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Accounting Careers Term Paper

… Public Accounting, Corporate Accounting and Governmental Accounting Careers

Career options that are available to entry-level accounting graduates include those of public accounting, corporate accounting and governmental accounting. Each of these vocational options are divided into more specialized areas of practice.

The purpose of this study is to examine and in-depth research study into the areas of accounting represented by the specialized areas of practice within the public, corporate and governmental accounting vocations.

Accounting seniors and recent graduates are in possession of theoretical knowledge of accounting theory, but often know little to nothing regarding the careers available to them upon graduation.

Objective of the Study

In order to make a competent decision about which career to pursue the available options should be scrutinized. That is the…. [read more]


Budgeting as an Adequate Tool Essay

… A diagram showing the comparative components of Budgeting and Beyond Budgeting is shown in Exhibit -- I. (Daum, 2002)

3) Budgeting's obsolescence in 21st century:

Budgets were used as tools for handling expenses & cash flows and evolved into performance contracts between businesses head honchos and their subordinates. These were chiefly concerned with estimating future income and expenditure and were the key drivers and evaluators of managerial performance. In the present era, budgeting is gradually losing its relevance as intangible assets like customer loyalty and brand name have become the key drives of shareholder value. Strategy and product cycles have become shorter putting prices and margins under immense pressure. It is under these circumstances that traditional budgetary control practices fall short to handle these market…. [read more]


Accounting Function for a Chosen Organization Thesis

… Accounting Function for a chosen organization

This paper will be aimed at providing a full background of the financial situation at General Motors, focusing on the role of the accounting function within this organization and the results it produces. The paper will be structured in five different chapters.

In the first chapter, following an introduction that will aim to give some background on the organization that will be discussed in the paper, including relevant information on its history, evolution and current status on the market, we will aim to focus on the accounting function in the organizational structure of General Motors and identify how this is integrated, what kind of resources it is being allocated, how it interacts with other entities within the organization etc.…. [read more]


Managerial and Financial Accounting Case Essay

… et al., 2012).

The breakeven formula tells us that the total cost both fixed and variable cost ought to be equal to the total revenue in sales for a firm to break even. Example Considering that furniture making company. That makes chairs for office use. The Fixed cost for the company amount to $30,850. The variable cost comprising of material and labor hours amount to 90 per chair produced (Harrison Jr. et al., 2012). The breakeven point (BEP) for the will be as given below

BEP = total revenue from sales equals to total cost (Fixed and viable cost).

The total number of chairs produced is given as X. The value of a single chair sold is 150. The Breakeven point in units will be…. [read more]


Managerial Accounting When Is Budgeting an Adequate Term Paper

… ¶ … Managerial Accounting

When is budgeting an adequate tool for planning and control in organizations and when should alternative approaches be considered? Is budgeting obsolete in the 21st Century organization?

One of the biggest challenges that most businesses have been facing is from increasing competition because of globalization. What has been happening is the reduction in trade barriers and improvements in technology are creating a shift in how firms are operating. This has meant that there are different budgeting standards and techniques that are being utilized by a wide variety of organizations around the world. As, they are seeking to: improve their analysis of financial results in to order increase their profit margins and quickly adapt to changes that are occurring inside the marketplace.…. [read more]


Managerial Analysis Managers Use Various Essay

… The CVP analysis enables managers to evaluate how prices, sales volume, variable costs, fixed costs, and product mix affect the profits (Brewer, Garrison, & Noreen 2010, p 262). It helps managers make informed decisions about what products to sell, prices to charge, appropriate marketing strategies, and appropriate cost structures to use in determining appropriate product mixes. It helps managers determine an appropriate budget to meet a certain amount of sales volume and receive a certain amount of operating profits. The CVP analysis shows a manager how much the sales volume can be before risk of loss occurs.

The CVP analysis is used to assist managers to make informed decisions concerning business expansion or a new entrepreneur in starting new businesses. The CVP analysis enables managers…. [read more]


Checklist for Evaluating Internal Controls Essay

… ¶ … Internal Controls

The generalized lack of literary interest in the field of internal controls can be attributed to the perception that internal controls do not represent core organizational processes. Core organizational processes are product manufacturing or service delivery activities, those which directly serve the customers and retrieve income. But it is also true that the core operations could not be completed without the continuous completion of internal controls which ensure the correctness of the organizational processes and that of organizational budgeting, reporting and so on.

In order to ensure that a process of internal control is able to adequately answer the control need of the entity, it should be conducted onto three gradual stages. At the first stage, it is of the utmost…. [read more]


Decision Making and Accounting Theories Essay

… This means that Xerox have to ensure that they are relevant and their presence is felt in the world. Secondly there was a company Kodak which was in existence before Xerox and it failed. Therefore another force that drove the decision to be made is that the CEO did not want Xerox to fall in the same trap that Kodak fell which saw its collapse. Another driving force was making the company more competitive. This is through outsourcing manufacturing and eliminating marquee products. Diversification was also a driving force that saw the CEO wanting to move the organization into new areas. Through all these forces Xerox made its presence felt in the market and is now known as a result to the decision that was…. [read more]


Role of Management and Cost Accounting Reporting Essay

… Role of Management and Cost Accounting Reporting System

Management and cost accounting is a modern concept that is making its presence in the accounting and financial world. After the world war1 and during the periods of great depression, industrialists' became cost conscious because of the economic turmoil of those days. Furthermore, that was the era when industrialists faced higher competition from the new emerging industrial players and they were also forced to face the increasing governmental control over the economy. During the world war-2, many governments in different parts of the world imposed such strict legislation that made it compulsory for industrial companies to acquire new tools for management and cost accounting techniques to improve quality of the products, to trace the accurate cost for…. [read more]


Awarding Audit Contracts by U.S Term Paper

… Chapter 3 - LITERATURE/DESKTOP RESEARCH

3.1 Summary

The information available for researching this project was based on a cross-section of materials. Although this was an immense task because of all the government guides available on the subject, not to mention non-government materials, most of it was readily available on the Internet.

Some of the major websites that provided basic information included the following.

Non-Government Sites

American Bar Association Section of Public Contract Law. It is organized into six divisions that have links on the home page.

NASPO-National Association of Procurement Officials. Has a section on contract information and auditing procedures.

Fedmarket.com, The Federal Marketplace

Government Sites

Defense Contract Audit Agency. Provides audits, reports and financial advisory services.

CBDnet, which is Commerce Business Daily. Provides information…. [read more]


Mcdonalds ACCT Management Accounting Essay

… The franchise model of operations rather than a company-owned restaurant model is far less capital intensive on one hand, and provides a very low-cost and steady revenue stream of substantial size on the other hands, both of which contribute to a strong inflow of capital that provides the company with abundant leeway in making capital decisions (McDonald's, 2008; McDonald's, 2011). The strong investment opportunity that the company has been and remains in the yes of most analysts and investors also provides significant capital availability, should it be seen as required for some reason (Hoovers, 2012).

Capital Acquisition and Structure

Selling increased equity in the company as a means of raising capital (and eroding existing shareholder value) is not really something the company engages in or…. [read more]


Costs Allocated Essay

… 602). The relevant costs in the company's decision to drop one of its product lines are those that would be avoided because of the decision. In this case, the avoidable costs can be completely or partly eliminated by choosing one alternative over the other. The irrelevant costs in this decision are those that are unavoidable i.e. sunk costs and future costs that do not vary between the alternatives. Sunk costs refer to those that have already been incurred and are unavoidable despite of the manager's decision.

Budget:

A budget can be primarily defined as a comprehensive plan for the future that is generally explained or presented in formal quantitative terms. In some cases, the plan is expressed in terms of cash in which it provides…. [read more]


City of Norfolk VA Case Analysis 2008 Budget Project Research Proposal

… City of Norfolk VA 2008 Budget Project

The budget for the City of Norfolk outlines the intended fiscal spending plan for 2008. In many ways, the city budget is like a corporation, but in other ways, accounting and budgeting are very different, as the city is also a government agency. Cities often use a modified accrual basis for accounting. This is largely because funds often come in after the expenditure is realized. The following will explore details of the budget for the City of Norfolk, VA for the 2008 fiscal year.

Budget Format and Approach

Like many cities of similar size, the City of Norfolk uses a modified accrual basis for their budgeting and accounting (p. 9). This method allows expenditures to be recorded when…. [read more]


Leadership in Administration Case Study

… Leadership in Administration Case Study

The work of Davis, Darling-Hammond, LaPointe and Meyerson (2005) entitled: "Developing Successful Principals" published by the Stanford Educational Leadership Institute that principals, "...in today's climate of heightened expectations...are in the hot seat to improve teaching and learning. They need to be educational visionaries, instructional and curriculum leaders, assessment experts, disciplinarians, community builders, public relations experts, budget analysts, facility managers, special programs administrators, and expert overseers of legal, contractual and policy mandates and initiatives." (2005, p. 6) In other words leaders in today's schools must be well-prepared and in many areas of leadership and administration. Just as well, today's school leaders must be educated and trained in leading schools forward regardless of the environment in which the school is operating whether…. [read more]


Marketing Planning Term Paper

… The fact that life-expectancy is rising around the world in response to improving economic and even political conditions means that there is an ever-increasing need for healthcare-oriented information technology solutions. We cannot say for certain the degree to which our competitors have awakened to this realization, but we are well-positioned to take advantage of the situation when these countries come "online," so to speak, with their healthcare IT needs. We will already have our IT solutions set up to serve Swahili and Nahuatl speakers the minute those markets are ready for service.

Threats. Threats Itcorp faces are vague and difficult to pin down exactly. However, we have carefully observed the behavior of other firms faced with changes in volatile environments and are at least aware…. [read more]


Financial Planning Term Paper

… Financial planning for corporations is the process of planning the firm's revenues and expenses for the next year. Such planning provides managers with the insight needed to aid decision-making. Every company has specific activities that they would like to undertake, be they market expansions, new product launches or upgrades to existing systems. In order to budget for those activities, the financial planning function must be conducted. This allows managers to match the sources of revenue with expenditures that they need or want to make in the future. Financial planning also provides the basis for long-range strategic planning. The financial planning process can, for example, reveal budgetary constraints and shed insight into other potential problems that can affect the firm's operations and its plans. Therefore, financial…. [read more]


Performance Appraisal Causes Term Paper

… It is partly the participation of employees that improves their motivation and understanding of corporate objectives thereby increasing their job performance. Such participation also helps employees in accepting the appraisals and its objectives. This is because of the fact that the employee participation improves communication between superior and subordinates making the goals clearer (Gehrman, 1984; Gibb, 1985; Locke et. al., 1981). In the 80s and 90s, several studies were conducted in this regard and it was found that in order for the job performance to improve, an employee should participate in the process of performance appraisal. One such study aimed to determine the connection between increased work ethic, job performance, and effectiveness of performance measurement and performance appraisal. Buch and Spangler (1990) who studied one…. [read more]


UK Healthcare Term Paper

… According to Enthoven, the focus was directed towards enabling private practice to develop and forcing more elderly people to independent private nursing homes, where they had to pay from own resources until their money ran out. Within this approach, the goals of the government as addressed by Enthoven were:

To improve its ability to control the NHS financially by separating 'health' from 'social' care and to continue offering 'free' if services were provided by the NHS staff based on 'means tested' access.

To increase the efficiency of the NHS by improving both productive efficiency and allocative efficiency.

According to Le Grand et al., (1998), the basis of the development of the 'internal market' involved the introduction of competition via the establishment of more and smaller…. [read more]


Laboratory Medicine in Resource Limited Settings Research Paper

… ¶ … Improving the Quality of Medical Laboratory Services in Resource-Limited Settings

The critical nature of emergency medical services in Saharan and Sub-Saharan Africa is paramount as development during the 21st century is poised to arouse Africa to harness its power to become a global economic player. The Aforementioned emergency care is akin to emergency medical response teams that can arrive on-site with an onsite laboratory where blood testing, transfusion (if blood packs are obtained), where diagnosis of communicable diseases via laboratory testing is essential.

However, there are many issues associated with the availability of on-site diagnosis or locality over a large geographic region where a stand-alone facility with microbiology laboratory and diagnostic department is available. Economic constraints limit the development of such a network…. [read more]


Investment Prospectus With a Major Corporation Term Paper

… ¶ … investment prospectus with a major corporation, it is often helpful to provide an historical background of the company, as well as information designed to uncover the company culture, prospects for future growth, and marketing/communication issues. Ford Motor Company's first car was sold on July 23, 1903. In 1906, the first Model T. was made available and the millionth car produced on December 10, 1915. Production of trucks and tractors began in 1917. Ford became the first international company when they started exporting cars to Europe. Within 10 years Ford had plants in 5 countries. In 1956, Ford went public with the largest stock issue of all-time; 10.2 million shares. The Ford family still retains 34% of the firms voting stock. Ford's finance subsidiary,…. [read more]


Creating a Police Department Capstone Project

… Silver Spring Police Department

[Sealed proposals for Implementing a police department in Silver Springs, FL. Silver Springs Police Departments shall be received at Silver Springs Police Department, c/o Jessica Johnson at One North Avenue until date and time specified in the RFP and/or Silver Springs Police Department web site ( http://www.silverspringtwp-pa.gov/police.cfm)]

Request for Proposal

SILVER SPRINGS POLICE DEPARTMENT

About Silver Springs Police Department

Our Mission and Values

Silver Spring Police Department Organizational Chart

Chain of Command

Enforcement of code Ethics

Chief of Police

Bureau of Field Operations

Bureau of Administration

Bureau of Investigation

Community Relations Division

Major Crimes Division

Force Investigation Division

Internal Audits and Inspections Division

Planning and Research Division

Counter-Terrorism and Special Operations Bureau (CTSOB)

Risk Management Division

Fiscal Division

Sworn Positions to…. [read more]


Osiit an Analysis Case Study

… What is OSI's Global IT Security policy?

JL: Document

Do you provide for advanced IT and security training for your IT employees?

JL: Yes, we have extensive online and conventional training courses for our employees, including information security.

Are stakeholders (users, managers, and designers) interacting with information security?

JL: indicated that Business unit managers are responsible for enforcing IT security policy and that individual users are also responsible for the following IT policy concerning user accounts and proper use of the computer.

Is the policy part of an internal risk management protocol?

JL: As far as risk management is concerned and even though the company

As defined by the U.S. General Accounting Office, a stakeholder is "an individual or group with an interest in the…. [read more]


Silver Spring Police Department Senior City Capstone Project

… Silver Spring Police Department

SENIOR CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT

MAYOR-COMMISIONER, JOHN GREGORY

KEITH ROBINSON- CHIEF of POLICE

SENIOR CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT

Total Department Personnel 275

None-sworn

Officer to Citizen Ratio

Base Population 1.86 per 1001

Total with Influx Population 1.85 per 1002

Officers per Square Land Mile

Senior City Police was chartered and its operation put under a form of government i.e. Council-Manager

The appointment of the police chief is done by and reports to the Senior City's mayor

The office of Montgomery County Sherriff is donating the building to be used by the police of the Senior City

Fully- equipped building has been given together with functioning centre of communication, and portable radios for the officers working for us.

The office of the Montgomery County…. [read more]


Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility the Pyramid Research Paper

… Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility

The pyramid of corporate social responsibility

The three-domain model of corporate social responsibility

Factors determining the importance of corporate governance and corporate social responsibility

Strategic issues with corporate governance and corporate social responsibility..5

The case of Wal-Mart

Importance of corporate social responsibility

Strategic issues

Concluding remarks

The contemporaneous society is changing at a rapid pace and organizations need to change along in order to remain competitive and able to attain their financial goals. Corporate governance and social responsibility represent modern day tools through which economic agents strive to improve their relationship with the stakeholders. In this light of events, a question is being posed relative to the roots of the organizational interest in the tools of corporate governance and social…. [read more]


Costing the Analysis Research Proposal

… Costing

The analysis is based on the Nippers case, where owner Mrs. Dibsa is presented with the opportunities of expanding her business, maintaining it as it is or selling it. Considering that she decides against selling her business, the owner and manager of the gardening manufacturer and service deliverer then has the opportunity of launching a new special product within the market. As a brief presentation, the company is a small size enterprise, but extremely successful as it offers high quality products and services at competitive prices. In regard to the current situation, the owner, who intends to retire within six years, is faced with the difficult challenge of selecting the next best move. In order to help her with this decision, an analysis of…. [read more]


Marketing Communications Management for a New Brand of Perfume Research Proposal

… Marketing Communications Management for a new brand of perfume

Marketing Communications Management for Paradise Perfume

The modern day global trend seems to be that of creating a free international market place, in which the commodities are sold without regulation and intervention from the government and in which the economic rules are the dominant ones. Despite tremendous efforts, such a marketplace has yet to materialize. But globalization has nevertheless allowed economic agents to transcend boundaries and benefit from the comparative advantages of other countries. The real growth opportunities of economic agents are supported by the ability to transcend boundaries and introduce the product onto a wider consumer market.

The perfume industry is one in which the forces of globalization are extremely sensitive as they have allowed…. [read more]


Whirlpool Whirl Pool Supply Chain Case Study

… The requirements of the new system were identified in collaboration with IT depart of the organizations. The system requirements and desired results were clearly communicated by the business management. These efforts revealed quantifiable results and improvements in business performance. The business performance results can be stated as following.

Business Performance Results:

The availability of products was increased from 83% to 93% which has gradually improved over the years to currently 97% as of today. The finished goods inventory was reduced yup to 20% as a result the cost associated with maintenance of finished inventory is also reduced. The cost of freight and warehouse is also minimized up to 5%. The cost of the project implementation however remains a secret. The implementation of i2 APS has…. [read more]


ERP Solutions for Small to Medium Enterprise SMES Term Paper

… Enterprise Resource Planning Solutions for Small to Medium Enterprises

ERP systems may feel like an albatross to companies that have expensively and painfully installed them. Nonetheless, they constitute a valuable foundation for a wide range of new value-enhancing applications. -- Dorien James and Malcolm L Wolf

Today, the competition for enterprise resource planning (ERP) software packages is fierce and vendors have frantically developed strategies to make their software available to small to medium enterprises (SMEs) (Blumling, Frick & Meehan, 2002). These strategies typically focus around preconfigured solutions, implementation methodologies and hosting options (). This paper provides a discussion and case study analysis concerning the various strategies ERP vendors have developed providing examples of findings from SMEs who utilised these new options, followed by an assessment…. [read more]


Ways to Improve Ethical Behavior of Those in a Public Office or Organization Term Paper

… ¶ … Improve Ethical Behavior of Those in a Public Office or Organization

Ethical Behavior

Improving organizational ethical behavior:

Over the years, organizational ethics has come to be acknowledged as a key ingredient for which companies are given better market valuation and respect. However, until recently, only a handful of companies regarded ethics to be valid theme for enterprise planning and strategic thinking. The apex management of majority of enterprises devoted bulk of their time developing their organizational and functional strategic plans, their growth strategies, as also their brand strategies. In this quest for profits and enhancing market share, ethics and regulatory compliance took a backseat which was the lookout of the legal department. This has changed, and organizations are painfully cautious that in the…. [read more]

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