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Libraries and Intellectual Freedom Term Paper

… International bodies and Intellectual Freedom

The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is the largest body that represents all those who work within the library systems. It has upheld the freedom of intellectual freedom since the 1990s. According to this federation the freedom of expression and the right to know are two different things but one cannot exist without the other. The right to information is necessary in order for one to exercise their freedom of though and conscience. On the other hand, one needs to have freedom to think and express in order to fully realize their freedom to access information. According to the Canadian Library Association's Statement on Intellectual Freedom, everyone has the basic right to have access to all expressions…. [read more]

Ethics, Values, and Foundational Principles Essay

… Intellectual freedom represents a key aspect of the American Library Association's code of ethics, considering that the institution has gone through great efforts throughout time with the purpose to prevent diverse influential bodies in the state from censoring information that is especially important for particular persons. Through time, there has been a great deal of efforts made with the purpose of preventing people from having access to certain information. This has influenced the library to acknowledge the role it plays and to fight in order to make information widely accessible, regardless of the bodies it harmed as a result of making this respective data public.

The Freedom to Read statement actually reinforces the idea that democracy, as an ideology, supports people as they want to…. [read more]

Freedom and Justice Concepts Thesis


Following the events of September 11, 2001, legislation has occurred which has ludicrously removed the rights of citizens instead of serving to bolster and support citizen's rights in the United States. Furthermore, while the leaders of the United States are speaking of 'safety and security' the reality is that at no other time in history has the rights, safety and security of American citizens been so greatly compromised. The U.S.A. Patriot Act was passed in its first form in the "Uniting and Strengthening American by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism' act six weeks after the events of September 11, 2001." (Wronkiewicz, 2002, p. 1) One result of this is related in the work of Wronkiewicz…. [read more]

Intellectual Property Law Term Paper

… Furthermore the creators of the content in the information industry, including music creators, have been overshadowed by the "bigger" entities, such as producers, broadcasters and institutional users. Indeed, it has been seen above that the greater copyright and earning issues relate to huge industries such as AOL, rather than songwriters and musicians themselves. Not much is done within even the newest legislation to protect the rights of authors or performers.

Indeed, the "all rights" contract standard increasingly appears in contracts signed by artists, with the Directive turning the other way by means of article 9 and recital 30, with the premise that the law of contract remains unaffected by the Directive. The Directive similarly washes its hands of the contract and copyright exemption interface, where…. [read more]

Challenging in Most Cases Essay

… An overall collection development policy will facilitate communication and consistency between library institutions while collaborating with the community of libraries.

A formal collection development policy is designed to facilitate cooperation and coordination while clarifying objectives. This is done both among cooperating library institutions and within the library system. If well implemented, the policy could serve as a daily working tool providing the appropriate guidelines to carry out most tasks under the area of collection management. Evidently, collection development policies cover various functions and roles that must be revised regularly (Leseure, 2010).

Essentially, this section argues that collection development policies qualify as planning documents. Users, their needs, and resource availability are at a dynamic state. Collection development policy must create awareness through a baseline data for…. [read more]

Conservative Intellectual Movement Term Paper

… This work was "a manifesto, akin in impact to what C. Wright Mill's The Power of Elite was for left-wing students." Buckley, in attacking the "atheism and collectivism" in his religion and economic courses at Yale, drew national attention to the conservative intellectual movement of the 1950's.

William Rusher played a similar role in the development of the conservative intellectual movement. As publisher of National Review and first president of Harvard's Young President's Club, Rusher was further able to bring attention to the principles of the conservative movement. However, in contrast with Buckley, who had been deeply rooted in conservative ideals since childhood, Rusher claimed that, "the atmosphere of the Cold War and particularly the Korean War brought about his transformation to staunch anti-communism."

The…. [read more]

Shoulder? So Who Is Reading Essay

… ¶ … Shoulder?

So who is reading over your shoulder? Who is this person who wants to know what you are reading? The very title of this essay sounds like an admonition. The reader is being warned about some unknown or unsuspected danger. The reader is quickly trapped because the title is catchy enough. It could have very well been a title for some suspense thriller. And that element is suspense is what grabs reader's attention.

The opening paragraph serves as a "tone-setter." It leads to the main purpose by first explaining why reading over the shoulder makes a person feel uncomfortable and makes him edgy. I don't see any reason for author's slight deviation into how a person can start viewing himself through the…. [read more]

Input/Output Devices Essay

… In fact, the ability of companies engaged in the production of digital content that requires research and development efforts would be unduly compromised -- if not completely destroyed -- if inadequate digital rights management practices are not put in place and maintained as the industries change.

Technology Tomorrow

I am confident that computers are going to continue to decrease in size, as the progress that we have seen in this area has been extraordinary -- and beyond anything that we could have imaged at some earlier time. It makes perfect sense that computers will be embedded in our clothing and perhaps even in our bodies. Our pets already are implanted with computer chips that can serve as a reference as to the pets owner and…. [read more]

Police Psychology Scenario Term Paper

… The importance of identifying instrumental and expressive demands that are made by the suspect are also important components to the process. Instrumental demands are more specific and serve as part of the S.A.F.E. model for de-escalating crisis situations. This model is represented by four "triggers" that are (McMains & Mullins, 2010):

• Substantive demands: The instrumental wants/demands made by the parties (e.g., subject and negotiator)

• Attunement: The relational trust established between the parties

• Face: The self-image of each of the parties that is threatened or honored

• Emotion: The degree of emotional distress experienced by the parties

Expressive demands, on the other hand, are not specific in nature and can be thought of as a combination of the other three factors in the…. [read more]

John Dewey and Education Theory Term Paper

… John Dewey and Education Theory

John Dewey - Review and Analysis of his Theories

Biographical Information on John Dewey

Born in Burlington, Vermont in1859 (October 20), John Dewey was the third of four sons; his parents, Archibald Sprague Dewey and Lucina Artemesia Rich suffered through the death of their first-born son, then sent the three surviving sons to public school and to the University of Vermont.

While at the university, John Dewey had his eyes opened up to deep philosophical thought when he studied evolutionary theory; the theory of natural selection made an impression on him that stayed with him throughout his life.

Dewey was a high school teacher for two years following the completion of his undergraduate degree; then, he attended Johns Hopkins University,…. [read more]

Internet Censorship Essay

… Many countries like the United States treat people participating in such activities with an entirely different rule book and set of standards and practices than people who commit perceived lesser crimes. Freedom of association is generally held to be a positive but when people are conversing with the outwardly stated purpose of overthrowing government and/or committing mass murder in all ways possible, the normal perceptions about freedom of expression and speech are generally thrown out the window.

A final con to freedom of expression is lack of accountability. Whether a person uses his or her actual name or not, a lot can be said and done on the internet that is very destructive. Posting compromising private pictures and revealing sensitive information are just some of…. [read more]

History of Modern Medicine Taj Mahal Term Paper

… ¶ … History of Modern Medicine

Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal is India's most famous architectural structure. It is actually a beautifully preserved tomb whose name is translated as "Crown Palace." It dates back to the Seventeenth Century and the reign of the Fifth Mughal Emperor as a tribute to his second wife, Mumtaz Mahal who died as the result of public rebellion against the regime after bearing her husband's fourteenth child. The original construction of the TAJ was inspired by the Persian Princess' request of her husband before her death.

The Life and Work of Galileo

Galileo Galilee was a Sixteenth Century inventor and astronomer who revolutionized man's understanding of the universe and the Earth's relationship to the Solar System, in particular. Among Galileo's…. [read more]

Censorship on the Internet Kaul Annotated Bibliography

… " As a response to governments' belated response to regulating online content to protect specific groups in civil society and in the community of online users, governments have explored engaging in "public-private transnational form of filtering." It is through this initiative that a balance between freedom of expression and government protectionism and regulation of detrimental online content can be achieved, according to the authors.

Hom, S., A. Tai, and G. Nichols. (2004). "The rise of the Internet and advancing human rights." China Rights Forum, No. 3.

The rise of the Internet as an influential and central source of information globally has even permeated countries such as China, wherein Internet content is highly regulated by the government. In the analysis conducted by Hom et al., the…. [read more]

Art During Renaissance the Evolution Thesis

… Comparisons of Renaissance and Medieval Art

There are a number of comparisons that can be made between Renaissance and Medieval Art. For example, medieval art's colors are mostly drab and dull because the pigments are mixed with egg yolk. They also have more religious aspects to them. Renaissance art is more realistic and the colors are a lot richer. Moreover, the focus of medieval art was primarily on religion; very focused on creating symbols of Christian concepts/values and not concerned with realism. Renaissance art is very focused on realism; on portraying things as they look in nature. In part, the realism of Renaissance art is attributable to the use of linear perspective in painting. As previously noted, there was a diminished focus on religion; however,…. [read more]

Religion the Cuban Community Term Paper

… He also said that there is not much of a boundary between the religions for most people. People burn candles, they go to church, they pray to the Orishas, and they pray to Jesus. There is no conflict of identity or fear that Santeria clashes with Catholicism. The priest might think differently, perhaps, but it could be that Catholicism has remained relatively tolerant of syncretic traditions under its umbrella such as Santeria and also Haitian voudou. Santeria and voudou still encourage people to worship and go to Church, as their community supports these rituals as well as the rituals of the African religions. Because the community supports a syncretic faith, there is a community cohesion that the Church dare not interfere with and has also…. [read more]

Censorship: An Overview and Analysis Term Paper

… The 'beast' or demon on the book is actually human. Golding is suggesting the people ought to be afraid of themselves and other humans, not supernatural beasts (Tripod, 2003).

At one point as mentioned briefly before Ralph weeps for the end of innocence, and "the darkness of man's heart, and the fall through the air of their true, wise friend called Piggy" (Golding, p. 202). Other expressions that suggest savagery include the boys saying "Kill the pig, cut her throat, ash her in." Yet another, "It was dark. There was that... that bloody dance (Tripod, 2003). There was lightening and thunder and rain. We were scared." This passage at a point where they boys realize that they are no longer playing games but are instead…. [read more]

Internet Has Grown Exponentially Term Paper

… For an educational institution, the ability to connect to various online journals and libraries as well as access resources of other universities can help improve and growth the curriculum and the courses supported by school is critical and all effort should be made to ensure that over-blocking does not happen.

Literature survey

There is no doubt that the Internet has impacted the way information is collected, disseminated and made available free of cost (mostly) to all users. As useful as the Internet has been with all the information that it provides, some of the content is not desirable for all sections of society that use the Internet. Research indicates that parents, schools and society are increasingly looking for ways by which they can restrict the…. [read more]

Book Censorship Term Paper

… ¶ … censorship in the public school system. The writer explores various issues and argues against censorship, citing the American constitution as support for the argument. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.

The United States constitution was an instrument that the nation was founded on. The constitution provides specific protections to the citizens of the country and those protections are held against every standard and legal question that comes up. The United States public school system, which is funded by American tax dollars, works to comply with the constitutional rights afforded the students, however the question of censorship comes up again and again across the states. Book censorship, in the public school system has made the news more often of late. School…. [read more]

Copyright Law in Hong Kong Essay

… These should entail: section 38 (research and private study) to remain unchanged signifying that there will be fairness dealing with work to make sure that private study or research will not infringe any copyright work; section 39 (criticism, review and news reporting) is supposed to maintain its availability under the Ordinance as a safeguard of protecting the freedom of expression.

This fair dealing exception should only apply to the works which have been released or the public have been already made aware of. This proposal is based on the amendments that were made to section 30 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 of the UK in 2003. As a matter of fact the current law, based on the review or criticism of a…. [read more]

Harlem During 1920-1960 Term Paper

… Harlem During 1920-1960

The United States is considered for centuries now the "land of all opportunities." Throughout time, it has attracted millions of people from around the world in search for a better future and for new ground for personal affirmation. However, behind the glamour and excitement of the "American dream" there lie numerous unsuccessful stories that come to point out the different perspectives of a certain reality.

The struggles that have marked the history of Harlem can be considered relevant examples in this sense. This part of the city of New York has shared the image of a troubled existence, that of the Black Americans that erected it, and of the millions of immigrants who found shelter in the slums and overcrowded streets of…. [read more]

Life and Works of Virginia Woolf Term Paper

… Virginia Woolf is considered to be one of the most influential writers of her time because of her experimental style and modern approach to writing. Many of Woolf's pieces reflect a unique perspective, which allow her to explore areas such as stream of consciousness writing and feminist views. In "A Room of One's Own," Woolf does achieves both of these, expressing her desire to work against the traditional ways of writing literature. Another piece that illustrates Woolf's stream of consciousness writing is "The Mark on the Wall," which is also written in a very nontraditional manner. Woolf's contribution to literature cannot be underestimated, for she paved the way for other feminist Modernist writers that were interested in stream of consciousness writing.

Virginia Woolf was born…. [read more]

History of Missouri Term Paper

… She was separated from her parents when eleven years old and brought to Missouri from Tennessee. She never saw any of her folks again and the last words her mother said to her was: "Daughter, if I never see you again any more on earth, come to heaven and I will see you there."

Did you go to church?

Yes, our Master took his slaves to meetin' with him. They had one corner where they sat with the slaves of other people. There was always something about that I couldn't understand. They treated the colored folks like animals and would not hesitate to sell and separate them, yet they seemed to think they had souls and tried to make christians of them. I was raised…. [read more]

Lifestyle Is Dangerous Term Paper

… In 1990, 1,531 of the 42,557 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, cases reported to CDC occurred among sex partners of IDUs, an increase of roughly 32% from the previous year (Drug pp). According to one study, 25% of the female participants, and 21% of males, reported trading sex for drugs and/or money during the six months prior to the interview (Drug pp). Among the females, 14% reported trading sex for drugs and 24% for money, while 13% of males reported trading sex for drugs and 15% for money (Drug pp). In 1990, approximately two thirds of the females, and half of the males who had contracted AIDS through heterosexual activity had had a sex partner who was an injecting-drug user (Drug pp). Among those individuals interviewed…. [read more]

Technologies With Ethical Implications Term Paper

… It is unlawful to make copies of intellectual property like music, movies and software without the consent to do accordingly. One's computer may be damaged by the P2P software and the files traded on the P2P networks by fixing viruses or spy ware and may permit others to use the files contained in one's hard drive much across those, one likes to share. (What is a Computer Crime?)

The intellectual property rights-IPR concerned with software possession, is one of the most disputable field of computer ethics. Software companies state that they lose billions of dollars through unauthorized copying every year, even though and as of today, the software industry is a multibillion dollar part of the economy. People think that normal copying of those programs…. [read more]

Pharmaceutical Industries Have to Operate Term Paper

… The data that was evaluated was a combination from book, journal articles, review papers and the Internet. The information reviewed pertained to a wide variety of situations and industries. There were some common trends observed in all the material. The commitment of the management and the involvement of the worker are critical no matter what the condition of the external and internal environment the company faces. Integrating the core function -- marketing and sale of products along with the goals and the objectives of the organization is the new route the organization has to now follow.

A distillation of the interviews will be provided in Chapter 2.


Understanding the main…. [read more]

Virginia Woolf's View on Women Research Paper

… Virginia Woolf's View of Women in a Room of One's Own and its relevance today"

The issue of women in literature dates back to the earliest written word. Perspectives change over time and across cultures. Literature and the roles of women are no different. There are many challenges that have faced women throughout our existence, but perhaps more so in the last couple centuries. Virginia Woolf, the author of a Room of One's Own, felt that literature was "impoverished beyond our counting by the doors that have been shut upon women" (Woolf 59)*

That was the sentiment of many women just a century ago, but as the roles of women within societies have evolved so have the societies themselves -- perhaps in part to accommodate…. [read more]

Religion in Turkey Term Paper

… Religion and Secularism in Turkey

Turkey lies at the northeast tip of the Mediterranean Sea and bridges Europe and the Middle East. Part of it, called the Turkis Straits, is part of Europe and the rest is considered part of the Middle East or Asia. Only 8% of the population and 3% of the land are in the Europe side while 97% of the land and 92% of the people are on the Middle East portion. Turkey measures approximately 780,000 square kilometers. It is divided into 80 provinces with Ankara as the capital and Istanbul as the largest city. The modern Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal, who was designated as Father Turk by the Grand National Assembly. Kemal was an…. [read more]

Germany Research Project Research Paper

… The government even forced the youth to be a part of the army which led to Germany's s army a big and prominent one in the war. (Jarausch, 2006) Since this was the case, the entire population of Germany became highly aggressive. This aforementioned population did not include the anti-Nazis but as mentioned earlier there weren't a lot of those any way. The Nazi supporting population had been so brainwashed by the previous regime that they had completed been washed away of all their tolerance. Even though the Jews were victims the most, other races and minority groups were under threat as well. The Nazi supporting Germans did not like the idea of Jews or any other culture or race living in the country. (Jarausch,…. [read more]

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