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African-Americans Activism -- Gaining Civil Thesis

… In conclusion, there have been many organizations and individuals within those organizations whose activism and determination have helped remove the suffering from segregation and discrimination. It is true, as some writers and authors assert, that though today's hip-hop generation of young African-Americans enjoy social and legal benefits that were achieved during the Civil Rights Movement, many of those young people are ignorant as to the efforts that went before them. Still, while there are hurdles that remain for Blacks, a lot of positive changes have been brought to fruition and individuals that helped bring those changes are due a lot of respect.

Works Cited

Blair, Ezeil, Price, David, McNeil, Joseph, Richmond, David, and McCain, Franklin. (1960).

In Lunch at the Five and Ten: The Greensboro…. [read more]


Slavery the Emancipation of Slaves Research Paper

… Several criminological and sociological theories can be used to explain "black crime." Durkheim's concept of anomie, the erosion of social norms, was one result of peonage and its similar racist institutions. Likewise, strain theory can easily account for the manifestation of "black crime" in the Untied States. An oppressed culture evolves in opposition to the dominant culture, rejects the norms of the dominant culture, but has no institutions or structures in place to create a constructive response to oppression. A similar situation plays itself out all over the world, where oppressed communities struggle to find strong leadership and a cohesive means by which to achieve economic, political, and social power.

Slavery by Another Name is a powerful documentary that rounds out an understanding of American…. [read more]


African American Literature Term Paper

… Describing a naming ritual, Haley has the father walking through a village to his wife. "Moving to his wife's side, he lifted up the infant and, as all watched, whispered three times into his son's ear the name he had chosen for him. It was the first time the name had ever been spoken as this child's name, for Omoro's people felt that each human being should be the first to know who he was" (Haley, p.3). This ritual shows the involvement of both parents in the child's rearing; not only with the selection of name, but also with their involvement in the community. Moreover, it highlights the importance of naming to parents, which brings to mind the fact that so many African-Americans carry surnames…. [read more]


African-American Literature Du Bois Term Paper

… (93) "The harder the slaves were driven the more careless and fatal was their farming. Then came the revolution of war and Emancipation, the bewilderment of Reconstruction, -- and now, what is the Egypt of the Confederacy, and what meaning has it for the nation's weal or woe?" (92-93) The message is a strong sentiment describing the history of the place, the remnants of fences and homes once opulent and plush, though not enjoyed by the laborers, still indicative of care and prosperity, now only a skeleton of history rotting into the ground or roughly rebuilt to house a worker who simply has nowhere else to go. "I think I never before quite realized the place of the Fence in civilization. This is the Land…. [read more]


African-American Literature Term Paper

… ¶ … African-American literature. Specifically it will discuss several key points in slave history, including the effect of slavery on the writers and their families. As these slave narratives clearly show, the period of American slavery was a bleak time in American history. While some Americans felt slaves were "happy," these works indicate just the opposite. They longed for freedom and the ability to work for themselves. They hoped to keep their families together and avoid violent punishment from masters and overseers. They wanted the rights the rest of America took for granted, and their fight for those rights lasted far too long.

African-Americans fought during the Revolutionary War alongside their masters, and some fought because they were promised freedom. They also fought as freemen…. [read more]


African and Native Americans Essay

… Furthermore, while both groups would go on to suffer further discrimination and brutality well into the contemporary era, the legacy of the maroons and "Seminole freedmen" lives on in Florida and Oklahoma, where they were eventually forced to move as a result of the United States' forced relocations over the course of the nineteenth century.

Though the history and experiences of African-Americans and Native Americans are different in obvious ways, such as their relative geographical origins and the degree of respect or humanity they were afforded by European colonists, they also shared some interesting similarities that allowed for unique kinship and communities to form. While Native Americans were occasionally treated with just enough respect to get them to fight or trade in the name of…. [read more]


Legacy of African-American Slavery Term Paper

… Legacy of African-American Slavery in the United States

The era of African-American slavery in the United States was relatively short-lived and yet it has produced an enduring and lasting legacy. As labor systems go, one of the most inefficient of systems is a forced labor system, as individuals engaged in it gain no benefit from their labor and the vested interest is held only by those in power.

Slavery as it existed from the late 1700s to the end of the Civil War is a clear example of such a system.

Due to the infrastructure of the system there were many examples of both active and passive resistance and defenses exhibited by the slave as well as many examples of methods of control exhibited by…. [read more]


Slavery Today, an African-American Man Is Running Essay

… Slavery

Today, an African-American man is running for presidential office under the umbrella of the Democratic Party. Fifty years ago, the Democratic Party was the party of slavery and segregation -- how things have changed. Yet the attitudes that validated racial injustice still tragically linger on in our national consciousness. Recently, supporters at a John McCain rally gleefully uttered racial epitaphs in support of their candidate. In the striving of Obama, one might say, we can see the legacy of King pressing America on to change realized. Who would have thought the current presidential contest would have been possible only ten years ago -- but that does not mean the legacy of slavery is still not present in the economic and social disparities evident between…. [read more]


African-Americans Term Paper

… He was shot while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968. King was only 39 at the time of his death

Described as "one of the most courageous persons the Civil Rights Movement ever produced," John Lewis has dedicated his life to protecting human rights, securing personal dignity and building what he calls "The Beloved Community." He has displayed a sense of ethics and morality that has won him the admiration of many of his colleagues in the United States Congress. Despite his youth, John Lewis became a recognizedPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT=John Lewis" leader in the Civil Rights Movement. By 1963, he was recognized as one of the "Big Six" leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. Lewis, at the…. [read more]


Slavery, the Civil War Term Paper

… The abolitionist movement was also gaining strength throughout the country through the activism of people such as John Brown. Lincoln's victory in the 1860 election as the candidate for the new Republican Party borne from the Free-Soil and Liberty parties signaled South Carolina's secession from the Union as the South felt that the country would move in direct opposition to Southern ideals and principles.

While Lincoln's main drive behind the Civil War was to restore the Union, the South was right in seeing that the issue of slavery would be what divided the nation. Unfortunately, the Southern way of life depended on slavery and their fears that they would be forced to give that up were true. At the end of the war, Lincoln abolished…. [read more]


Slavery in Urban Areas Research Paper

… U.S. Urban History

Slavery in Urban Areas

The role of Slavery in urban areas from the colonial period through the Civil War.

During the colonial period, slaves provided the most common source of manual labor in America ((Chudacoff and Smith at 20). In fact, the numbers of slaves were quite high in all early in both the North and South (Ibid. At 17). Colonial slavery in the north was almost entirely urban as one third or more of most northern colonies' slave populations were located in the colonies important cities, such as New York City, Boston, Portsmouth and Newport (Ibid. At 21).

In the cities, slaves performed heavy labor, and in port cities, slaves often served as seaman, longshoreman, sail and makers (Ibid.). Many slaves…. [read more]


African-American Women and Womanist Theology Research Paper

… African-American Women and Womanist Theology

Religion has been a strong part of the black culture since the beginning of time. Upon migration to the United States, religion and the church was a source of survival, especially for black women. Black women theologians practiced throughout the Civil Rights Movement, the responsibility to exercise racial uplift and social responsibility as the core of the religion life.

As womanist theology emerged, it criticized the black male theologians for ignoring the treatment of black women and their ideas with respect to black theology. It criticized white women for excluding the experiences of black women and the racism of white men.

Black women theologians felt that the experience endured by slavery was the basis for moving towards freedom.

Education, poverty…. [read more]


African-American Women's Literature Term Paper

… African-American Women's Literature

Unlike any other marker of civilization literature demonstrates a vision of the social and psychological world in which we live. During the post civil rights era there have been a number of seminal authors who give meaning and message to their times and the times, which came before them. Literature during this period is a marker of change and also an exploration of modern concepts of the past. Through the works of African-American women writers can be seen a message of change that has overcome our society. We have reached a point at which it is now considered acceptable to explore the changes to our society that have come from the civil rights movement and discuss issues that before now were seen…. [read more]


Slavery the Southern States: Stowe Versus Term Paper

… Slavery

The Southern States: Stowe versus "The Blessings of the Slave"

According to conventional wisdom today, 'everyone' knows that slavery is wrong, a human atrocity. But what seems obvious to us today as a moral and inhuman atrocity was not nearly so obvious to the eyes of individuals living in the Southern United States of 19th century America. In fact, anti-slavery activists such as Harriet Beecher Stowe had to write in active defense against Southern voices who would uphold the supposed "Blessings" of a slave, to work in bondage without a care for his or her own freedom. How could this seismic change in the intellectual consciousness of a nation occur so rapidly, from assuming Stowe to be correct in her berating of the blessings…. [read more]


African-American Woman Living With AIDS Term Paper

… African-American Women Living With AIDS

The year 1981 marked many historic events in the world but none as tragic as the discovery of 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS was first recognized as a disease when clinics in the larger cities in the United States such as New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco first saw young men who were homosexuals with Pnemocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma which was quite unusual for young adults who were not know to be immunosuppressed. The first report appeared in June 1981. This disease was first believed to be a homosexually transmitted disease but soon it was recognized that this disease was being transmitted among drug users as well. It wasn't long however, until it was understood that this…. [read more]


American Revolution -1783): The Birth Term Paper

… This new set of laws concerns limitations and imposition of taxes that closed the Boston sea trade and placed limited freedom (the right to exercise a colony's political, social, and economic freedom) on specific British colonies (Dolan, 1995:18-27).

Due to this unfair and corrupt nature of these sets of laws, Americans decided to protest, and when met with violence by the British militia, eventually led to the declaration of the American Revolution. In this conflict, Americans sought to free themselves to British rule, and to develop America as a new nation with a new society, the American people. The success of the Americans in the American Revolution had led to various effects, which are beneficial and at the same time, detrimental to the growth of…. [read more]


African-American History Thesis

… ¶ … workings of the sharecropping system, and explain why many African-Americans preferred it to wage labor; explain why so many sharecroppers ended up destitute and tied to a plantation.

The sharecropping system was set up for former African-American slaves to be able to lay economic claim to their own work through the sharing of harvest of a plot of land or property. It would eventually become its own version of slavery, and since so many people were draw into this form of land lease, it would have a profoundly negative effect on the plight of African-Americans in the post Civil War era (Billingsley, 1992). The blacks were most often not owners of land on their own, and often worked portions of the land in…. [read more]


Civil War Slavery Term Paper

… Slavery is a dark stain on America's past. The "peculiar institution" lasted far longer in the United States than it did elsewhere in the world, and became solidly entrenched in American politics, culture, and economics during the first century of America's existence. From the time the union was formed, slavery was a contentious issue that created sectionalism. While several northern states limited or banned slavery altogether, the southern states held tight to the institution. Slaveholding states resisted all attempts by the federal government to impose rules or injunctions. Regional differences between slaveholding and free states directly led to the Civil War in the 1860s. Yet the legacy of slavery lived on long after the Emancipation Proclamation. The 13th Amendment to the Constitution, ratified after the…. [read more]


Freedman's Bureau: The Freedmen Thesis

… Had Scott sued earlier in his life, when he was living in Illinois and Wisconsin, it might have made a difference. Moreover, American laws were stacked against Scott, so the likelihood of him ever being made a free man was remote.

The U.S. Supreme Court was biased against blacks (racism was rampant on that august panel), and there is no secret as to why, since seven of the nine justices had been appointed by "proslavery presidents from the south," and five were actually from families that kept slaves (KCET, p. 2). Dred Scott case "outraged many northerners" but was "well received by slaveholders in the South" (KCET, p. 3). The positive result from the Dred Scott case was that the Supreme Court's decision "…greatly influenced…. [read more]


Richard Allen: A Biography Term Paper

… M.E. churches. He became bishop of the new church, a place devoted to promulgating Black spirituality and providing a source of religious community and connection. (Toppin, 2004)

Allen's considerable industry and creativity is reflected in John Hope Franklin's statement in From Slavery to Freedom that, while in all "Northern communities that blacks went farthest in establishing independent churches," he feels, "the best example of this trend was the work of Richard Allen and his followers in Philadelphia. This prospective leader demonstrated his industry and determination" by saving enough money with which to establish the AME on his own. (Franklin, p.114) In other words, the success was financial as well, as Blacks had little economic resources at the time, and would for many years to come.…. [read more]


Slavery the Conspicuous Absence Term Paper

… ¶ … Slavery

The conspicuous absence of any significant memorial to the horrors of slavery in America signifies a collective forgetting. We are all too willing to brush aside the failures of Reconstruction, disavowing the connection between the plantation and the penitentiary. Reality for African-Americans cannot be so easily divorced from slavery, which continues to hold black Americans tight in its noose. Instead of participating in the collective forgetting, we should sponsor a large-scale memorial museum in honor of the generations of men and women whose lives were predetermined, altered inextricably by a sickening social norm advocating bigotry. Susan Sontag draws an important parallel to help us understand how the lack of a slavery memorial characterizes American culture: she states, "the Holocaust Memorial Museum and…. [read more]


Cultural Forms of Expression African-American Term Paper

… Cultural Forms of Expression African-American

Many cultural forms of expression have been utilized within the social science construct, to demonstrate ways in which such expressions reflect the culture as a whole, and in many cases the broader culture, or the one that is usually subjugating the first. Within W.E.B. DuBois, Writings DuBois wrote about how slave songs allowed individuals to express their feelings of subjugation and reject the broader culture. Angela Davis wrote about the blues as a vehicle to express the particular sentiment of back women, and more specifically, black feminists and lastly Daryl Michael Scott has used his pen to show how mid-century novels by Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison influenced social scientist in their thinking about the damage thesis of oppression. This…. [read more]


History Slavery North Atlantic British Essay

… Furthermore, the culture which developed among the Northern sector of the U.S. was also not necessarily conducive to slavery. The development of industry in these areas created a means of urbanization in which economic livelihood would be based upon common professions such as mariners, merchants, dockworkers and shopkeepers -- none of which have much use for slave labor. In general, the economy of the North (which was largely supported by the efforts of New England) was maritime-based, which is one of the primary reasons that slavery, which once existed in the North, eventually died out.

The surrounding conditions in the South, however, were primed for slavery because they were regarded as being less specialized than those in the North and exceedingly more labor intensive. Interestingly…. [read more]


Slavery According to the Concise Thesis

… The General Assembly adopted the Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 that declared slavery as a prohibited act. In 1954, forced labor was condemned by the Security Council. The Third World Countries like Mauritania, Pakistan, Myanmar, Niger, the Amazon region of Brazil and Sudan still have people who practice slavery on a large scale ("Slavery"). The Blacks and Afro-Americans are still living a lower-class lie in the European world. However, in most parts, the descendants of the African slaves have been able to attain considerable levels of socio-economic mobility, political power, and cultural assimilation in the societies. Their legacies are not as same as their forefathers who lived and died a miserable life (Klein 271).

Thus, the institution of slavery has taken a new vigor…. [read more]


Racial Ethnic Trends for the Millennium Between Arabs and African Americans Term Paper

… Arab- and African-Americans and racial issues in the new millennium

America is the most unique nation in the world, from so many angles. First, of course, it is by far the wealthiest nation in the world: From moral and immoral, violent and nonviolent, justified and unjustified means, America has acquired massive quantities of wealth

However, amidst that wealth exists the reality that America is a melting pot. The motto of the nation brings people from all over the world to its shores seeking a better life, and often a better life is exactly what they get.

The flip side of the melting pot is the unfortunate tensions and complications that inevitably arise from putting so many people together in one place and refusing to name…. [read more]


History of Missouri Term Paper

… She was separated from her parents when eleven years old and brought to Missouri from Tennessee. She never saw any of her folks again and the last words her mother said to her was: "Daughter, if I never see you again any more on earth, come to heaven and I will see you there."

Did you go to church?

Yes, our Master took his slaves to meetin' with him. They had one corner where they sat with the slaves of other people. There was always something about that I couldn't understand. They treated the colored folks like animals and would not hesitate to sell and separate them, yet they seemed to think they had souls and tried to make christians of them. I was raised…. [read more]


Reparation of Slavery Term Paper

… Reparations of Slavery

Review of Pro-Reparations Literature

Rebuttal of the Reparations Arguments

One issue that has come to the surface in recent discussions of race in America is the issue of Slavery Reparations. This is essentially the idea that modern descendents of American slaves should receive some form of financial reparations for the oppression and other hardships endured by their ancestors. One notable advocate of this scheme is Randall Robinson, as quoted in Watts-Jones (2004). He claims economic reparations to the descendents of slaves are a necessary as well as morally correct thing since so much of the United States' wealth in prior centuries was derived from the uncompensated labor of slaves.

Review of Pro-Reparations Literature

Adebajo (2004) describes the conditions that have led to…. [read more]


Reparations Are Americans of African Term Paper

… 1%). In other large cities such as Detroit, New York and Cleveland, roughly the same numbers were recorded. It has also been noted, (Levin, Itzkoff), that in Harlem between 1905 and 1925, only 3% of all families were headed by a woman under 30 and 85% of black children lived in two-parent families.

In 1997 illegitimacy among blacks was around 70%. In addition only 41% of black males 15 years and older were married, and only 36% of black children lived in two-parent families. These are among indicators of family instability and its associated socioeconomic factors such as high crime, welfare dependency and poor educational achievement is claimed to be the legacy and vestiges of slavery, for which black Americans are due reparations. But if…. [read more]


Harlem During 1920-1960 Term Paper

… Harlem During 1920-1960

The United States is considered for centuries now the "land of all opportunities." Throughout time, it has attracted millions of people from around the world in search for a better future and for new ground for personal affirmation. However, behind the glamour and excitement of the "American dream" there lie numerous unsuccessful stories that come to point out the different perspectives of a certain reality.

The struggles that have marked the history of Harlem can be considered relevant examples in this sense. This part of the city of New York has shared the image of a troubled existence, that of the Black Americans that erected it, and of the millions of immigrants who found shelter in the slums and overcrowded streets of…. [read more]


Black Slaveowners African-American History Term Paper

… Black Slaveowners

Agriculture and even home ownership in the age before the civil war in the United States was a challenging endeavor, one that often required the work of more than one family.

In most places in the U.S. The excess labour needed for the maintenance and growth of even a relatively small estate was taken from only one source, slavery. One long-standing debate associated with slavery is the state of freed blacks ownership of slaves. More specifically, currently there are mainly two arguments suggesting why blacks owned other blacks: the first is given by Carter G. Woodson thesis which suggests blacks owned other blacks for humanitarian reasons (to protect loved ones and the like) while the other argument, written by best by Larry Koger…. [read more]

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