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Mixed Methods Primary and Secondary Research Research Paper

… ¶ … mixed methods; primary and secondary research as different research methods. The study identifies qualitative research as a research method that immense into the phenomenon to gain deeper understanding in the research interest. Qualitative research uses tools such as interview, focus group, and observation for data collection. However, quantitative research uses positivist approach to gain understanding in the research interest. Quantitative research uses instruments such as survey, and questionnaires to collect data, and a researcher is able to correlate mass of data to produce research findings. The shortcomings identified in both quantitative and qualitative research makes this paper to suggest mixed methods as other type of research method.


Research is defined as the systematic system of searching for knowledge to solve existing problems,…. [read more]

Theory of Measurement Case Study

… ¶ … Measurement

Voss and Parasuraman (2003)

and Zikmund (2003)

define measurement as the process by which a property of a phenomenon of interest of the researcher is described by assigning numbers to it in a valid and reliable manner in order to convey information regarding the property that is being measured. Performance in the research class which the property being measured by the instructor assigning them grades from a to F, numbers say from 1 to 10, percentages from 0 to 100 or two letters such as P. And F. depending on their performance. A student who is given a grade of a is one who has performed excellently while F. represents students who have failed. In terms of numbers, 10 would represent a…. [read more]

African-American Gender Gap in Higher Education Research Paper

… This messaging is likely to have had a strong impact upon the psyches of generations of African-American children that is not easily eradicated.

However, given that both African-American men and women have experienced the legacy of racism, the reasons for the gender divide remain unclear. There is also the question of the extent to which trends in the larger American community regarding the education of men and women may be affecting this trend. This is why a quantitative approach is needed, so the educational perceptions of a wide variety of racial categories can be assessed as well as obtaining a specific focus upon the experiences of African-Americans.

Ethical considerations

Regarding the quantitative portion of the assignment, responses to the surveys of all participants will be…. [read more]

Eveland's Research Design Is Quasi-experimental Essay

… The rules set up clear boundaries between research and practiced medicine. The rules define or provide a sort of cost-benefit analysis with regard to using human test subjects as a part of research.

Furthermore these federal rules provide clearcut guidelines in the selection process of research or experimentation involving human subjects. Finally, the rules make clear that there must be informed consent of the human subjects regarding the nature of the research settings. These rules were influenced by a document called the Belmont Report that was published shortly before the Federal Human Subjects Protection rules were established. The overall intention of the rules and the commission that governs or oversees these kinds of issues within behavioral research, is to make sure that the use of…. [read more]

Mixed Methods Research Study Annotated Bibliography

… Subjects and setting:

1.). How were the study subjects obtained?

The 30 students who began the program came from classes that approximated the population of an entire school

2.). What was the method of obtaining subjects and its appropriateness?

Students chose to participate in the treatment (class). Absent any given criteria to establish appropriateness or not, the method seems appropriate because if students choose traditional rather than screen-based literacy, they would not choose the treatment, and thus their absence in the sample would not affect generalization to the population 'multi-media learners' very much.

3.). Is the size of the sample adequate to the research design and variables? Why or why not?

The size of the sample is adequate to establish validity of the questions in…. [read more]

Mixed Methods and the Study of Organizational Thesis

… Mixed Methods and the Study of Organizational Culture

Modern organizational theory implies that a close consultation with labor and managerial personnel at every level of organization in the completion of key decision-making tasks may demarcate the difference between operational success and failure. Evidence within an organization that such consultation is not properly occurring should provoke an evaluation of the leadership within said context. A variety of methods are available to this end.

Most immediately, an intuitive qualitative approach becomes apparent as a valid way to comprehend the impact on overall employee morale, collective organizational effectiveness and individual performance indexes as a result of the lack of democratic process in the implementation of procedural, operational or regulatory changes. The employees themselves should be offered the opportunity…. [read more]

Barcelona Declaration of Measurement Research Paper

… Influence is the outcome of engagement's impact on the audience. Their most potential action after being gone through the awareness process of brand will predict the positive or negative influence of the brand and will assist in the value creation of the public relation program to the business effect. The ultimate phase is the action step. After the influence process when discussed about it with family and friends has the target audience taken any step forward like clicking on the website, placing an order, recommending it to any fiend etc. The ultimate result of these aspects and their factors is the value creation. The axis on which value is created is (Z-axis) which shows that values is created either through increased revenue, or cost cutting,…. [read more]

Quantitative Positivist and Qualitative Interpretivist Methodological Approaches Design and Causation Essay

… Social Epidemiology -- Methods

Describe quantitative/positivist and qualitative/interpretevist methodological approaches; include examples of their research methods of data collection.

In conducting social research, the design used is either quantitative or qualitative, or oftentimes, a combination of both. Quantitative or positivist research design aims to describe or analyze a specific phenomenon occurring in a specific population or group

Qualitative or interpretevist research design, meanwhile, provides an in-depth illustration of the phenomenon; rather than providing a general description of it to a specific population or group, the dimensions surrounding the phenomenon are uncovered, explored and studied intensively for greater understanding of the phenomenon.

In effect, quantitative or positivist research design aims to provide a general 'picture' of the phenomenon in a specific population, while qualitative or interpretive…. [read more]

Mixed Method Qualitative Research Paper

… Equally by keeping detailed records of what is said and of what happens qualitative research does not reduce the complexity of social life to easily manipulated equations" (Schostak n.d.).

However, mixed methodology research sees problems in both approaches. "Quantitative research often 'forces' responses or people into categories that might not 'fit' in order to make meaning. Qualitative research, on the other hand, sometimes focuses too closely on individual results and fails to make connections to larger situations or possible causes of the results. Rather than discounting either approach for its drawbacks, though, researchers should find the most effective ways to incorporate elements of both to ensure that their studies are as accurate and thorough as possible" (The qualitative vs. quantitative debate, 2012, Writing at CSU).…. [read more]

Total Compensation Methods and Benefits Essay

… The employees are particularly important element of a business and the strategies to compensate the human capital should also be in line with the desired impact on the organizational culture. The organizational culture is also developed on the basis of management strategies. The culture of an organization has a profound impact on the employee's behavior. The employee's perception about the organizational culture is determinant of the impact it has on the performance. The higher management and organizational leadership should develop a strategy that has profound impact on the employee's performance and it is also enables them to achieve the desired results (Armstrong et al., 2005).


The research about total compensation programs and strategies provides an in-depth understanding of the valuable process as well as…. [read more]

Infertility Is Not Only Recognized Essay

… The standard self-report questionnaires are the most commonly used means for obtaining first-hand information from participants regarding their feelings or thoughts. The efficiency of these questionnaires in this study is because they were time and cost-effective. Participants could report their feelings and thoughts in an easy way and report them to online therapists. Furthermore, the questionnaires enabled participants / respondents to be more truthful than a face-to-face interview involving personal questions ("Research Methods in Psychology," 2010).

In contrast, qualitative content analysis was effective in the study because it's usually used to evaluate media like television and books. When using the qualitative content analysis, a sample is selected and coding units like concepts are operationally defined. The researchers included collaborative study through which feedback from respondents…. [read more]

Env Design Anthropometry Physical Characteristics Term Paper

… Impact of winter coats on drivers)

2. For Standing Personnel

Center of gravity

Zone of convenient reach

Design of Work Surfaces

Horizontal work surfaces

Normal Area: "Area that can be conveniently reached with a sweep of the forearm while the upper arm hangs in a natural position to the side" (p. 432).

Maximum Area: "Area that could be reached by extending arm from shoulder" (p. 432)

Work Surface Height = height of upper surface measured from floor

Seated work surface height and arm posture (elbows at 90 degrees)

Seated work surface height and thigh clearance (accommodate thighs of largest user)

General Principles for Seated Work Surfaces

1. If possible, make it adjustable

2 Work surface level places working height at elbow height

3. Adequate thigh…. [read more]

Proponents of Evidence Based Instruction Research Paper

… There appear to be a large number of empirically validated teaching methods available to teachers. Which one should they use? Perhaps the real value in empirically-based methods is to assist teachers in working with particular subgroups of children such as developmentally disabled children, those with specific learning disabilities, ADHD, etc. where the research is more specialized and clear.

Of course there are still many who believe that teaching is an art and that the hunches or intuitions of the teacher offer more utility in the classroom than scientific research (WWC, 2012). When considering the above points one would be tempted to advocate for more single case design studies than for large group comparisons as these are easier for teachers to understand and learn from. From…. [read more]

Critiquing Quantitative Qualitative or Mixed Methods Studies Essay

… ¶ … health-related articles on the same subject with the difference being that one must be quantitative only in terms of research methodology and the other is either mix-method or qualitative only. The topic for both articles relates to the healthiness and overall content of breakfast cereals. The Berketova study is mixed method while the McKevith study is quantitative only. The author of this response, per the assignment, will consider the field of the studies, will analyze the two different overall research approaches of the two studies, reflect on the overall value of both quantitative and qualitative research methods, will contrast the types of information that are present in both articles and methods, formulate a response to the claim that qualitative research is not real…. [read more]

Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice Essay

… The data collected in routine care is aimed at ensuring the patient receives the highest standard of care. Therefore, principles such as anonymity are not ensured because the data is only meant to be for provision of care. Forms used in routine care often have the patient's name or number and can be easily traced to a particular patient. Secondly, in routine care, interviewer bias is not a concern because the interviewer rarely has an angle since they are only collecting data aimed at ensuring the patient gets the appropriate care. The principle of supplementary data is common in both the routine data collection and in research because the nurse has to be observant about the patient's surrounding. Principles that are new include those of…. [read more]

External Market Forces Methodology Chapter

… ¶ … external market forces have a measureable effect on the manner in which small, private, non-profit higher educational institutions in Jamaica are managed in both economically good times and bad. Additionally, the purpose is to determine to what (if any) extent external forces influence creativity and innovation within the administration of the institutional strategies which those small, private educational facilities employ during both good markets and bad markets. To accomplish this purpose the design of the research will be quantitative in nature, and will seek to confirm results with hard numbers.

Quantitative, correlation analysis of such abstract human features as innovation might at first seem misplaced, but such techniques have been commonly used in similar research in order to yield more concrete and directly…. [read more]

Tenure: Perceptions of Online Professors Essay

… Post Tenure

The Perceptions of Online Professors Regarding Tenure and Post-Tenure Review

Over the course of several months, researchers here have compiled a wealth of resources relating to the subjects of academic tenure and post-tenure review. These resources have served in the preliminary capacity to prepare for a focused scientific inquiry on the subject, producing a full spectrum of opinions and findings relating to the institution of tenure. Among these opinions and findings are those endorsing the importance of tenure; arguing on the behalf of its protection; espousing such imperatives as the need for academic freedom; and responding with defensiveness, resistance and concern over the notion of post-tenure review. Conversely, research has also produced a bevy of opinions and…. [read more]

Distance Learning an Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Student Progress in Florida Virtual School Dissertation

… Distance Learning Intro Revised

Hello Kevin

Thank you for submitting the initial draft for my review. Here is my reply.

INTRO -- Is uploaded with requested revisions

Working on it -- when do you need it?

Waiting for your overview of the research problems, etc., the raw data, and the data from the state or national testing statistics that you refer.

Quotes: The original instructions did not say anything about not including direct quotes. I will do my best, but if you find they are not useful, then please, remove them and paraphrase in your voice.

Thank you for incorporating the questionnaire. I like the concept of the questionnaire, rather than using only database statistics. It shouldn't be a problem to obtain data; it could…. [read more]

Business Research Methods Determining the Target Market Research Paper

… Business Research Methods

Determining the target market of a product or service is just one of the key stages that companies must overcome to successfully create not only preference and loyalty for the product or service, but to also strengthen its (product's or service's) brand equity. Strong brand equity requires not only delivering the functional qualities and emotional connection between the product/service and the consumer, but it also entails overall customer satisfaction. Thus, strong brand equity is characterized by a strong product or service positioning combined with customer satisfaction, resulting to brand preference and loyalty.

In determining these concepts contributing to brand equity (i.e., identification of target market, brand positioning, and customer satisfaction), it is critical determine if indeed, the product or service being marketed…. [read more]

Marketing Channels and Methods Term Paper

… "What is the right strategy to follow in a highly competitive market in which demand is relatively flat?" stated one executive recently. "The answer for us is to identify what our niche is in the market. For us, it is producing ... hamburgers." Healthy hamburgers! (Collins, 2002) Stressing return traffic for those hamburgers is an acknowledgement that McDonald's "fries and soda are where the fat [profit] margins really lie," for fast food companies -- but that does not have to mean fat consumers! (Munarriz, 2003)

Core Strategy

A value proposition is a clear statement of the tangible results a customer gets from using a company's products and services (Konrath, 2005). McDonald's has always offered its customers financial value, in the form of cheap, tasty food.…. [read more]

Marketing Mix an Integrated Term Paper

… Public relations can also help the consumer gain understanding of the company and its message. This is especially important because there is a limit to the believability of advertising messages, with most consumers natural skeptical of anything stated in an advertisement. Effective public relations can overcome this hurdle because the message is not presented in an advertising format and will not be perceived as trying to indicate any specific message. In this way, an overall message about the company can be communicate, but in a subtle way where the consumer is able to come to their own conclusion. Finally, an effective public relations strategy will help to build trust in the company. This will be important in developing a strong relationship with the consumer.

The…. [read more]

International Management Research Methods the Literature Review Thesis

… International Management Research Methods

The literature review for Wan, Hui & Tsang's article "Factors affecting Singaporeans' acceptance of international postings" contributes to the study in several key ways. It sets the framework for the discussion, provides insight into previous research on the subject, gives international context and it also determines the importance and relevance of the study by illustrating where the study fits with contemporary research. These are consistent with the established objectives for literature reviews in general (University of Toronto, 2009).

In setting the framework for the discussion, the literature review of this paper explains the basic themes concerning the decision to accept an overseas assignment, and further details that the present paper is going to address the issue with specific regard to Singaporeans.…. [read more]

Scientific Research Collect Methods Comment Essay

… The researcher will manipulate one variable and control the others. The quasi-non experimental research method is similar to the experimental research group however there is no control group and there is only one level of measurement (Trochim, 2006). Empiricism is an important part experimental research. Empiricism is based on the researcher utilization of their sensory system such as being able to see or taste the observable data, which is based on evidence. Positivism is concept that some researcher believes experimental research is the only way to obtain true, objective knowledge. Interpretivism the collection of data is based on pure facts.

Criticial theory discussion groups are utilized by individuals to share ideas, discuss topics of importance and gain insight into specified topics. A case study is…. [read more]

Ergonomics the Relation Research Paper

… Circadian rhythm, related to neurological functioning

Upon stimulation, the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus stimulates release or inhibition of melatonin, serotonin, cortisol, and other hormones that regulate various body functions (p. 9).

Qualitative Research in Ergonomics:

Methods of Qualitative Research


systematic qualitative observational methods individual affect observation (emotional responses)

detailed description of environment

Focus Groups


Consumer surveys

Features of Qualitative Research

Narrative descriptions plus analysis

Emphasis on words, actions, and their meanings

Limitations of Qualitative Research

Too much data/data overload

Researcher bias

Lack of external…. [read more]

Justification: Assessment of Proteome Changes in Model Research Proposal

… ¶ … Justification: Assessment of Proteome Changes in Model Bacteria in Response to Antibiotic Treatment Using Combined Mass Spectrometry and Bioinformatics Techniques

The following research proposal describes the investigation of proteomic changes in a model bacteria after exposure to a previously validated antibiotic agent. This research is situated in a context of growing need for antibiotic development in response to growing resistance, which requires a greater understanding of internal bacterial mechanisms. A mixed methodology approach combining techniques of mass spectrometry and bioinformatics is selected and described for this research in response to two research purposes: that of better identifying proteomic composition and mechanism and antibiotic impact, and in vetting the methodology implemented as an effective means of investigation. Justification of this methodology is also provided.…. [read more]

Measurement in Mixed Methods Design Thesis

… ¶ … Post Tenure Review

The issue of post-tenure review gives rise to a wide divergence of perspectives. As a measure designed to prevent the abuses of the tenure system that are alleged to protect professors who are inherently lazy, unmotivated and declining in capability with age, it is widely debated both on the grounds of its philosophical imperative and its practicality. With both of these called into question be a collective faculty class which viewed post-tenure review as an attack on academic freedom and earned job security, the proposed study here would proceed to engage the thesis that there is little evidence to suggest that post-tenure review is effective at improving the educational conditions which it is intended to address. Indeed, "institutions have had…. [read more]

Social Science Research Are Qualitative Essay

… Human behavior must be experienced to be understood. If researchers perform an analysis which requires an effort to decompose a phenomenon they miss out on many of the true meanings of the action. The subjectivist adheres to the notion that human behavior can only be understood in terms of meaning and in the purview of natural sciences. Thus, phenomenologists believe that the measurement-oriented, mechanistic models of explanation that are supported by the positivist approach are not appropriate to understand human behavior (Blalock, 1984). This approach strongly supports the notion that researchers should acquire understanding of the ways and the meanings in which the members of a group or society in general create and shape their social roles by way of their subjective interpretations of events.…. [read more]

Program Evaluation Home and Community-Based Waiver Services Essay

… Program Evaluation

Home And Community-Based Waiver Services (HCBS) program is an assistance that allows reimbursement for certain chronically ill, disable and elderly people who are not otherwise covered by the Medical aid program. The debate over the rising costs of the institutional healthcare has led to the passage of Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1981. (Miller, 1992). Under the HCBS program, people remain in their homes and communities, and the waivers allow people to receive services that are not covered under the traditional Medicaid program. Since 1981, states have used the autonomy of Section 1915(c) under Social Security Act to establish home and community-based waiver programs. Under this program, the states provide wide range of services to the participants, and the legislation allow states…. [read more]

Verification of Interpretation -- Trustworthiness Term Paper

… The level of theory development may also indicate qualitative methods. When advanced theories exist to explain a group of phenomena, relationships and testable hypotheses can be generated and tested through controlled experimentation. Even if there are only focus areas and broad insights into the phenomena, directed assessments, evaluations, and co relational studies can be performed. If there is little to no theory, of it the theory is available is speculative or anecdotal, then descriptive studies are most useful. A useful

Qualitative Methods

Trochim (2002), "a qualitative approach is a general way of thinking about conducting qualitative research. It describes, either explicitly or implicitly, the purpose of the qualitative research, the role of the researcher, the stages of research, and the method of data analysis." According…. [read more]

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