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Media's Effect on Culture Annotated Bibliograhy Continued Term Paper



Factors Causing Ill-Health in our Culture: Normal Girls Pressed to be Abnormally Slim (2003) Web4Health Online available at

This work asks the question of "How does media affect body image of women and which risks are associated with these effects? What is the media effect on body image of women? Are Normal Teen Girls pressed to be abnormally slim? The questions are answered in the statement of a certified psychologist and certified psychotherapist Gunborg Palme who states: "The message society gives to those girls is full of contradictions. On one hand it emphasizes an abnormally slim female figure as ideal and on the other they are tempted to eat unhealthy fattening junk food. This media effect on…. [read more]

Media Violence on Children's Social Article Review

… In this regard, Garbardino et al. report that, "Children exposed to gun violence may experience negative short- and long-term psychological effects, including anger, withdrawal, posttraumatic stress, and desensitization to violence. All of these outcomes can feed into a continuing cycle of violence" (2002, p. 73).

As with other types of violence in the media, there are some groups of young people who are at distinctly higher risk of experiencing these adverse outcomes, including (a) young people who have already been injured by gunfire, (b) young people who witness gunplay first-hand as well as (c) young people who are exposed to violence in the media (Garbardino et al., 2002). Depending on the level and type of such exposures, Garbardino and his associates conclude that young people…. [read more]

Media Violence the Potential Relationship Essay

… Instead, the burden of proof lies with those proposing a causal link between media violence and aggressive behavior, and in this case they have utterly failed to meet that burden.

The debate discussed in this essay will likely not be completed any time soon, and further research is clearly needed to better understand the relationship between media violence and aggressive behavior. While the extant research has demonstrated a relationship between the two, the nature of this relationship remains indistinct. While preference for violent media can help predict the likelihood that someone will engage in aggressive behavior, this is very different from saying that violent media actually causes that behavior. Nevertheless, the notion that violent media causes actual violence has become extremely popular both in the…. [read more]

Media Archaelogy and Videogames Essay

… The author lists a variety of other women who have played an important role in media archaeology. The point is that there is no person whose work is negligible or indeed of more vital importance simply because of their gender.

Like the changes we experience in technology and communications today, there is also a change in our view of society in terms of class and gender. Indeed, the greater accessibility of media by everybody has leveled the playing field in the social and corporate worlds to a greater extent than ever before.

Even in gaming, women and men have equal access. In the online world, one's gender, class, and any other physical attributes are disguised behind the face offered as an alter ego in the…. [read more]

Media Technology A-Level Coursework

… Media Technology

Explain the concepts of agenda-setting and framing. In your explanation, identify a specific example of each from the news site I've reproduced on the last page of this exam, and explain how it is an example of the concept in question. (If you feel you cannot find an example for one of them, explain clearly what might count as an example.)

Framing presents a meaningful but fractured paradigm for communication scholars (Papacharissi & Oliveira, 2008). Framing has direct implications for how people perceive news stories and other items that they do not encounter directly. Furthermore, framing can also sets the agenda that the news is trying to portray. In the sample front page provided in The New York Times, there are several examples…. [read more]

Media Violence and Children's Aggressive Behavior Annotated Bibliography

… Media Violence and Childrens Aggressive Behavior

Escobar-Chaves, S. L . & Anderson, C.A. (2008). Media and Risky Behaviors. The Future of Children 18.1.

Because contemporary children have access to electronic media on a daily basis, it is virtually impossible for them not to risk being negatively influenced as a result. This certainly takes its toll from society, considering that young people engage in a series of harmful activities trying to replicate what they see in the media. The effects are not expected to emerge for a number of years, as "media violence causes an increase in the likelihood of future aggressive and violent behavior" (Escobar-Chaves & Anderson 2008). This article presents violence as being only one of the many damaging effects of the media, given…. [read more]

Media / Favorite Form Essay

… The whole purpose of the social responsibility theory is the notion that media's first allegiance is to the public for general edification purposes. The media then is responsible for keeping the public informed, aware, and current on the sort of social news that is the most meaningful. Oftentimes, artists may address social issues (in CDs) that are not given significant coverage in the mainstream media. Problems such as homelessness, drug addiction, and the debilitating effects of violence are routinely discussed within socially conscious music. Other messages are decidedly more political -- such as the outpouring of Southern based artists regarding the slow response and reaction to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 on the part of the federal government. This sort of outpouring -- again, which is…. [read more]

Media Is Playing Reaction Paper

… (Archibald, 2010) ("What does Arizona's Immigration Law Do," 2010)

How might the issue affect U.S. economy and labor force?

The way that issue could affect the labor force is by reducing the number of unskilled workers in the short-term. However, over the long run the various provisions could force employers to act responsibly. This is how they will be able to effectively crack down on illegal immigration by holding both parties accountable for their actions.

If you were a manager affected by this issue and its media coverage, what inclusion strategies from this week's readings might you implement to moderate the media's effect on your employees and promote inclusion in the workplace?

The first step would be to let all employees know about the changes…. [read more]

Media Violence and Youth Article Critique

… Still, former violent beliefs and previous violence of students (followed by parents' physical violence) were also important factors that did not confirm part of this hypothesis. The researchers did well to confirm these facts by utilizing regression analysis for each of the dependent variables during the time the second assessment was administered. The results also showed that a dearth of warmth and well-being in school also contributed to violent media exposure (Hopf et al., 2008, p. 85).

The results of hypothesis two indicate that horror and violent films are the strongest contributor to violent behavior, but that electronic video games are the strongest contributor to delinquency. These results were predicated upon a composite score of early media violence as relating to the aforementioned two sources…. [read more]

Media if 911 Essay

… d.).

As CNN points out in its "Top Ten Stories of 2004" article, the debate over gay marriage in the United States was flaming during 2004 but it never really took fire in the news due to the other major world events such as the war in Iraq, the questionability of Bush's leadership, the failure of the Democrats to position a valid candidate to oppose Bush, and ultimately, the tsunami. The media's main topics of discussion centered squarely on terrorism -- on the Bush war, on the validity of that war vis-a-vis the 9/11 commission as well as public opinion, and the fears gripping the American public related to terrorism. Terrorist attacks in Spain escalated global fears that the terrorists were winning; even Chechen rebels…. [read more]

Media Audiences Marxist Media Theorists Essay

… However no little has been done to actually understand the notion of Mediatization but some media researchers have come up with some terms concerning Mediatization and ways of developing a concept that is more coherent to understand the term Mediatization as being social and culture.

The term Mediatization is used in describing the media's influence over research. Some people argue that media is not analytic concept however it is an ambiguous term that is used to refer to an increasing cultural as well as, the social significance of mass media plus other forms of communications which are technically mediated. From this perspective, it is clear that media plays a significant role in production and circulation of interpretations of the science Lundby, K. (2009).

The term…. [read more]

Media Framing Mosque at Ground Zero Research Paper

… ¶ … media framing in relation to the construction of a mosque at ground zero. We identify the various frames used by various media houses in America and compare and contrast them. We analyze the related literature and the basic concepts involved in media framing. A general overview of the concept of media framing is also provided.

Entman (1993) describes framing as a scattered concept where previous researchers lack clear conceptual meanings and depend on context-based definitions, rather than general applicability. Brosius and Eps (1995) proceeds that framing may not be clear in explication and generally used but can be seen as a metaphor which does not convert directly into research setting.

While different authors agree that there is lack of commonality in the definition…. [read more]

Media Exposure in Body Image Research Paper

… When become part of the statistical analysis, the media exposure measures did not appear to have substantial connections to internalization of the thin suitable (projected idealized figures). Total TV exposure and dramatization exposure appeared to have considerable connections to internalization of the thin suitable however their effect appeared to be eclipsed by various other aspects. This outcome contributes to the concerns about the importance of total TV exposure vs. exposure to certain categories, and their association with girls' approval of slimness (projected idealized figures) as a social and cultural worth. Nonetheless, the absence of proof of a connection in between genre-based exposure and some thin-ideal truth shows needs to be seen thoroughly due to the manipulated nature of the exposure measures. The absence of a…. [read more]

Media Is an Extremely Powerful Essay

… Bibliography

Croteau, D., & Hoynes, W. (2001). The business of Media. California: Pine Forge Press.

Daily Source Org. (2005-2012). Current problems in Media. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Daily Source:

Part Two

Media is produced primarily to serve public interest. One can say, the media content, in one way or another, reflects the culture and norms of the country it is produced in. In this globalized world making one's tradition popular is difficult, luckily media has given people the opportunity to show and promote their culture via movies, video games and social networking sites (Croteau & Hoynes, The Business of Media, 2001). But recently this trend has turned the other way round and it is now the media that shapes one's culture. The culture…. [read more]

Media Film and Essay

… Through the magic of sampling (the process of choosing discrete parts to represent a continuous whole), almost anything -- text, sound, speech, film, graphics, animations, music -- can be digitized, and whatever can be digitized can be presented on a computer and transmitted over a network. (EMCPP "Digital Convergence" 2012)

Digitization allows for many processes and changes to the original media form. (Pavlik Media in the Digital Age 2008) Digitization is the process by which films shot on 35mm film can be edited with nonlinear editing software such as Avid and Final Cut Pro. The machine that conducts this process from film to bytes is called a telecine, so that the film now has a digital intermediate. The film, once a physical entity, is has…. [read more]

Media Is Having on Political Essay

… When in reality, they are politically motivated ideas that are questioning the judgment of zoo officials and the liberal wing of the Democratic Party (by making them appear to be out of touch). (Volsky, 2011)

This is significant, because these kinds of views will have many different effects on how the public is looking at a host of political issues. Once this occurs, it means that there will be a backlash against anyone who is considered to be more liberal and supporting these views. This can tilt elections in favor of various political candidates that are supporting these ideas. At the same time, there is shift in how the public is looking at these issues. Over the course of time, this can encourage more conservative…. [read more]

Media Influence on Values Deeper Essay

… The greatest concern has been the influence of media on children. Studies have shown that this influence has steadily increased as various types of media have become more sophisticated and available to the American public (Clark, 2011). On the one hand, this availability and greater affordability have been beneficial in enhancing children's learning, educational enrichment, opportunities, participation and entertainment. But on the other hand, media also increased children's exposure to violence, sexual immorality, poor health habits, and persuasive advertising specifically aimed at children (Clark).

Not Almighty

While the power and influence of media cannot be denied, there are other stronger and deeper factors that deflect its influence and power. Foremost are media literacy and parental involvement (Clark, 2011). If a child or student is thoroughly…. [read more]

New Media Thesis

… Social media makes it possible for companies to more intimately engage with stakeholders, as well as convince prospective stakeholders to invest in the company. The influence stakeholders have on the company is immense; as Grunig (2009) delineates:

"strategic decision-makers of an organization should interact with stakeholders through the public relations function because their decisions have consequences on publics or because the organization needs supportive relationships with stakeholders in order to implement decisions and achieve organizational goals" (12).

Thus, it is crucial to engage with stakeholders and companies should use social media to communicate with them. One of the most successful measures to undertake in this regard is a blog; with a blog, the public relations practitioners and stakeholders can each express ideas at length to…. [read more]

Media Worlds Term Paper

… Media Coverage of the 2012 Presidential Election

The diverse and sometimes ugly stories, attacks and sundry reports that have been published in print and broadcast in the media (including electronic media) thus far in the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election campaign reflect just how divided the nation is. These stories and ads in fact say as much about the sorry moral state of America -- and about how out-of-control the issue of politically motivated money is -- as they do about the campaign or the candidates. It is the opinion of this writer that there has rarely been a time in recent American history when conservatives and progressives have been so bitterly divided, and have attacked one another with such meanness and fierce antipathy -- in…. [read more]

Media Review Project the 1993 Movie Review

… Oftentimes this point may be difficult for the abuse victim to grasp. However, it will be increasingly difficult for victims to break this cycle for physical and verbal abuse without realizing the validity of the aforementioned statement and how it applies to their particular situation.

Another fairly effective aspect of counseling or treatment for domestic abuse survivors is to help them improve their basic skills regarding decision-making (Center, 1997). Improving these skills is integral to women ensuring that they are not the victim of similar assaults in the future, and helps them to realize how their were specific choices which they made in the past that contributed to their becoming a victim of domestic abuse. Decision-making skills can be as basic as deciding a course…. [read more]

Children and Media Technology Surrounds Essay

… This creates a sense of protection that they are able to feel. By being immediately informed about the occurrence of any eminent danger, these media sources are in fact protecting the children that they at times could harm developmentally.

In all, the dire effects that the media has on children are undeniable. The mainstream and social media create false expectations about image, societal values, and privacy. Today's children are affected developmentally by all of these occurrences, as their world is surrounded by these technological advances. However, despite the negativity that is at times associated with the development of mainstream and social media, they have also had positive effects on the lives of today's children. The youth of today are exposed to numerous cultures around the…. [read more]

Media Violence and Violent Behavior Thesis

… Media Violence and Violent Behavior

The notion that violent media -- especially violent film, television, and video games -- plays a role in contributing to violent and criminal behavior in children and youths of all ages is an idea that has long been a topic of controversial discourse. Is there a link between media violence and violent or criminal behavior? Huesemann and Moise (1996), authors of "Media violence: Demonstrated public health threat to children," posit that there is absolutely a direct correlation between violent media exposure and violent and/or criminal behavior in children and youths. They make a strong case for their position by using examples from over 100 studies that have taken place over the last 40 years -- all around the globe. America…. [read more]

Media Images Are Not Harmful to Body and Self-Esteem of Young Adults Thesis

… Media Images Are Not Harmful to body and self-Esteem of young adults.

You are (not) what you eat:

Media consumption and its uncertain effects upon teen body image

Why don't you have an eating disorder? Why don't you have a negative body image? These may sound like strange, counter-intuitive questions. Shouldn't you ask: why do you have an eating disorder, given this is a presumably abnormal mental state? or, why do you have a negative body image, presuming that having a positive body image is 'normal'? However, if you were to accept the conventional wisdom about the causal effect between exposure to negative images in the media and body image, then by definition you should have an eating disorder or at very least a negative…. [read more]

Media Bias in America Term Paper

… Media Bias

Knowledge is rarely neutral, often consciously shaped by these special interests and then unconsciously imbibed from our earliest childhood experiences as cultural "normality." More ominously, manipulation, misinformation, and deception are inescapably entwined with one's belief in the "truth." Propaganda also impacts on the level of public discourse by positively as well as negatively influencing the democratic process. Propaganda is thus common to how image makers influence, how educators teach, how sellers sell, and how elites govern."

Richard Alan Nelson

Political Media Bias

Without a doubt, political media bias exists, and has for a very long time. In fact the basis of the prolific media in the early development of the nation was simply as a voice for the varied political ideologies to demonstrate…. [read more]

Media Violence Term Paper

… Media Violence

The American Psychiatric Association exclaims, "The debate is over. Over the last three decades, the one overriding finding in research on the mass media is that exposure to media portrayals of violence increases aggressive behavior in children." In addition to the correlation between exposure to violent media and aggressive behavior, the APA asserts: "that exposure to depictions of violence causes desensitization and creates a climate of fear." However, causation is difficult to ascertain, as sociological and psychological studies in the area of media violence can generally only suggest correlation, not causation. Nevertheless, children are exposed to countless violent imagery, imagery that has become increasingly realistic over the past several years due to advancements in technology. Not only do movies and television shows glorify…. [read more]

Media Negatively Affects the Body Research Paper

… References

Anschutz, D.J., Van Strien, T., & Engels, R.C. (2008). Exposure to Slim Images in Mass Media: Television Commercials as Reminders of Restriction in Restrained Eaters. Health Psychology. 27(4); 401-408.

Cheng, H.L. & Mallinckrodt (2009). Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56(5); 365-375.

Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 44(4); 1124-1134.

Dohnt, H. & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 42(5); 929-936.

Grabe, S., Ward, M., & Hyde, J.S. (2008). The Role of the Media in Body…. [read more]

Media Ownership Term Paper

… The journalists and station managers in the local Fox TV affiliate are producing less and less of the news segments seen in Madison's Fox channel. Instead, these news and commentary segments are produced in "NewsCentral," a centralized communications production station operated by Sinclair. The same news segments and commentaries are piped to all the local affiliates, from Madison, Wisconsin to Flint, Michigan to Rochester, NY (Schmelzer).

Proponents of the NewsCentral approach argue that this is an efficient way to bring news coverage into local markets which would not otherwise be able to support its own news channels. However, it also has another effect. First, as Schmelzer points out, there is the danger that news that is important to the local communities will not get covered.…. [read more]

New Media Implications the Improvement Essay

… Others view them as heroes that are fettering out the facts and figures that the established news media does not want others to see. Whether one views them as legitimate news makers or just part of the audience that is just stirring things up can vary, but this obviously is an example of the lines between audience and newsmakers blurring significantly.

To zoom back out a little in terms of new media vs. The older established media, there has been a media war underway between "old media" and "new media" outlets and there are many real-world examples of this that are readily findable in research. One example of this was when the established media was accused in 2012 of being anti-Israel, almost to the point…. [read more]

Media and Conflict the Existence Research Paper

… Another characteristic of American journalism is its tendency to focus on the technical, which the journalist perceives as allowing him or her to distance himself or herself from the entangling perspectives of political life. Taken together, these tendencies produce news coverage that is negative, detached and technical. Certainly each journalist's perfunctory treatment of the employment forecasts they received would be described as detached, with little analytical insight or engagement even while it may have been technically appropriate.

Journalists are also influenced not only by their organizations, but also by the cultural traditions of their organizations. These traditions include such stylistic elements as the ability to discern what is unique or interesting, validating a claim, and constructing a news story with a moral component. Journalists are…. [read more]

Media and Communication in Canada Term Paper

… Media and Communication in Canada

Description of media system

In the history of mass media in Canada there has been a position that it has been susceptible to the dominance of American media. "Canadian mass media began from a need for national communication and yet now serves as a fragmenting, regionalizing entity." (the Bonding and Fragmenting of Canada - in terms of Mass Media) This is a problem that remains even today as there is still no national newspaper though there have been attempts by Globe and Mail to be national newspapers. Instead of a national newspaper the country has a number of papers in regions which are owned by individuals. The effect in terms of money may be the same, as "The result is…. [read more]

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