Viewing papers 1-8 of 8 for melatonin AND ^ AND the AND pineal AND gland

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Melatonin and the Pineal Gland Research Paper

… Reports of Clinical 1, Clinical 2, or Clinical 3 randomized clinical trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, prospective cohorts, case series, registry data as well as narrative and systematic reviews." (2004) Buscemi et al. (2004) states that the data "were extracted from all reports of studies that were included in the review using a standardized Data Extraction Form." (Buscemi, et al., 2004) Included in the report are specifics as follows:

(1) Details of study design and inclusion/exclusion criteria.

(2) Details of the population such as gender, age, ethnicity, and type of sleep disorder.

(3) The number of individuals that were eligible for, and enrolled in, the study.

(4) The number of comparison groups and participants allocated to each group.

(5) The number of participants who withdrew from…. [read more]

Lightning and Human Circadian Clock Term Paper

… ¶ … Industrial Revolution, most people worked and carried on their daily life activities exclusively in the daytime and slept at night, primarily because without artificial lighting, there was no other choice. Once kerosene, gas, and incandescent lighting became widely used during the nineteenth century, people were able to make more productive use of nighttime hours, and 24-hour production became a possibility.

Artificial lighting has become so common, that in modern societies, we take nighttime sporting events, all-night restaurants, and 24-hour casinos for granted. Certain industries run 'round the clock, with rotating shift workers on duty at all times.

When medical researchers realized that certain illness rates, such as colorectal cancer and breast cancer, are much higher among nighttime shift workers than in the rest…. [read more]

Nervous System Essay


Northern Virginia Community College (n.d.), Chapter 49 -- Sensory Receptors, Northern

Virginia Community College, viewed 27 May 2012,

Oracle ThinkQuest (n.d.), Sensory Receptors, ThinkQuest Education Foundation, viewed 27

May 2012,

Oracle ThinkQuest (n.d.), The Endocrine System, ThinkQuest Education Foundation, viewed 27

May 2012,

Paul, I (n.d.), Blood Sugar Regulation, Biology Reference, viewed 27 May 2012,

E…. [read more]

Wakefulness and Sleep Essay

… ¶ … evolution have enabled blind mole rats to synchronize their SCN activity to light, even though they cannot see well enough to make any use of the light?

The SCN is a way that mammals are able to synch light and visual images from the retina to the brain. However, most of the input to this path is not initiated from simple retinal receptors. This must mean that light and light intensity is not all that is being communicated, since there are a number of animals that are "blind" based on their environment and evolution. For instance, blind mole rats do not have eye muscles or a lens to focus and they have less than 1% of the number of optic nerves in other…. [read more]

Biology of the Mind: The Endocrine System Term Paper

… ¶ … Biology of the Mind: The Endocrine System

The biology of the mind is complex, with several different systems impacting how the mind functions. One of those systems is the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made up of hormone-producing and secreting glands. Hormones are "chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs (Reiser and Kemp, p.1). Hormones are responsible for controlling a number of the body's activities, including growth, sexual development, sexual function, and reproduction. The glands release hormones into the bloodstream, where the hormones then interact with one or more organs to impact body functioning.

I chose the endocrine system because I believe it is one of the more overlooked systems in the body. Given that…. [read more]

Working Night Shift and Getting Term Paper

… An article also indicates the same risk for those who sleep at night with lights on.

According to the article Studies Link Night Shift, Breast Cancer, an earlier study indicated the relationship of bright light, melatonin, and breast cancer. The study revealed that blind women have lower risk of breast cancer. This is explained by their immunity to light that protects their hormonal production of melatonin. They are able to produce the right amount of melatonin, thus, providing their body with enough defensives against development of cancer tumors.

Further explanation on the lack of melatonin as a risk factor to breast cancer is linked to overproduction of estrogen, another breast cancer-causing hormone. According to studies, melatonin regulates a hormone system's production of estrogen. A decrease…. [read more]

Blood Hormone Levels Are Regulated? (P. 318) Research Proposal

… ¶ … blood hormone levels are regulated? (p. 318) ANSWER: The general ways in which blood hormone levels are regulated are: through signals from the nervous system, through chemical changes in the blood, and through other hormones.

How do hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones influence secretions of anterior pituitary hormones? (p. 323) ANSWER:

Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones influence secretions of anterior pituitary hormones by acting rapidly on cells of the anterior pituitary.

How are blood levels of glucagon and insulin controlled? (p. 329) ANSWER:

Blood levels of glucagon and insulin are controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the parasympathetic division of the ANS stimulating secretion of insulin and the sympathetic division of the ANS stimulating secretion of glucagon.

What is the relationship…. [read more]

Consciousness Has Been Studied Actively Term Paper

… REM (rapid eye movement sleep) occurs as delta activity disappears, and this is when many individuals report dreaming.

The functions of sleep are then discussed. Slow wave sleep may function to help us rest and recover, and may also work to keep us inactive during the dangerous night hours. REM sleep may function to consolidate memories, and remove "mental clutter" (p. 136).

Our understanding of sleep deprivation is mixed, notes the author. Humans can apparently undergo long periods of sleeplessness without serious damage, and yet anecdotal evidence suggests that a lack of sleep can be highly unpleasant. Fatal familial insomnia, a disorder where individuals have severe disruptions of slow-wave and REM sleep suggests that long-term sleep deprivation can be highly harmful.

The author notes that…. [read more]

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