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American History, 1820-1920 Five Positive Essay

… The doctrine stressed that the United States has the capacity and the right to defend the foreign policy of its neighboring countries as well as its internal affairs from European countries if the interest of the United States so required. The initial motivation behind this doctrine was positive in the sense that the United States offered its support and consideration in case of foreign or domestic disturbance of its neighboring countries. However in time, due to the volatility of international politics the United States where soon seen as interventionists in the internal affairs of its neighboring countries. Therefore cases have been in Mexico or Cuba in which the United States intervened and supported politically or otherwise different factions of the political environment. This approach brought…. [read more]

USA Intervention of Central America Essay

… USA Intervention of Central America

The history of Central America was considered to be a colorful one, though it was a very complicated because of historical events that took place influencing the political, economical and cultural development of the Central America region. The United States of America intervention of Central America was very extensive in the twentieth century (Burbach & Flynn, 2009). The apologists and prosecutors explain the U.S. interventions by arguing that the American policy makers have genuinely believed that the Central America is an area of vital significance to the U.S. And so it has intervened there repeatedly in the name of states' security, despite the exaggeration of the national security threats. During this period, the worldwide drive for consolidated empires prompted the…. [read more]

Cuban Embargo American-Cuban Sanctions Implications Thesis

… The entire situation took over five months to resolve and only heightened tensions between the United States and Cuba. It called into question the reasonableness of many existing Cuban sanctions when an orphaned child could become the symbol of long-held hostilities and dissension between two countries. Many reflect on the incident as a yet another example of how the existing embargo agitates the Cuban people and other nations more than its intended target, Fidel Castro (Durand and McGuire 37).

Sanction Legality

The United Nations (U.N.) Charter has very specific laws regarding freedom of navigation and trade. Critics of the U.S. sanctions on Cuba cite the embargo as a violation of the U.N. Charter and damaging to America's international image and reputation ("Cuba: U.S. Moves to…. [read more]

American Foreign Policy Change Essay

… The Civil War made significant changes to the economy. The need for weapons and ammunition fed the strength of the manufacturing trades in the North, while the slash-and-burn practices during the War all but devastated the Southern agricultural powerhouse. The victory of the North in the War set the stage for an American economy centered on manufacturing and trade in the 20th century.

From the start of the English colonies in the early 1600s through the end of the Civil War, democracy and social freedom expanded for all Americans.

The concept of civil and human rights and the concept of political freedom have developed substantially in the United States since the first colonies settled here in the 1600s, though not always consistently. Many of the…. [read more]

American History Final Exam Stages Term Paper

… Turner lived at a time before a large middle class existed or the U.S. had become a consumer society, so he naturally thought of pioneers as farmers and ranchers who moved the agricultural frontier to the West. In his era, even though the country was rapidly industrializing, the majority of people still lived on farms and in small towns. For this reason and was always the main goal of Manifest Destiny, while industrial capitalism required a different type of imperialism that acquired markets and raw materials overseas rather than colonies. Eastern capitalists since the time of Alexander Hamilton and the early Federalists and Whigs had always had a very limited interest in expanding the agrarian frontier, and even less in the expansion of slavery. They…. [read more]

Hispanics Groups Research Paper

… Because Cuba has a repressive religious regime, many Cubans are not religious. Those that are religious tend to be Roman Catholic, as with other Hispanic groups. Cuban Americans have the highest socioeconomic status of any Hispanic group in the United States, though they still make less money than non-Hispanic whites. There are other differences between Cubans and other Hispanic groups. The Cuban social structure is more based on community than other Hispanic groups, with less emphasis on family than other Hispanic groups. In addition, Cubans have matriarchal family structures. In contrast to other Hispanic groups, the Cuban American family structure tends to be matriarchal, rather than patriarchal. Another significant difference is that many Cuban Americans are very politically conservative, which seems to be a reaction…. [read more]

U.S. Hispanic Groups Mexican-American Research Paper

… S. over the past 60 years is much more complex than other Hispanic groups because of recurrent periods of political turmoil and violence. For example, in the 1980s the drug trade turned otherwise law-abiding citizens into drug mules and money launderers because social policy changes led to skyrocketing unemployment (Guarnizo, Luis and Diaz, 1999, p. 402-403). A percentage of these Colombians never returned and others became integral to the drug trade outposts in the U.S.

The cycles of turmoil and violence, and the nature of the drug trade, has forced Colombians into being distrustful of anyone not in their immediate family (Guarnizo, Luis and Diaz, 1999, p. 403-404). Skin color and class also stratify social networks, such that light-skinned, white-collar Columbian Americans do not mix…. [read more]

American Revolution Impact on Colonial Society Research Paper

… American Revolution had far ranging effects not only in Colonial America but also throughout the rest of 18th Century society. These effects started slowly but eventually transcended nearly every aspect of life in America and spread to Europe.

The changes that occurred subsequent to the American Revolution began long before the actual conflict. Great Britain had established a fairly loose approach in regard to the day-to-day management of the American colonies and, as a result, the American colonists enjoyed far more liberties than most people throughout the world and their taxes were the lowest of any of Great Britain's other colonial holdings. Against, this background, however, protest and, eventually, revolution was fostered.

In the process that gradually progressed into…. [read more]

Latin America: Political or Apolitical Term Paper

… The movement toward privatization was especially strong within Latin America because state-owned entities had generally been little more efficient than the government bureaucracies themselves. Often they had been subject to cronyism, bloated employment practices to accommodate payback for political or personal support, and corruption. (Vanden & Prevost 167)

Stepping away from the ever-important financial indicators toward social indicators Vanden and Prevost cite the un-attestable urbanization of Latin America. This realization can also be seen as an agreement with Colburn.

Latin America is no longer the land of sleepy peasants and small villages. It has changed dramatically. Some three-quarters of the population now live in urban areas, compared to 41.6% in 1950. (Vanden & Prevost 12)

Though the region boasts a spattering of very large cities,…. [read more]

Latin American Politics United States Term Paper

… The corporatist system is one that can be beneficial to commercial farmers, while detrimental to rural farmers. Commercial farmers can remain in control of agriculture under this system, monopolizing the industry.

Over the years, many changes have occurred recently concerning the numbers and types of interest groups. Now interest groups are not just the army, the church, and the oligarchy, but also the middle class, workers, peasants, women, indigenous groups, university students, government entities, and international groups.

Even with these new interest groups, pluralism in Latin America is still a limited pluralism as the majority of the new groups are unorganized and inarticulate, and the political bias still leans toward the privileged rather than the mass. Because of its corporatist roots, Latin America mainly consists…. [read more]

Latin American Culture Essay

… Latin American Culture

What has the use of the Development Model meant to Latin America? According to an article in Social Policy & Administration (Draibe, et al., 2009, p. 333) some "foreign multinational" companies benefited "considerably" [from the Development Model] by acquiring "privatized state companies at a bargain." However, especially in Chile, the middle sectors of the population were left "largely unprotected" and jobs / livelihoods became "precarious… in the fact of globalization" (Draibe, 334). This paper peers deeper into the issues that were manifest due to the Development Model in Latin America.

The Literature on Latin American and the Development Model

In his 1990 book The Politics of Latin American Development, author Gary Wynia asserts that "Dissatisfaction runs deep in Latin America" due to…. [read more]

Latin American History as in Other Nations Term Paper

… Latin American History

As in other nations around the world, economic development and social justice tend to go hand in Latin America, as is evidenced by recent events in three countries.

With the recent transference of power in Cuba from Fidel Castro to his brother Raul, there are signs that restrictions that previously limited the freedom of Cubans under Fidel's autocratic regime will be lifted. Cubans are now able to purchase such items as mobile phones, DVD players, and computers. It remains to be seen whether Raul will manage to open up new economic possibilities for his country, which continues to struggle with poverty on a massive scale.

In recent years, Brazil's Growth Acceleration Program has led to positive growth in the country's economy. Whereas…. [read more]

Politics and the Economy in Haiti Essay

… Politics and the Economy in Haiti

History of Haiti

Officially known as the Republic of Haiti, the Caribbean country is characterized by a long and tormented history. It all started in 1492, when the island was discovered by Christopher Columbus. By that time, the land had been inhibited by a population of Tainos (men of the good); all people here were recognized for their kindness, but the Tainos occupying what is today Haiti were the most developed ones, having managed to create a flourishing civilization even before Columbus discovered them (Discover Haiti).

With the discovery of 1492, the entire Hispaniola was passed on to the control of Spain. Two centuries after that, the French battled the Spanish for occupation of the island and the dispute…. [read more]

Politics of Memory Term Paper

… What is the connection between the domestic and international dimensions of the politics of memory? In terms of Chile, the situation regarding Pinochet has huge international repercussions, with the CIA releasing documents showing that they had some part in the 1973 military coup, and in supporting the military regime of Pinochet, with Colin Powell admitting 'This is not a part of our country's history that we are proud of' (Kornbluh, 2003), and in light of the fact that Pinochet was arrested, on Octobr 16th 1998, and was extradited by the Spanish judiciary (Kornbluh, 2003; Angell, 2000).

As the events in Chile have such international repercussions, and as they affect other countries, the international dimension of the politics of memory comes into play in this case.…. [read more]

Latin American Studies (by Philip Swanson) Essay

… ¶ … Latin American Studies" (by Philip Swanson) by answering questions 1-12.

Travel writing in Latin America was imagined in such a way to create certain stereotypes of both the inhabitants and physical geography when it was reported back to readers in Europe. Latin America was imagined to be more dangerous and less productive and civilized than Europe. These travel writings helped Europeans distance themselves from Latin America, and make it an even more "foreign" and "exotic" location, without even a true understanding of the realities of each country. As for consumption from Latin America, there is no doubt that Latin America has impacted the way people in North America consume and think about products. The book gives the example of just looking at one's…. [read more]

USA Hegemony Term Paper

… S. kept Haiti economically and politically isolated for decades and refused any diplomatic recognition until after the Civil War. In more recent history, Jean Bertrand Aristide, a Catholic priest and advocate of liberation theology, was overthrown twice in military coups in 1991 and again in 2004, which had all the classic hallmarks of CIA-style covert operations. Not surprisingly, Haiti remains one of the poorest countries in the world, dominated by a corrupt and repressive oligarchy that the U.S. has helped to install and maintain over many decades.

Michael Doyle counters Rosato in asserting that Kant's Perpetual Peace between democracies is real, as is their tendency to be war-prone with authoritarian or non-liberal states. Not all groups within democracies are liberal or democratic, of course, but…. [read more]

State of Siege Term Paper

… ¶ … Siege is a 1972 film by Costa-Gavras, the famous Greek-French film-maker, about the interrogation and assassination of a CIA case officer by unnamed South American urban revolutionaries. Although it is not clearly acknowledged in the film, its story is based on the real-life events that actually took place in Uruguay when a U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) official, Dan Mitrione, was kidnapped on July 31, 1970 by the Tupamoros, a left-wing urban guerilla group, and eventually executed. This paper gives a summary of the movie and discusses how far it has depicted the real life events by researching who the Tupamoros and Dan Mitrione really were.

Summary of the Film starts with scenes of a tense Latin American city in which the…. [read more]

Politics - Country Case Study

… In spite of Brazil's series of crises, bloodshed was generally absent from the country's recent history. Whether it was ruled by a monarchy, a military junta, or a democracy, the country managed to get over its dark days rapidly and with as little damage as possible. Decentralization primarily happened because military leaders started to depend on local administrators and acknowledged that it was important for them to cooperate. It was all about power at a municipal level in the 1980s and 1990s, with most influential individuals in Brazil being aware that they had to collaborate with locals in order to achieve success in their enterprises.

Excessive inflation is one of the most important factors that needed to be addressed in the recent years in Brazil.…. [read more]

Latin American History Essay

… When Bello was installed as rector of the University of Chile in 1843, he gave an address praising the liberal, humanistic spirit of the Renaissance and Enlightenment. Modernity and progress began when the "intellectual heritage of Greece and Rome" was "reclaimed by the human spirit after a long era of darkness" (Bello 53). After one thousand years of feudalism, science, morality and politics began to advance again, proving that humanistic learning and cultivated minds were essential for the progress and happiness of society. Although Bello strongly supported the provision of primary and elementary education to the lower classes, he did not believe it possible to educate the masses without first training an educated elite, because "where science and letters do not exist, elementary instruction cannot…. [read more]

Birth of Modern Politics by Lynn Parsons Book Review

… Birth of Modern Politics by Lynn Parsons

In the Birth of Modern Politics, Lynn Parsons examines the role that Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and the election of 1828 played in the creation of today's modern two-party political system. Parsons points out that the founding fathers were adamantly against the establishment of political parties and a two-party system. However, within a very short period of time, political parties had become an integral part of the American landscape. In fact, by the 1820s, political parties were entrenched in American politics, though the two-party system had yet to develop. The election of 1828 played a prominent role in the establishment of a two-party system, and Parsons explains the social changes leading up to that election, the impact…. [read more]

Fresia's Contention Term Paper

… Slavery is a mark of shame upon the United States not for its existence, because almost all nations have known slavery, but because of the extent that slavery permeated American life. For example, at the time of the Revolution, there were certain safeguards protecting slaves from heightened levels of violence by their owners; by the time of the Civil War, these protections had completely eroded and been replaced by laws explicitly giving owners the right to kill their slaves.

Of course, Fresia does not stop his Empire argument with the information that America was a slaveholding land; he goes on to describe how post Civil-War America continued the vestiges of slavery. American imperialism was barely even slowed down by the abolition of slavery. Fresia indicates…. [read more]

US Role as "Policeman of the World Term Paper

… " clearly marking the U.S. As a global policeman. Furthermore, he went on to say "Even a limited strike will send a message to Assad that no other nation can deliver." (Federal News Service, 2013)

Another example of the way in which the U.S. intervenes as a global policeman is through diplomatic and political means. The Tunisian situation is relevant in this sense. In 2011, Tunisia was the first country to break away as part of the Arab Spring revolution and, despite the fact that there are reports of the U.S. having supported the previous regime of Ben Ali, the American government was among the first ones to encourage the democratic transition for Tunisia (Shahshahani and Mullin, 2012). This was a result of certain fears…. [read more]

Assassination of President Mckinley Term Paper

… Rugged and confident in his schemes, Roosevelt was tiles in his fight for the underdog pushing the nation to become one of the forefront empires of its day and righting its wrongs. Averse to corruption and invincible to enemies, Roosevelt waged a mighty war against enemies of the people on both a domestic and foreign field.

He was also the nations' first modern president. He advocated for women's rights. His undergraduate thesis at Harvard, for instance, was on this topic.

Said Roosevelt:

"Much can be done by law towards putting women on a footing of complete and entire equal rights with man - including the right to vote, the right to hold and use property, and the right to enter any profession she desires on…. [read more]

U.S. Immigration Into the United States Essay

… U.S. Immigration

Immigration into the United States: Ongoing Controversy in the Political and Public Spheres

Immigration has always been a controversial issue in the United States, even before this nation was formed on the North American continent. Different groups of settlers arriving in successive waves sought different opportunities and different freedoms, and the idea of the immigrant outsider quickly developed among some of the first groups and their descendants. After the formation of the United States subsequent to the colonies' declaration of independence, the immigration issue did not die down but instead became even more controversial, with a mistrust of all outside interests -- especially European ones -- becoming a highly prevalent feature of politics and public opinion in the country and yet with a…. [read more]

Forgotten Continent: The Battle for Latin America Term Paper

… Forgotten Continent: The Battle for Latin America's Soul

Latin American used to be considered a non-entity in terms of economic opportunity. When some one said, "Latin America" it typically conjured up images of primitive tribes, jungles, and ancient long lost ruins. It was not associated with a land of opportunity for investment and venture capital. However, Latin America continues to improve its image and is in the process of integrating into the global economy. Latin America is becoming a player in the world economy. Michael Reid's book, "Forgotten Continent: The Battle for Latin America's Soul" examines Latin America in a new light. This book examines Latin America and its deepened democratic institutions as a world of opportunity and social advancement.

Social inequalities and authoritarian dictatorships,…. [read more]

Comparative Politics Development in Emerging Economies of Latin American Countries Term Paper

… ¶ … Economies of Latin American countries

Comparative Politics

Latin America includes conceptually Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean and South American countries. In this culture is home to around 500 million people who speak mainly Spanish and Portuguese. The largest metropolis in Latin America is Mexico City with around 19 million.

Among the ten largest cities in the world belongs to the Brazilian metropolis of Sao Paulo and the Argentine capital Buenos Aires. In Latin America, according to studies by the World Bank, especially in Brazil, the country is in a dynamic economic growth of around five percent a year. Many countries in Latin America will benefit because of the good relations with China from the economic boom of the People's Republic.

China has now…. [read more]

Advancing Democracy in Latin America Through the Church Term Paper

… Advancing Democracy in Latin America Through the Church

The whole of Latin America has been weighed down by dictatorial regimes. The age of Human rights and democracy had been met with brute force. Many of these military takeovers had been planned extremely methodically and the political forces could do nothing else but avoid any all-out confrontation with the military generals. However, a few groups who did resist the takeovers had been crushed in a short time. Also, due to lack of accountability and prevalent state of lawlessness, corruption became widespread (Edward, 1997).

It is important to note that during the cold war America directed many secret CIA operations throughout Latin America. These operations created a bad mind set amongst the people of Latin America for…. [read more]

American Foreign Security Policies Research Paper

… American Foreign Security Policies

What are the key points -- the core interests and goals -- of U.S. foreign policy as regards security? The U.S. foreign policy has core interests in containing terrorism, limiting the production and threats associated with nuclear weapons, and promoting democracy and human rights. Meanwhile, according to Vice President Joe Biden -- speaking on behalf of the U.S. Executive Branch at the Munich Conference on Security Policy in 2009 -- there is no conflict "between [U.S.] security and its ideals" because "each reinforces the other." Biden said the United States believes that it is the "obligation of the international community to listen and learn from one another" and also to cooperate together "for a common prosperity and security of all" (Biden,…. [read more]

U.S. and Latin America Term Paper

… S., so they add little money to the local economy: they therefore do not benefit positively the local economy. It is difficult to see what benefit Panama receives from U.S. troops stationed in the U.S., and it is well-known that U.S. troops are in Panama solely to safeguard its national interests with regard to the canal, not to help Panama.

Chile-U.S. fair trade agreement

The U.S.-Chile trade agreement (I will not call it fair, as it is not), is an extenspion of the failed NAFTA. This agreement, between the U.S., Canada and Mexico, was set up with the broad aims of liberalising trade between these countries; in effect, what happened was a further insurgence of U.S. business to Mexico, creating many of the problems already…. [read more]

Cuban Americans of All Ethnic Term Paper

… Additionally, the greater educational achievement of Cuban Americans further contributed to their growing economic power in the 1980s. Given the aging of the Castro regime and Cuba's growing openness towards capitalism, the economic and political might of the Cuban American population can only increase.

Works Cited

Alvarez, Carlos et al. "Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001). Available from ERIC database.

Anton, Alex and Hernandez, Roger E. Cubans in America: A Vibrant History of a People in Exile. New York: Kensington, 2002

Azicri, Max. Reinventing Socialism. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2000.

Eckstein, Susan and Barberia, Lorena. "Grounding Immigrant Generations in History: Cuban Americans and Their Transnational Ties." International Migration…. [read more]

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