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Marshall Plan and Its Results in Greece Term Paper

… ¶ … Marshall plan and its results in Greece. The writer explores the work of the Marshall Plan author George Marshall. The writer then explains the plan and its impact on Greece.

Within the history of the world few Americans will be as widely remembered for working toward world peace than George Marshall. Marshall who was named chief of staff of the United States Army during World War II was charged with recruiting and training several million men and women to serve in the armed forces (George Marshall (

Marshall also had the task of planning military tasks and operations that would impact the world on a global level.

While Marshall handled these duties with intelligence and professionalism the most important contribution he made to…. [read more]

Marshall Plan and the Post 911 Global Research Paper

… Marshall Plan and the Post 911 Global War on Terror

Many times in the history of the world, war or its aftermath has threatened catastrophe. Following the end of the First World War, the leaders of the victorious allied nations imposed punishing reparations on defeated Germany. The resultant economic depression and deep resentment has been blamed by many for the rise of Hitler and militant fascism. Hitler's ascent to power led directly to the even greater horrors of World War II. The carnage and destruction that was Europe in 1945 left impressions that were not easily dispelled. The Globe's leaders sought ways to prevent a repeat of the circumstances that had caused the two world wars. The United Nations represented an attempt to bring the…. [read more]

Marshall Plan and Its Results in Greece Term Paper

… Like most of Western Europe in the post-World War II years, Greece
faced many challenges. Greece's problems were a direct result of the war
and occupation by the Axis Powers and a direct result of internal conflicts
between various factions vying for power within the nation. Between World
War II and a brutal Civil War, Greece's infrastructure, people, and economy
were nearly devastated by the late 1940s. The United States' famous
European Recovery Program, more commonly known as the Marshall Plan,
combined with the Truman Doctrine helped rebuild the shambles that was the
Greek government and nation following the stresses of excessive and violent
internal and external conflict.
The need for outside assistance was obvious to the western world in
the years following World War…. [read more]

World War II Economical Term Paper

… Soviet Union grew and developed without any international cooperation, trade and had to produce everything itself. Joseph Stalin proclaimed program of Industrialization which had to turn agricultural state into highly developed industrial country with strong and independent economics and mighty armed forces. This program succeeded and Soviet Union became one of the most industrialized European countries and if analyze its industrial production - he was 3rd after the U.S.A. And Germany in the world.

But Soviet economics and industry didn't stop own development and continued increasing and improving. Stalin knew that German aggression is inevitable and tried to prepare the country to the great war. He also knew that France and Britain would try not to participate in the war and let Hitler whatever he…. [read more]

Europe and America in the Cold War Against the USSR Term Paper

… Europe and America in the Cold War Against the U.S.S.R.

Without the implementation of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, Europe's landscape would have looked very different in the first decade following World War II, and even today, many European areas would not be as prosperous.

Following World War II, Greece and Turkey were prime for the potential to fall under communism and Soviet rule, thus the $400 million in military and economic aid granted under the Truman Doctrine helped to fend off communism and, as Truman believed, prevented an inevitable domino effect throughout the region (Truman pp). Without this aid, Greece and Turkey would have resembled many of the Eastern European countries during the first decade after the War that did fall under…. [read more]

Consequences of the Truman Doctrine Term Paper

… Opposite of the domino theory was the collective security theory, which held that building up allies and friend states would bind them together, especially if the United States offered them free military aid. This collective theory played out in several areas, including Greece and Turkey, and it did help make them our allies, but it alienated others at the same time. Initially, this was called the Military Assistance Program, and ultimately that program helped lead to the formation of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Association that formed after the war and attempted to keep the peace. NATO is made up of members from Europe and the U.S., and it was a military organization designed to repel communism while keeping the peace in Europe.

The passage…. [read more]

How Did the Cold War Begin? Term Paper

… ¶ … Cold War Begin?

After the end of the World War II political and military domination of two the most powerful states (the U.S.A. And USSR) turned into an open resistance. It quickly obtained a form of a cold war, a form of global confrontation, which was subjected to crisis and conflicts. It was total as it spread on all spheres of life: social, economical, military, ideological and political. It was global as it covered all regions of the globe, putting a special stamp on all events of international life, which took place in the period from 1947 till 1989.

A number of scientists have an opinion that transition to the cold war took place already at the end of WWII in the affairs…. [read more]

Shipping Chartering Term Paper

… Future of Shipping

The shipping industry has a long history, but the nature of the business changes over that history. It has been changing in recent years because of the pressures for change caused by internationalization, globalization, technological advances, economic shifts in different parts of the world, and so on. Where the tradition has been for companies to sail their own ships, carrying cargo for a fee, more and more companies are finding different ways to accomplish the same business, such as by chartering vessels for the job at hand, or having other companies handle the procedures as a form of third-party management, or some other approach to cut costs, reduce risk, and yet increase business all at the same time. The changes in the…. [read more]

U.S. Intelligence by Seeking an Initial $400 Thesis

… U.S. Intelligence

By seeking an initial $400 million from Congress to help Greece and Turkey in March 1947, President Harry Truman argued for the support of "free peoples resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures (Pike 2008)." The argument, which later translated into the Truman Doctrine, extended financial and military assistance to countries threatened by communism, such as Greece and Turkey. The fundamental American policy created the U.S. intelligence, which has undergone changes in various aspects. This year, former President George W. Bush described as "extremely significant" a study's finding that U.S. intelligence agencies knew "disturbingly little" about enemy weapons programs (BBC 2009). He said that U.S. intelligence needed "fundamental change" to meet the challenges of the present century (BBC). Senior leaders,…. [read more]

Cold War and Two Identifications Essay

… Cold War

November 9, 1989 saw an enduring symbol of the Cold War between the U.S. And the Soviet Union fall. On that fateful night freedom seeking individuals from East Germany poured across the border after a government announcement indicating that travel restrictions were being removed. Those that crossed into West Berlin were met by throngs of West Germans and together they began chipping away at the steel and concrete edifice which for decades represented the tyranny of the totalitarian Soviet regime ( N.D.). The dismantling of the wall marked the beginning of the end for the Soviet sphere of influence which had permeated throughout Eastern Europe and South East Asia. Less than two years later Eastern Europe had attained freedom from Communist rule, and…. [read more]

Churchill Staline Cold War Essay

… Churchill/Stalin/Cold War

The Cold War: Causes and Aftermath

The Cold War, the war of tensions and nuclear stalemate that characterized the period immediately after the end of World War II to the fall of the Berlin War divided Europe into two warring factions. On one side, the United States and most of the Western European powers it had striven to rebuild as the result of its Marshall Plan stood for freedom, sometimes only in name but often with genuine feeling and commitment. On the other hand, Soviet Russia held Eastern Europe in a grip of fear and terror. Was Stalin simply an evil man? According to Winston Churchill, that was the case. In his famous 1946 "Iron Curtain" speech Churchill stated: "From Stettin in the…. [read more]

Influential Factor in the Evolution Research Paper

… World War II had thus caused a shift in influential power and both the United States and the Soviet Union wanted to exploit the new reconstructed framework of the world. The Soviet Union sought to do so by expanding socialism to countries in Europe, looking thus to dominate states in the sphere whereas the U.S. And other Western nations believed that communist ideology is threatening to both national identity and the ideal of democracy which is why they sought to prevent this from happening. Indeed, among the causal factors that led to the unfolding of the Cold War, the conflict of two competitive ideologies is assumed to be most prominent. Both the U.S. And the Soviet Union were convinced of the superiority of their system…. [read more]

New Deal and the Great Term Paper

… The Soviet Union directly challenged the West in 1948 by initiating a blockade of the western sectors of Berlin, however, the United States airlifted supplies into the city until the blockade was lifted (Cold1 pp). These challenges in Europe led the United States to reverse its traditional policy of avoiding permanent alliances, and in 1949, along with eleven other nations, signed the North Atlantic Treaty, NATO, thus challenging the Communist bloc to form the 1955 Warsaw Treaty Organization as a counterbalance to NATO (Cold1 pp).

At conferences in Tehran in 1943, Yalta in February 1945, and Potsdam in July-August 1945, the Western democracies and the Soviet Union discussed the progress of World War II and the nature of the postwar settlement (Cold2 pp). After the…. [read more]

Cold War Truman 1945-1953 Essay

… It also supported the "quarantine the aggressor" policy Franklin Delano Roosevelt wanted to inflict to hold German and Japanese growth in 1937. This policy (quarantine) recommended the responsibility of public health officials managing a communicable disease. The medical figure of speech widened further than the instantaneous purposes of the Truman Doctrine in the sense that the metaphors put together with fire as well as flood descriptions evocative of disaster presented the United States with an unproblematic changeover to express military confrontation in coming years with communist forces in Korea and Vietnam. By availing ideological disparities in life or death conditions, Truman was in a position to drum up support for this communism controlling policy (Denise M. Bostdorff, 2008)

Among the downfalls of Truman lies the…. [read more]

Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy Term Paper

… Cold War was the state of affairs between 1946 to 1991 of quiescent political conflict between the former USSR and satellite nations and USA and its allies. This was represented by political tension, military conflict, hostility of nations to one another, and economic competition. The conflict existed on covert rather than overt grounds with it expressed through espionage, proxy wars, military race arms and building of nuclear arsenal, as well as other competition such as race to the moon, wooing vulnerable states to their aid, appeals to neutral nations, via propaganda, and so forth.

Occurring after a short-lived friendship seen during pact against Nazi Germany, the U.S.S.R. And America spent the next decades bitterly warring against each other and each deeply suspicious of and hostile…. [read more]

Creation Myth Analysis Term Paper

… The Law was both cause and effect in the recreation of the race after the Babylonian exile."

Unless this fact is taken into account, Wellhausen cautioned, "one will above all fail to understand the great work accomplished by the prophets in destroying Old Israel, and preparing the way first for Judaism, and then for the Gospel"; however, Wellhausen did not merely employ literary arguments as his predecessors had done. In fact, he went so far as to track the development of religious forms and practices and provided an examination of the religious cult of the Hebrews, their ceremonials and holy places, and an analysis of the historical books of the Old Testament. Furthermore, this historian had larger plans for the future including an analysis of…. [read more]

Cold War the Heightened Tension, Which Existed Term Paper

… ¶ … Cold War

The heightened tension, which existed between the two major powers of the world in the period after the Second World War until the end of nineteen eighties, completely dominated world politics during the later part of the 20th century. Although the possession of nuclear weapons by the United States and the Soviet Union prevented a direct confrontation between them, several proxy wars were fought around the world as the Soviet Union attempted to spread the doctrine of communism and the U.S. was equally determined to prevent it. This essay is a response to the following questions:

Why did the alliance between the U.S. And the U.S.S.R. collapse so thoroughly after the WW2?

Was it a personal dispute between FDR, Truman, and…. [read more]

Lysistrata of Aristophanes' 11 Plays Term Paper

… In this case, the warring elements of the women and the men absurdly pun on the concept of the warring states of Sparta and Greece.

Indeed, Lysistrata, in speaking to the men convened before her and the naked Peace by her side, attempts to argue for a unified Hellenistic world. In this speech, she points out all of the things that the warring parties share in common:

First I must bring a reproach against you that applies equally to both sides. At Olympia, and Thermopylae, and Delphi, and a score of other places too numerous to mention, you celebrate before the same altars ceremonies common to all Hellenes; yet you go cutting each other's throats, and sacking Hellenic cities, when all the while the barbarian…. [read more]

Flags of Convenience Term Paper

… The oil spill was so dramatic that it immediately began to destroy and paralyze fishing in the local area while Portugal waited to find out how badly their immediate eco system was going to be affected by the spill.

The spill blacked out almost 300 kilometers of Spanish coastline. It was filled with dying sea birds and washed up fish by the countless thousands who were tainted, poisoned and killed in the polluted mess following the spill.

Local Spanish fisherfolk anxiously watched whether a southwesterly wind might drive ashore yet another oil slick with another 10,000 tonnes of escaped fuel oil, provoking a major environmental catastrophe on a coastline with a delicate nature balance including 90 marine species, which is largely dependent for the sea…. [read more]

Cold War Origin After WWII Research Proposal

… Cold War

During World War II, the United States and Soviet Union were one in their fight against the Axis powers led Germany. Adolf Hitler of Germany wanted to conquer Europe at that time. He instilled fear in the hearts of the Jews in Europe as Germany systematically persecuted and killed approximately two and half million Jews in various Nazi consecration camps. Germany was flexing its military might in Europe and the Soviet Union and Great Britain stood against the onslaught of the German military. The United States was not initially part of the war; the U.S. was primarily providing logistical support to the Allied powers which was then spearheaded by Winston Churchill's Great Britain in their defense against the expansionist policy of Germany.

The…. [read more]

Terrorist Attack on the U.S. Marine Compound in Beirut Airport in 1983 Term Paper

… Terrorist Attack on the U.S. Marine Compound at the Beirut Airport in 1983

In the early morning hours of October 23rd, 1983, a truckload of explosives would introduce America into a new era of terrorism. Forever gone would be the days where terrorist attacks were small-scale, poorly thought out, schemes. In its stead was the new breed of terrorist. These terrorists, from that point forward, would be well-trained, well-armed, and well-informed with the latest intelligence. Oftentimes, they would now be working for legitimate State governments, governments looking for underhanded means of obtaining their objective, with the deniability of the use of a terrorist outfit. These newly evolved terrorist were no longer afraid to take on big targets for fear of not getting supporters. They had…. [read more]

Evolution of Project Management Research Paper



"Archetypically, Apollo manifests as an image of the modern project manager-one who works well within the interior of her or his organization, moving effortlessly across and between horizontal boundaries, but does not adopt the necessities of power in order to move vertically"

(Henderson, Interpretation and Discussion Section ¶ 11).

History Confirms Project Management's Value

Professions like architecture, engineering, medicine, economic, technology, astronomy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, etc. all have their own well-documented history. As a professional architect, the researcher asserts that project management also deserves a relevant recount of its history. Since ancient times, people throughout the world have been building projects that enrich one's cultural heritage and have contributed to project management's remarkable, relevant evolution. The pyramids of Egypt and…. [read more]

Sociology History of Business Science Research Proposal

… Delimitations

Today, modern business systems help an increasingly globalized world function in seamless ways. In fact, English is rapidly becoming the lingua franca of the business world and transnational borders and cross-cultural factors no longer operate as major barriers to commerce. Further, a wide range of financial instruments exist such as letters of credit and bills of lading whose purpose and operation are readily understood by businesspeople from New York to New Delhi. Business correspondence too has a fairly standardized format that businesspeople all over the world both use and understand and all of these features have helped create a modern business system that is both efficient and effective in achieving the movement of goods and services around the world. All of these business systems,…. [read more]

Truman and the Atomic Bomb Thesis

… Truman and the Atomic Bomb

Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman became the 33rd president of the United States in 1945. He was born in Lamar, Missouri in 1884 but grew up in Independence. He was a prosperous farmer in Missouri until he became a captain in the field artillery in France during World War I. Back in the United States, he married Elizabeth Virginia Wallace. He became active in the Democratic Party. He was elected judge of the Jackson County Court in 1922. He became a senator in 1934. During World War II, he was head of the Senate war investigating committee. This committee looked into the waste and corruption situation. It also saved as much as $15 billion. He remained a senator until…. [read more]

Pedagogic Model: Teaching Technology in Special Education Dissertation

… " (Dougiamas, 1998) Such trivial constructivism, though, is the bedrock from which Glaserfelds more radical constructivism springs. He continues to state that because knowledge is constructed by the learner, and because no two learners are the same, knowledge itself is not absolute. There is a degree to which knowledge is an illusion, and every individual constructs their own conception of reality which (while susceptible to the demands of "real" or normal reality) does not necessarily align with the normal paradigm. Constructivism does embrace this relativistic and existential approach to reality, but it also holds as a primary value the idea of constraint which enables the thinkers to participate in social interaction and mainstream reality. (Glasersfeld)

One interesting area of constructionist theory is…. [read more]

History of Communication Timeline Term Paper

… This is important in the history of communication because the rise of urbanization that would accompany the birth of capitalism is overall responsible for a certain measure of social organization that would result in overall technological innovations, in addition to the invention of a new social category: the bus driver.

SOURCE: Nicholas Hammond (Editor), The Cambridge Companion to Pascal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz -- co-inventor with Sir Isaac Newton of mathematical calculus -- works on Pascal's designs to create a cylindrical gear calculator. This is important in the history of communication for the same reason as Pascal's computation machine was. (See above.)

SOURCE: Wikipedia, "Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz"

Leibniz first describes binary mathematics, which will become the basis of contemporary…. [read more]

Concept of Disease a General Medical Practice and Homeopathic Medicine Perspective Term Paper

… ¶ … Disease: A General Medical Practice and Homeopathic Medicine Perspective

General Medicine Concepts of Disease

Homeopathic Medicine Concepts of Disease

The Concept of Disease: A General Medical Practice and Homeopathic Medicine Perspective

We shall find that, even when there is no clear differentiation of the leech from other members of society, mankind has theories of the causation of disease, carries out proceedings which correspond with those we call diagnosis and prognosis, and finally has modes of treatment which, even if they have little in common with our own remedies, nevertheless may be regarded as making up a definite system of therapeutics. - G. Elliot Smith, 1915

Most people today are familiar with dozens of conditions that are certain are diseases, such as influenza, chicken…. [read more]

Gary Powers Spy Plane Issue Term Paper

… For years, the planes were beyond the capability of Soviet planes and antiaircraft weapons.

At the time the general policy of the United States was to publicly state that most "shoot-downs, were nothing more than weather reconnaissance flights, or errant weather balloons."

President Eisenhower halted the U-2 flights in September 1959, but they were resumed April 9, 1960 to prepare for the May 1960 Paris Summit Conference. However, as the U-2's were being fitted with more sophisticated intelligence systems, it became more difficult to deny the United States was involved in airborne intelligence. And this U.S. policy of denial literally came crashing down when one of its U-2s not only crashed, but its pilot was captured.

American pilot Francis Gary Powers was shot down on…. [read more]

Cold War and the Canada U.S. Relationship 1945-1957 Term Paper

… ¶ … United States and Canada has always been one of constant change. During the post-World War II era and through the emergence of the Cold War, the relationship between these neighboring countries continued to develop and change drastically, forever altering the way in which the two nations dealt with one another. During this time, Canada certainly followed some of the United States' foreign and defense policies, but the post-cold war era also proved Canada to be a self-standing nation, capable and willing to create its own policies based on the needs of the country.

This two-part paper will examine how the emergence of the Cold War affected the relationship between Canada and the United States in a positive way, allowing for an advancement of…. [read more]

Political Framework of EU Thesis

… As a result, European nations looked forward to developing nations such as Asia, Africa and South America for the purchase of these necessities. For developing nations this was an opportunity to become known as suppliers of grist, therefore, they were willing to enter into this trade agreement. However, what European Leaders wanted was more than a simple trade agreement; their aim was to enforce their rules on these nations, making them colonies of the infinite European empire. Therefore, they entered into the agreement after setting out a lot of rules for the dependent nations to follow. As time passed by, these rules made the European leaders indirectly administer the nation, thus the nations became a part of European empire. History reveals that the imperialism is…. [read more]

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