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Art in South America and the Pacific Term Paper

… Art in South America and the Pacific

Aboriginal Creation Myths and Art

The Aborigines have existed for approximately 40,000 years in parts of Australia. They boast one of the most ancient cultures in the world that is as varied as the people themselves throughout different regions of this continent. Due to the length of time that this civilization has existed, one would think that its traditions, cosmology and art would have a significant impact on the world. However, largely due to the fact that the Aborigines are a non-Westernized group of people and have never fully embraced technology, which is one of the principle Western markers of the "progress" of a civilization, most of its cultural manifestations are largely ignored by the outside world. As…. [read more]


Maori Art Research Paper

… As such, there has not been any way to yet find what a large set of carvings may mean. One particularly interesting argument suggests that the Mako was a way of separating the Maori men and women from the realm of life and death. As it had a holy significance, the carvings could have been either a source of protection from death or a means of being unified with the dead (Gathercole 177). Since each of the various Maori tribes had a different set of symbols, it would be quite difficult to translate since a similar icon could mean a very many different things depending upon who it was that was asked of from what tribe that person belonged.

As the art world has expanded,…. [read more]


Indigenous Art Term Paper

… ¶ … False Claims of Cultural Ownership

Speaking from the perspective of a native Maori, I protest political efforts being made by some individuals to return Maori artwork currently in the possession of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Consider the Poutoknmanawa post figure, purportedly produced around 1840. Certainly, it is a remarkably piece of my own cultural heritage -- but does that mean that it should be requisitioned by the government of New Zealand? Or even by the tribal leaders of the Maori people? In fact, when we consider the provenance of the piece, it becomes apparent that the Maori people can no longer lay singular claim to its cultural significance. Even if we could, an attempt to rigidly hold on to material relics of…. [read more]


Successful Utopias in Arts and Design Term Paper

… Artistic Utopias

Utopia is from the Greek term outopos, (no place) or eutopos (good place), and refers to an imaginary place where there are ideal laws and social conditions, where everyone is happy and knows no suffering. Some of the world's earliest writings have utopian themes, such as Hesiod's Golden Age depicted in his Works and Days, to Virgil's and Ovid's classic Arcadia, depicting a time and a place of rustic simplicity based on harmony between nature and humans. Plato's Republic was utopian, as he depicted the ideal city where humans attained mastery over nature. Plato's Republic inspired much of the Western utopian movements. Virgil created the most clear image of Arcadia that has ever been described. It was actually a city that existed in…. [read more]


Archaeological Artifacts Repatriation Essay

… In 1990, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) obligated federal museums and collections to restore to Native American tribes skeletal remains, grave goods and sacred objects - including those excavated or collected as early as the mid-nineteenth century. The problem with NAGPRA is that it does not extend to claims made outside the country, but nonetheless may serve as example to other foreign institutions. (IIP Digital, 2010)

Nonetheless, it seems to me that the laws are too few and cover too limited a terrain as well as not being strong or internationally binding. There are western countries that still need to repatriate their museum artifacts, and conventions such as the NAGPRA do not apply to privately held materials or to collections outside…. [read more]


Traditions vs. Modern Values Essay

… Whale Rider -- Traditions vs. Modern Values

Whale Rider is a 2002 New Zealand independent film directed by Niki Caro and based on the novel of the same name. It is a story of many levels; family, actualization, magical realism, and coming of age in a world in which the traditional tribal culture of the Maori conflicts with the contemporary world of New Zealand. The movie was critically acclaimed all over the world, and won the young star, Keisha Castle-Hughes, the nomination for Best Actress (Puig).

The story is surrounded by mysticism. It focuses on Pai, an independent and fearless 12-year-old whose mother and twin brother died during childbirth. Koro, Pai's grandfather, had anticipated the next leader of his tribe would have been Pai's brother.…. [read more]


English Sexism and Misogyny Term Paper

… ¶ … Love Got to Do With it?

I'd like to start this essay out by saying that I agree with Bell Hook's critical examination of the Piano. I agree that misogyny and sexism are the central themes in the movie, although I have to say that the movie relies on these ideas to keep it alive and of interest to women because it's the very most thing they are familiar with. The movie has received rave reviews because of its sexuality and expression, although I do not think the average person sees the misogyny present. I believe this is because it has become so mainstream and accepted that it's hardly recognizable anymore. The following paragraphs will detail the film's themes and the advantages and…. [read more]


Traditions vs. Values Essay

… Value Struggle

The Struggle Between Traditional and Modern Values

The struggle between traditional and modern values has been a major subject in art and literature throughout the modern age, and especially in the latter half of the twentieth century and the twenty-first century. Many protagonists struggle to assume identities that are not respected by traditional value systems in their respective cultures, and whether they are successful or not in these attempts their journeys make for compelling stories. This paper will examine one particular text that centers on the conflict between traditional and modern values and the struggle for identity -- Whale Rider, a film directed by Niki Caro in the context of two other literary texts -- Jhumpa Lahiri's the Namesake and Franz Kafka's famed…. [read more]


Mbuti Tribe Research Paper

… The Mbuti tribe gender relations:

In closing the Mbuti treated the children's genders because different things were expected from each gender. For example the girls were taught songs by an older woman and they were also instructed in the arts of motherhood while they were still young. The women are taught to learn different herbs and treatment in order to assure easy childbirth, milk, fertility, and an abortion if the need should arise. The boys are taught at an early age how to hunt to ensure the survival of their tribe. The older men and fathers often taught their sons how to hunt animals for the whole tribe to reap the rewards.

As a side note to the instructor, I do hope that this essay…. [read more]


Business Culture and Expansion Trends Research Paper

… , Mrs., Miss plus the complete name is deemed respectful; sincerity is considered the very best policy hence no overselling is required; it is considered inappropriate to speak in a loud tone as well; politics, sports, and weather condition are great conversational subjects, and could be fiercely discussed and in order to be a great conversationalist, it is important remain present and notified on crucial subjects; it is also recommended to avoid complicating New Zealand and Australia as part of one nation, as they are 2 unique nations. If you are not knowledgeable about New Zealand, hang around prior to your journey to find out about the history and culture (Trevor-Roberts et al., 2003).

c. Religion.

In New Zealand, simply over half of the populace…. [read more]


Family Group Conference in New Zealand Term Paper

… Family Group Conference in New Zealand

New Zealand launched a revolutionary and visionary package of legislation in 1989 called the Children, Young Persons and their Families Act - and from that bill the Family Group Conference (FGC) was born. The notion setting the stage for this new law was that there was a need for far greater participation by family members and community members when there is an instance of youthful lawbreaking. In terms of the management of the child from that point on, and discipline the child should receive, and the cultural and social implications of the process of justice, the FGC was viewed as not only important but also vitally necessary. It was, as Nicola Atwool and Cindy Kiro of the Office of…. [read more]


Growth and Development World Inequality in Jared Essay

… Growth and Development

World Inequality in Jared Diamond's

Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

Introduction to Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

Under the aegis of W.W. Norton, Jared Diamond published his Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. The book offers a new perspective on world history in the meaning of taking a global approach to all peoples and explaining their evolution in relation to environmental factors. It was translated into 25 languages and won the author the Pulitzer Prize.

The general idea is that those populations which first revealed an ability to manage the plant and animal life in a way that supported the improvement of their own life would later on be able to…. [read more]


Comparison of New Zealand and the United States Criminal Justice System Research Proposal

… ¶ … New Zealand and the United States Criminal Justice System

New Zealand and United States Criminal Justice System

Comparison of the New Zealand and United States Criminal Justice System

Brief history of New Zealand

The first inhabitants of New Zealand were the indigenous Maoris. It is estimated that that arrived on the islands in 950 -1130 AD. (Tangata Whenua:

The local people) Maori tradition suggests through their myths and legends that the Maori people came to the country from regions of Polynesia. (New Zealand) a Dutch navigator, Abel Tasman, found and explored the region in 1642. (New Zealand) This was followed by the famous journey and explorations of the country by the British captain James Cook. He was to make three voyages to the…. [read more]


Hofstede Writes, Culture Term Paper

… Hofstede writes, "Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." (www.geert.hofstede.com) Interesting words emanating from a Professor of Culture, but ones that may resound in truth, especially for China and New Zealand.

These words by Hofstede echo in ambiguity. The dearth of precision, and the lack of a universally applicable framework for classifying cultural patterns, has been a topic of research and explorations for a plethora of academicians.

Hofstede presents the most famous and most often cited work in this area. Styled an organizational anthropologist, Hofstede structured his world-renowned "culture dimensions" analysis from examining work-related values in employees of IBM during the 1970s. In his original work he divides culture into…. [read more]


Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes Dissertation

Traditional Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes: Studies on Origins and History


The study investigates the bamboo flutes found in Southeast Asia, as well as their history and origin. The earliest known extant bamboo flute, a chi, or ancient Chinese flute, from the Zhou Dynasty, discovered in the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, dates from 433 BC. Southeast Asian bamboo flutes, diverse in shape and size, vary in the way musicians play them. During the ethnography, a qualitative study, the researcher utilizes an extensive literature review to explore the development of bamboo flutes in SEA and examines the link between these instruments and music, as well as traditions from and beyond Asia.



As the study focuses on the flutes from three main areas: Mainland…. [read more]


Classroom Context Is One That Is Typical Research Proposal

… Classroom context is one that is typical for Australian P-3 schools. The seating is arranged to ensure that students can communicate with one another in group activities, yet also separated enough so they can concentrate on lessons. The work patterns and social groups of the classroom are conducive to team problem solving and learning the valuable lessons of collaboration. In addition the psychological setting of the classroom concentrates on being an inviting, low-stress environment that nurtures learning and feelings of belonging and safety for the students. There are also many visual cues, symbols and reminders of key topics and concepts covered in class during the school year. Most significantly there are many projects, posters and other items that connote the students' ownership of the room…. [read more]


Commodification of Sport and Physical Activity Essay

… Sports have been enjoyed as a form of entertainment at least since the times of the ancient Greeks. The perfection of the human body through athleticism is likewise nothing new. Team sports and leagues have been part of (at least male) communities throughout the modern era. However, the role sports play in the 21st century is qualitatively different than the role sports have played in the past. Even a hundred years ago, athletes who did earn money did not earn enough to make their sport a full-time job. Elite athletes now are not just eking out a living; they are signing multi-million dollar contracts that tie them to teams. Corporate sponsorship and celebrity endorsement advertising supplement their fat salaries further. It is the latter, the…. [read more]


Alaskan Native Languages Term Paper

… Alaskan Language Project

The continuance and historical understanding of the remaining approximate 200 tribal languages in Alaska (Krauss, 1996) is a significant cultural and educational concern for the American Indian and Alaska Native societies. Recently, the tribes and educators have spent considerable resources to ensure they capture the present languages and allow for their survival. Richard Littlebear relates the emergency of this problem:

Our native languages are in the penultimate moment of their existence in this world. It is the last and only time that we will have the opportunity to save them. We must continue to promote the successful programs throughout Alaska and Indian Country. We must quit endlessly lamenting and continuously cataloguing the causes of language death; instead, we must now deal with…. [read more]


Local Economic Development in Porirua City New Zealand Essay

… Local Economic Development in Porirua City, New Zealand

Profile of Porirua City.

Social characteristics. The results of the 2006 Census show that the total population of Porirua City is around 48,500 people (slightly more females than males), representing a modest increase (2.5%) from the 2001 Census. This population rate ranks Porirua City as 21st in size compared to 73 other districts in New Zealand and represents 1.2% of the country's total population.

The city is also home to slightly more than 9,600 Maori residents, representing about 19.8% of Porirua City's population.

Porirua City has a modern municipal infrastructure, including the Te Rauparaha Arena, an Aquatic Centre, and the Pataka, one of the country's most important museums of contemporary Maori, Pacific and New Zealand art.

Porirua…. [read more]


Abalone Industry in New Zealand on October Term Paper

… Abalone Industry in New Zealand

On October 4, 2006, the various sections of the aquaculture industry in New Zealand united, with government support. The government will provide $70,000 towards the establishment of New Zealand Aquaculture Limited, a united industry body for the aquaculture sector, Economic Development Minister Trevor Mallard announced in Nelson today.

The formation of New Zealand Aquaculture Limited is regarded as a high priority in the industry's recently released New Zealand Aquaculture strategy, which aims to build a $1 billion industry by 2025. The Seafood Industry Council (SeaFIC) has also pledged $50,000 to cover administrative expenses incurred during the initial set-up phase.

The organizations forming this new organization are the New Zealand Aquaculture Council and the four major species groups: the New Zealand…. [read more]


Concept of National Cinema Literature Review

… National Cinema

The cinema and film is an art form that has existed since the first silent films saw the light. Today's manifestation of this type of entertainment takes many different forms. In the main stream of society, any person asked what type of film he or she prefers to see will focus on some sort of genre, such as romance or horror. Far less recognized is the fact that film is also connected to nationality. This fact is related to the growth and dominance of Hollywood many decades of the existence of the film industry. There has been, however, also a rise in the film industries of smaller nations, and especially those in Europe. Although a large number of these are highly dependent upon…. [read more]


Creation Myth Analysis Term Paper

… The Law was both cause and effect in the recreation of the race after the Babylonian exile."

Unless this fact is taken into account, Wellhausen cautioned, "one will above all fail to understand the great work accomplished by the prophets in destroying Old Israel, and preparing the way first for Judaism, and then for the Gospel"; however, Wellhausen did not merely employ literary arguments as his predecessors had done. In fact, he went so far as to track the development of religious forms and practices and provided an examination of the religious cult of the Hebrews, their ceremonials and holy places, and an analysis of the historical books of the Old Testament. Furthermore, this historian had larger plans for the future including an analysis of…. [read more]


Prayer and Effectiveness in Relieving Stress Term Paper

… Prayer and Stress

Spiritual Rituals and Their Effectiveness in Relieving Stress

This research proposal will give an insight on whether prayer and spiritual rituals can help in relieving stress. With an analysis of various studies, the reader, by the end of the paper will be well informed about the importance of a research on this topic. He will get an overview on the subject and would certainly back the research for a definite view on the topic.

Spiritual rituals have been a part of society since recorded history. Hinduism, the oldest known religion has some extensive rituals and so do the later religions like Judaism, Christianity and Islam. All forms of religion have prayers where the human prays to the Creator for his well being…. [read more]


Cultural Analysis: Brazil and New Essay

… However, in the preliminary settings, it is recommended to have meetings scheduled 2-3 weeks in advance. Written confirmation is always mandatory for all kind of meetings however it is not uncommon for appointments to be cancelled or changed at the last minute. Similarly, arriving at meetings on times is considered as a symbol of professionalism and arriving late is perceived as disrespect to the other party. However, this norm is subject to flexibility dependent on the level of intimacy. For outsiders, appearing impatient if one is kept waiting, is not recommended. Brazilians see time as something outside their control and the demands of relationships takes precedence over adhering to a strict schedule (Kwintessential, 2012). Where Brazilians are gregarious and appreciate input during the conversations and…. [read more]


Rastarfarian Movement the Rastafarian Term Paper

… Those who were deceived into believing that they will soon come into the Promised Land and accepted to give away their poor belongings did not know better than to respond with violence to their deception. They were prone to violence since they had little to loose and were surrounded by it, even without the new religion. It just fit their profile at the right moment. But, since the 1950s, the manifestation forms have changed and so have those who adopted it a life style rather than a religious statement.

The rapid spread of the movement throughout the African continent was tremendously supported by the reggae music. "Like everywhere across the globe, it was Bob Marley who served as the foremost apostle of reggae on the…. [read more]


Challenges First Year Uni Students Essay

… ¶ … Uni Students Face

University discipline: Becoming the perfect student

Transitioning into the university environment is a two-fold process for the new student. On one hand, he or she is forced to let go of his or her dependant identity as a child. The new student must self-regulate the most basic aspects of his or her life, such as going to class without prodding, budgeting study time outside of class, and regulating his or her eating and sleeping patterns. But the student is not wholly independent, as Barbara Grant points out in her article "Disciplining Students: the construction of student subjectivities." Every student, good and bad is disciplined as he or she must conform to, or at least respond to certain social demands of…. [read more]

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