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Media in America Term Paper

… But that will not solve their problem, because it has been the so-called fourth estate, the news media, that has collaborated with Congress in preventing the Executive Branch from operating in secrecy. The news media, as Woodward makes clear, are never going to return to the pre-Watergate days when a president's actions were not questioned. Nor should they, even in a time of war."

Many critics argue that increasing media ownership concentration and the drive to sensationalize or commercialize news coverage have taken away the guts and gumption that investigative reporting requires (Waisbord, 2001). Business pressures have also had a negative effect on investigative reporting, as journalistic demands for a great deal of time, human and financial resources directly conflict with profit expectations and production…. [read more]

Media Manipulation Does the American Media Establishment Term Paper

… Media Manipulation

Does the American media establishment consistently reflect and report the news fairly, objectively, factually, and in its entirety? The answer to that question, according to numerous sources, is "no" to fairness, "no" to objectivity, "no" to factuality, and "no" to the entirety. This paper will review and report the opinions of experts and journalists who have analyzed the issue of media manipulation of the news. This is not a paper that is predicting a "big brother" conspiracy that is trying to take over America or brainwash all the TV-watching, Internet surfing and newspaper-reading citizens. But there are many issues that the average American should be aware of when trying to read, hear, watch and digest "news" as presented by the media today, and…. [read more]

Social Black Experience Research Paper

… Social Black Experience

A Survey of Black Social Oppression in the Twentieth Century

Evelyn Waugh noted in his "Conservative Manifesto" in Robbery Under Law (1940) that "inequalities of wealth and position are inevitable….Men naturally arrange themselves in a system of classes [and] such a system is necessary for any form of co-operative work, more particularly the work of keeping a nation together" (16-17). What happened in 20th century America, however, was the development of more than a mere system "of co-operative work." It was a system of outright slavery, propagated by an elitist element of American society, as E. Michael Jones has chronicled to great extent in numerous works. This paper will analyze how the American government has gone beyond the strictures of the natural…. [read more]

Social Science Theory and Methods Essay

… In order to compensate for this, demographic protections and probability formulas can be used to try to wash away some of this bias. Large numbers of participants helps ensure greater reliability since it can be assumed that patterns can be detected (Loftus, G. 1991).

With the evolution of computer technologies, it may be possible for the social sciences to move closer to the hard sciences in their scientific validity. The massive numbers of people who can be tested and the degrees to which their answers are consistent with other known results can add more confidence to our understanding of what people say and do. When we design monitors for the way people use their IP addresses, for example, we can tell with more objective certainty…. [read more]

Police Reform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil Thesis

… 2) This particular research will also be of immense help for policy formulators in metropolitan police departments and in police departments of small vicinities, in making effectual judgment regarding relevant development.

3) The material along with the conclusion of this particular study will certainly enhance and modernize the methodologies of the investigations linked to job performance and challenges related to police development in Brazil.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Section 1: Police and Crime in Brazil

Since the last ten years the focus of the Brazilian establishment concerning the protection of the civil society has been on the conglomeration out of three immense spectrums: (a) the police department, essential constituent of numerous problems and possibly the recurrent performer in every region of urban space; (b) violent…. [read more]

Madonna's Sexuality Thesis

… Madonna's Sexuality


Madonna's sexuality

The subject of Madonna's sexuality is considered in the context and against the background of her development as a musical and video star and modern cultural icon. The paper explores the meaning and the significance of the use of sexuality in her art and focuses on two important and often contradictory issues. The first is that the use of sexuality in her music, videos and book publications as essentially a marketing and strategic device intended primarily to shock and, furthermore, to manipulate the perceptions of the viewer or audience. This view would suggest that Madonna uses sexuality rather callously as a manipulative technique to draw attention to herself and her music.

The other view considered in the paper through the…. [read more]

Intelligence Pathologies Term Paper

… Intelligence Pathologies

The Church Committee Investigations which began in 1974 after the Watershed Scandal in President Nixon's administration found that intelligence agencies had unlimited executive power. The committee found that intelligence agencies abused this power and harassed and disrupted targeted groups and individuals, spied on citizens, assassination plots, manipulation and infiltration of businesses and media. Recommendations made by the Church Committee in the 1970s concerning intelligence agencies have been overlooked. As President Nixon's administration gave more executive power to intelligence agencies during his reign, so did President Bush. Intelligence agencies acquired executive authority after 9/11 are founded on the rhetoric of the war on terrorism, finding weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and identifying the link between Iraq and Al-Qaida. The agencies have carried out…. [read more]

Limiting Free Speech ID: 53711 Term Paper

… It is possible that in spite of some idealized image of the American form of government, springing like Venus, full grown, that indeed those early senators, representatives, and other governing officials were not confident enough in what they were trying to develop to be able to tolerate intense criticism.

The idea of limiting freedom of speech to protect the public against the harm of pornographic or salacious material has great appeal. Many people would support this reason for limiting freedom of expression. At first it might seem there would a difficulty in agreeing on what constitutes pornography or filth, or even blasphemy. Indeed, there have been highly publicized issues such an art photograph depicting a crucifix in a beaker of urine. Some people were outraged…. [read more]

Post-Conflict, Peace / Nation Building in Iraq and Afghanistan Term Paper

… Post-Conflict, Peace/Nation Building in Iraq and Afghanistan

Somehow, within a forty year span of time, the United States has found itself ensnared in multiple wars in Asia at the same time. Again, unless we can influence the postwar nation building process, powers that are inimical to United States interests (in the present Iran) will fill the vacuum upon the American withdrawal. In this short essay, this author will list two lessons learned from our wars apply it to the defacto American raj in Afghanistan and Iraq. First is not to become too closely associated with present unpopular regimes as it is doing with the present administrations in the countries in which we are "nation-building." Also, staying engaged in a never ending guerrilla war that has…. [read more]

Global Warming Appeared Within the Strata Term Paper

… ¶ … Global Warming appeared within the strata of social understanding as a major and serious environmental issue, it has been the subject of contentious debate. The question of whether or not it actually exists as an environmental phenomenon is perhaps the most hotly debated topic of the past century. Not since the theory of evolution has something sparked so much social debate and created such a rift within the scientific community. Global warming can be defined as the warming of the earth by greenhouse gases, emitted into the atmosphere naturally or by mankind. This definition, though solidified through scientific inquiry has many question at its core level of both its causes and its real effects. Many people even question whether or not global warming…. [read more]

Magic Bullet Theory Term Paper

… 'Mass media can be defined as avenues for messages that are created for consumption by large numbers of people. These 'message consumers' are physically separated from one another (to distinguish a mass medium audience from, for example, attendees at a pro-football game). They are also diverse in terms of their interests, values, and other demographical characteristics."

Each time a new form of media is invented it typically becomes associated with power and prestige. Commonly, this is because new information technologies are rare and expensive to produce. This was particularly true of books prior to the Gutenberg press in Europe. Hence, the spread of knowledge has almost always been linked to positions of authority; access to knowledge is limited, so when an individual is in possession…. [read more]

Stakeholder Ethics Essay

… A good example would be petroleum. Many world leaders, past and present, have tried to push the idea that petroleum is evil and that it needs to be done away with. However, any idea that petroleum is going anywhere in the next century, let alone the next decade or two, is a joke on its face as the product is used all over the place including in gas, tires, plastics and others. Add this to the fact that businesses are being taxed and regulated based on the fact that pollution is supposedly causing global warming to accelerate and potentially doom the planet despite the fact that many hold that the science is far from definitive or final is exasperating to say the least to anyone…. [read more]

Porofino Diaz Porfirio Diaz "Began Essay

… "Under the reign of Diaz, Mexico prospered incredibly in terms of over-all economics. Mexico entered the modern age with electricity brought to the cities and thousands of miles of railway built. Factories sprung up and the national debt was paid in full," ("Porfirio Diaz - From Military Hero to Dictator"). Land-owners and the wealthy elite did well; ironically given that Porfirio Diaz got started as the champion of the poor.

According to Minster, "Cracks began appearing in the Porfiriato in the first years of the 20th century. The economy went into a recession and miners went on strike. Although no voices of dissent were tolerated in Mexico, exiles living abroad, primarily in the southern United States, began organizing newspapers, writing editorials against the powerful and…. [read more]

George W. Bush Presidency Research Proposal

… Bush Christian

The Bush Administration's Politicization of Christianity

State and Church are, by constitutional law, intended to remain separate. And yet, where America's electoral patterns are concerned, it is quite clear that voters tend to respond in one way or another to the presence and invocation of religion or issues related to religious value systems. So would this be proven in 2004, when President George W. Bush sought and gained reelection against challenger and Massachusetts Senator John Kerry by focusing primarily on the religious value system which he claimed to share with many of his supporters. To the point, the Bush Administration would, more than most every late 20th century president before him, place a great and continuing emphasis on his Christianity as a defining…. [read more]

War in Afghanistan Research Paper

… War in Afghanistan

Following the unprecedented 9 / 11 terrorist attacks on American soil, an atmosphere of fear and hysteria swept through the world. U.S. reprisal came in the form of fully blown war against terrorism as they assured the world that America would use all resources at its disposal to wage war on terror. Even as the demise of Osama bin Laden marked an important milestone in the U.S.-led war on terror, it appears as though U.S. Middle East foreign policy is going to take yet another tactical turn. After scaling down operations in Iraq in the first term, the Obama administration is at least rhetorically signaling that they will remove combat troops in 2014. By just about every measure, Afghanistan is still smoldering…. [read more]

Automobile Market Conversations and Trend Essay

… The brand attitude strategy incorporated by the print advertisement of these corporations is absolutely to the benefit of the companies and the target groups from the advertisements. The clients' first experience with the car and manipulation of the print advertisements enables them make decisions in buying of the products since they have the product description and specifications in memory (Jack Yan and Associates, 2002). The prior knowledge of the brand is linked to the customers mind when situations arise and it becomes salient for clients to recall from among the many brands they are aware of and make decision to acquire products from Ford and Volkswagen.

The clarity of the message in the print advertisements help the target consumers connect with the brand and have…. [read more]

Hezbollah Terrorist Group Term Paper

… Hizballah Terrorist Group

Hizbollah (also spelled Hezbollah and Hizbullah) is an officially sanctioned political party in the Middle East. The group has been linked to several terrorist attacks, both directly (as by taking credit for the actual attack) and indirectly (through funding or the implicit condoning of the attacks). This paper will examine the threat posed by Hizbollah and the methods in which it operates, along with its ideology and that of the region which allows it to operate with such impunity. It will examine first the motivation and goals of Hizbollah, the tactics and strategies of the organization, including previous terrorist attacks, and finally, the governmental reaction and ways of addressing this threat to national as well as regional and world security will be…. [read more]

Just and Unjust USA War Against Afghanistan Term Paper

… Terrorism

There are a number of ways to interpret terrorist attacks in the modern world. The Bush administration has chosen a particular perspective that is intended to justify the employment of the United States military as a tool for rooting out terrorism in general. However, there are many difficulties with the logical backing for such a position; the way terrorism is understood, and the sources of terrorism have been largely misconstrued. Many people have put forward criticisms of the White House's outlook -- some from particularly visible individuals -- and an equal number of alternative approaches to terrorism have been offered. but, fundamentally, terrorism needs to be understood as a means of waging warfare; usually adopted by those who possess significant strategic and militaristic shortcomings.…. [read more]

Cyber Security Vulnerabilities Single Research Paper

… DDoS is an approach used to attack a victim from several undermined systems. The former are central to similar mechanisms as those of DoS attacks (Chang, 2002). However, for an attacker to accomplish an attack, they will need to execute DDoS software on many vulnerable computer systems. In DDoS attacks, the attacker will use numerous sources hosts to launch attack traffic to the target systems. Previously, DDoS attack software was deployed manually, but currently worms serve the purpose.

In addition, DDoS attacks rely on three parties: an offender, helpers and victims. In this case, the offender refers to the individual who plans the attack, and helpers refer to systems, which the offender has undermined to initiate attack against a victim (target). The offender commands the…. [read more]

Sarbanes-oxley. The Political Pressure Term Paper

… And last of all, the Securities and Exchange Commission was established.

The law was often referred to as the "truth in securities" law. According to the SEC's web site, the Securities Act of 1933 has two basic objectives:

require that investors receive financial and other significant information concerning securities being offered for public sale; and prohibit deceit, misrepresentations, and other fraud in the sale of securities.

This act was partly authored, ironically, by Joseph Kennedy, who was considered an expert in that he had made much of his money illegitimately through the sale of liquor. Although regulation enjoyed broad-based support, it had its opponents. The most prominent among them was the president of the New York Stock Exchange. However, he was soon silenced when it…. [read more]

Social Variables in the Development and Maintenance Thesis

… ¶ … Social Variables in the Development and Maintenance of Business Relationships with Libyan Companies

The Need for the Research

Expected Contribution to Knowledge

Review of the Chapters

Review of Chapter 2 (Literature Review)

Review of Chapter 3 (Research Methodology)

Review of Chapter 4 (Research Findings)

101.5.4 Review of Chapter 5 (Research Discussion)

101.5.5 Review of Chapter 6 (Recommendation & Conclusion)

101.5.6 Review of Reference List

122.1 Why the Business Relationship is Important

132.2 Social Variables in the Development of Business Relationships

142.2.1 Cultural Affinity


202.2.3 Commitment

222.2.4 Experience

252.2.5 Satisfaction

262.2.6 Communication

Stages in the Development of a Business Relationship

322.3.1 Pre-contact

332.3.2. Initial Interaction

352.3.3 Development

352.3.4 Maturity

Research Methodology

373.1 Introduction

373.2 Definition of research methodology

383.3 Research Design

393.4 Research…. [read more]

Information Systems and Their Efficiency Essay



IT governance at PPCWG

Effectual information technology (IT) governance, undeniably, is dictated by how such activities are organized, as well as by where the organization's IT-related decision-making power is located. Establishment of an efficient governance system is another major process of an information management (IM) strategy. This is particularly crucial if many stakeholders are involved, with conflicting information needs. A governance system clearly defines the authority level and procedures and processes by which key, strategic operational decision-making is carried out. Proper information management governance outlines the relationship between various stakeholders, the process of decision-making, and the manner by which problems are solved. It guarantees that ongoing operation continually supports the plan that stakeholders have agreed upon.…. [read more]

Organ Donation A-Level Coursework

… Medicine

Organ Donation

Organ donation consists of the removal of organs and tissues from one human body for the purpose of transplanting them into another. Organ and tissue donors can be people of any age. Organ donations tend to be higher from deceased donors than from living ones. The laws surrounding organ donations are different from country to country. Some allow possible donors to give permission for or refuse donation while others give the choice to relatives. The need for organ donations is ever growing but the amounts that are being donated are not. There have been numerous studies done into why it is that people don't donate and several factors have been identified. This paper will explore these reasons along with the ethical issues…. [read more]

Hippie Revolution Over the Course Essay

… G18). The film was attacked on nearly every level, but nowhere more so than its particular narrative and stylistic choices, which upset some reviewers for either being too much or not enough. The Washington Post said that the film "has no sense of pace and its intentional formlessness is only a cover for a lack of imagination" (Rice, 1968, p. C12). The Post went on to say that "it is all flat and as prefabricated as the four young men in the spotlight," and it is this criticism that reveals the essential argument of Head (Rice, 1968, p. C12).

The Post's statement that Head is "as prefabricated as the four young men in the spotlight" actually identifies the film's central theme while failing to recognize…. [read more]

Managing All Stakeholders Term Paper

… "The absorption of one company by another," Black's adds, "[with] the former losing its legal identity, and latter retaining its own name and identity and acquiring assets, liabilities, franchises, and powers of former, and absorbed company ceasing to exist as separate business entity" (p. 988).

In other cases, mergers and takeovers have appeared to be the result of opportunists looking for the quick profit; however, the consolidation of the highly complementary assets and resources of both of these giants will create some clear advantages for everyone concerned. Nevertheless, just as bigger may not mean better, merger may not mean advantage. In his chapter, "Technology Strategy: Collaborative Mode, V.K. Narayanan says that from a strategic viewpoint, collaborative mode is undertaken by firms when the economics of…. [read more]

English Creative Writing in Singapore Dissertation

… Creative Writing in English: Singapore


Singapore is a country in which the learning of the English language has become vitally important. For many students, the learning of the English Language is dependent upon the development of creative writing skills. Creative writing is used as a learning tool because it permits students to write in a manner that allows them to feel comfortable as they become more proficient in using the English language. Creative writing is utilized as a mechanism that allows students to expand their vocabulary and improve comprehension skills. In recent years creative writing in the English language for junior college students and into adult working life in Singapore has been encouraged. The goal of the study…. [read more]

Was Saddam Hussein's Execution an Essential Point in Establishing Democracy in Iraq? Term Paper

… Saddam Hussein

The execution of Saddam Hussein has been widely heralded as a turning point in the war in Iraq, if not the central point at which democracy might be established. Gruesome images and videos of the public hanging stirred the Iraqi public and shocked viewers and readers around the world. Most of the mainstream media from Great Britain and the United States, the two nations most heavily vested in establishing pro-Western democratic governments in Iraq, presented the event as a major victory. Like killing the bad guy in an action flick, executing Saddam Hussein was depicted as the fulfillment of a central goal of the war. Therefore, the execution served a central purpose in promoting propaganda: in generating and maintaining support for the war.…. [read more]

Protestant Devotion to the Virgin Mary Dissertation

… Protestant Devotion to the Virgin Mary

One of the most controversial topics in religion today is how one should answer the question: does Mary play a significant role in modern Protestant religion? The answer to this question begets several ancillary questions, the most important one being: if Mary does not play a significant role in modern Protestant religion, is this an error? In short, is there a need for a more significant place for Mary in present Protestant liturgical traditions? Some experts believe that giving Mary a more prominent role in the practice of Protestantism would endanger the very nature of Protestantism by introducing an intermediary between God and worshippers. Others disagree vehemently with such statements and suggest that embracing Marian devotion may be the…. [read more]

Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Term Paper

… parts of Poland favor potato cultivation; sugar beets, the most important industrial crop, grow mainly in the west and southeast (

Section 1.1.3. Labor Force

At the end of 1991, about 30.7% of Poland's estimated population of 38.3 million lived in urban centers with populations of 100,000 or more ( priority given urbanization and industrialization in postwar Poland caused the urban working class to grow dramatically and the rural working class to shrink proportionately in the first decade of communist rule ( process slowed considerably over the next three decades (

Section 1.2. The Polish Economy Under Communism

After World War II, a centrally planned socialist system was transplanted to Poland from the Soviet Union without any consideration for the differences in the level…. [read more]

Elites in Engineering Dissertation

… Elites in Engineering

In the contemporary world, it has increasingly become significant for active engineers to be uniformly skilled in technical and management comprehension. This is in the view of the fact numerous graduates find themselves in significant leadership positions. To assist engineering professionals improve their leadership aptitudes within their profession through a course in Entrepreneurship, Leadership, Innovation and Technology in Engineering (ELITE) is paramount. ELITE courses help engineering graduates who are seeking to enhance their profession through supplementary education. The courses also help engineers who are seeking to promote their technical knowledge and leadership abilities in their present role. In this regard, this paper assesses the leaders in British engineering and their characteristics. The paper will evaluate how the qualities of these leaders in…. [read more]

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