a school district's rules; it sometimes happens that parents are eager to put their children in school and exceptions are made where a too-young child is admitted. Children have different personalities and different rates of maturity; it is certainly possible that a child age 5.1 years is better prepared for school than one who is 5.8 years. In general, though, younger children tend to be less ready than their chronologically older peers to meet the demands of classroom routine.

Porath also fails to incorporate any discussion about family, including such influential factors as birth order, number of siblings, the…. [read more]


Younger Brother's Development Term Paper

… Hereditary and environmental factors need to be taken into account as well. All children are born with traits that their parents have passed down to them. Everyone is born with hereditary potential, which is then shaped and molded by surroundings or the culture. A realistic definition of culture would be a social group.

In many cases, for example, a child who comes from an artistic or musical family will have this ability as well. Or, someone who has parents who were both overweight as they were growing up (due to genetics not diet) may also have a similar tendency.

A child's development will be determined by physical factors such as the type and amount of foods he/she eats, the amount of sleep received on average…. [read more]


Iraqi Students the Literature Review Literature Review

… What skills are required to communicate?

It is not necessary to have acquired all the communicative skills in order to communicate. For example, an infant can communicate in a general sense the fact that he or she is dissatisfied with the present state of affairs simply by letting out a good bit of yelling. Such an act may not inform the parent of the exact problem, but at least it allows the parent to be informed that a problem exists.

This is not a good example of effective communication and in fact effective communication can be described as; the ability to send messages that are clear, concise and convey the meaning of the message in an effective manner.

At the same time good communication means…. [read more]


Language and Literacy Jeanne S Term Paper

… Chall admits there is much more to learn. She acknowledges, for example, that additional research might show that a student-centered approach could be useful for advanced high school students

With research so clearly showing the success of teacher-directed learning, why do so many teachers refrain from the role of sage on the stage? Chall put part of the blame on middle-class parents, who want school to be fun for their little ones. But she also criticizes teachers and teacher-trainers who ignore or simply do not understand sound research. Whatever the purpose, this book is a must for people who work in and run schools.

Her book 'Teaching and Assessing Phonics' is for anyone who wants to seek a clearer comprehension of phonics from its earliest…. [read more]


Translating the Iliad Into More Contemporary Language Term Paper

… Translating the Iliad into more contemporary language, with a dramatic change in setting presents many challenges. The first is to decide the degree to which the work needs to be translated.

This alone consists of multiple different concepts that must be integrated. For example, there is the issue of substitution. With an entirely different setting, certain things must be substituted, as things and concepts may not exist within the new setting. On a superficial level, we have to consider whether implements such as spears would exist, and if not what would be used in their stead. But soon it becomes apparent that many such substitutions are not superficial at all. One has to re-imagine the entire universe in which the story is now taking place.…. [read more]


Thai Culture and TESOL Essay

… English in Thailand

Teaching English as a foreign language is a difficult task in any culture. The nation of Thailand has a long history of attempting to guarantee that its citizens can speak English. There are many factors that influence the likelihood that individuals will learn English. In Thailand culture and language have greatly affected the ability of the education system to help students become proficient in the English language. Overall the research suggests that both culture and language can be impediments to learning English in Thailand. Although the presence of the English language has existed for quite some time in Thailand, the research suggests that cultural differences in Western and Eastern countries can be difficult to overcome. The research also seems to emphasize the…. [read more]

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