Viewing papers 1-30 of 87 for microbiology AND case AND study

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Microbiology Case Study

… Microbiology Case Study E. Coli

The increase in cases could be because of a mix up between artificial or real increases. It is important to characterize the reasons for the increase as artificial increases, which are only perceived, versus real increases. Essentially an artificial increase would include such incidents of stools seeing increased culturing. This artificial increase can also be cause by new developments in the testing procedures of the laboratory, where in the past the lab did not fully isolate the microorganism efficiently. Additionally, changes in the population, contamination of cultures, or any possible errors in the data entry process could have resulted in an artificial increase. Yet, real increases are much different. This could result in a large growth in the population size,…. [read more]

Microbiology Case Study

… Microbiology Case Study:

According to food experts, sprouts and foodborne illness have had a long history to an extent that the association between illness and sprouts has not gone unnoticed by public health agencies and organizations that work towards enhancing the safety of food supply. Actually, these stakeholders usually identify raw sprouts as risky foods to be avoided by individuals with compromised immune systems and pregnant women (Clark par, 3). Some possible explanations for the link between sprouts and illness include selection bias i.e. people with exposure are more likely to be cultured and information bias i.e. cases are more likely to precisely remember diet than controls. Moreover, the association can be attributed to the fact that sprouts may have been linked with certain foods,…. [read more]

Microbiology Case Study

… E Coli Case Study

The increase of cases reported of E. coli, that was seen during the month of June 1997, may be attributed to several different factors. It is first important to remember that this is an increase in reported cases and not actual or documented cases. This preliminary understanding is important due to the threat of an epidemic. It is both wise and prudent to determine what some of the main culprits could be.

One cause may be a stem of human errors that were proceeded by another cause. Lab methods and procedures should definitely be investigated as a possible source in this large increase in reported cases. Any one shipment of contained meat may have been the source of this outbreak and…. [read more]

Microbiology and Spontaneous Generation Essay

… Although air was able to get in, the net prevented the flies from coming in contact with the meat, and therefore no life arose (Black, 2008). This was the first experiment that completely disproved spontaneous generation.

After the experiments aforementioned were conducted, scientist Lazzaro Spallanzani maintained the idea that air had entered Needham's flask, and the air was what had contaminated the broth, allowing for the microorganisms to grow and flourish, and not that life had come from the broth itself. Although the broths were heated, Spallanzani thought that not enough heat had been applied to kill any microorganisms and once the broths had cooled down, the exposure to air caused for life to develop (Black, 2008). He solved this problem by designing a repeat…. [read more]

Base Microbiology Case Study

… coli and when it leaked, remnants went onto the berries in the refrigerator. As well, it is possible it went on to leak to the kitchen space where Miss Emma prepared to make the pies. So, when Miss Emma went to make her pies with contaminated ingredients on the contaminated space, the E. coli infected the end product and making people sick.

7. What would you expect from the cultures of the counter?

I would expect to find some remnants of the E. coli on the counter.

8. What other objects would you culture in the kitchen? Why?

I would also culture the equipment that she used in making the pies and cutting up the fruit or the whisk to mix the ingredients together. I…. [read more]

Microbiology Assessment

… Furthermore, there is criticism abound with regards to new drugs, especially since there is strain of TB that has been proven resistant to drugs. According to the StopTB Partnership, and a WHO working paper in 2006,

"Multidrug-resistant TB threatens the potential salutary impact of DOTS programmes. Although progress in widespread DOTS implementation will help prevent the further emergence of drug-resistance, expansion of effective DOTS-Plus programmes is vital to stem the contribution of drug-resistant cases to the overall TB epidemic. Too few countries have national policies for the diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB. In some of those that do, treatment commonly fails to meet acceptable standards."

Thus, as aforementioned and as one always states with regards to deteriorating health and social situations, more could always be…. [read more]

Mold Remediation in Wilkes-Barre Case Study

… The minimum recommended PPE include N-95 respirator mask, goggles without air vents, long sleeved shirts or jackets, pants, and work boots.

3. Seek immediate medical care if any of the following symptoms emerge after working in structures suspected of being contaminated with mold: breathlessness, fever, chills, dry cough, and unexplained fatigue and headaches.

Epidemiology Study of Mold Exposure in the 2011 Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA

All individuals identified by their primary healthcare providers as suffering from symptoms related to mold exposure would be offered an opportunity to participate in a longitudinal cohort study examining the long-term health effects of the disaster. Patients would be followed for at least a year, with follow-up intervals chosen by the healthcare provider. Relevant medical problems that would…. [read more]

Causes and Treatment Term Paper

… ¶ … child in the case study is suffering from varicella or, as it is commonly called, Chicken Pox. The rash was the initial presenting symptom, preceding the cellulitis by 5 days. The description is classis with the history of the infection as fever, malaise, and a generalized vesicular rash typically consisting of 250-500 lesions. The most common complications of varicella, which can result in hospitalization, are bacterial infections of skin lesions, pneumonia, dehydration, encephalitis, and hepatitis. The fever, depending on the degree of elevation combined with the speed it developed could have predisposed the child to a febrile seizure (Hamment, 1999)

Acyclovir is sometimes used to treat chicken pox, although usually not in a non-immunocompromised population without secondary infection. Acyclovir is an anti-viral medication…. [read more]

Microbial World the History Essay

… (Bastian, 2001) (Black, 2008)

List three experiments by early scientists and provide a detailed explanation how each experiment disproved the theory of spontaneous generation.

Three experiments that disproved the theory of spontaneous generation include those by: Spallanzani, Pasteur and Koch. Spallanzani conducted an experiment which directly challenged the finding of Needham. He mirrored many of the same techniques with slight variations to help cure the broth. After sitting for the same amount of time, the uncovered mixture had no micro organisms in it. (Bastian, 2001) (Black, 2008)

Pasteur conducted a similar experiment using two swan neck flasks. He left one open, yet it required any micro organisms to go through a complex set of turns. While the second one, was covered and sat for a…. [read more]

Corynebacterium Diphtheria. The Answered Essay

… The bacilli in study are aerobic. Through aerobic respiration, the C.diphtheriae can be able to survive in an oxygenated surrounding. During this process, oxygen is used up in the respiration and glucose which is the energy needed organism for general metabolic functions is produced. Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria by being a facultative anaerobe means that they in absence a section of the bacilli ferment and some use anaerobic process. Other Corynebacterium bacteria are Chemoorganotrophs meaning that they usually oxidize the chemical bonds in organic compounds from energy and attain cellular function from the carbon molecules from the organic compounds (Holmes, 2000).

Being a facultative anaerobe, the gram positive bacteria manufactures glucose in the form of ATP, through aerobic process in the presence of oxygen but in…. [read more]

Malaria Prevention Among Children Term Paper

… In fact, the medicines used to treat malaria including cholorquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) which has reversed the gains realized in survival of children. The World Health Organization reports that vector control is the best method of protecting against malaria including two specific forms of vector control stated to include insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and Indoor spraying with residual insecticides (IRS).

Vector control is dependent on using pyrethroids, stated as the only insecticide class recommended for use with ITNs or LLINs. The World Health Organization additionally reports that there are ongoing efforts for developing new insecticides as an alternative to the ones presently being used. In 2007, the Carter Center's Malaria Control Program was launched in partnership with the national Ethiopian and Nigerian programs focused…. [read more]

Outbreaks of E. Coli Arising Essay

… Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some can cause extremely serious food poisoning in humans.

Virulent strains of E. coli cause intense stomach and gut pain, urinary tract infections, nausea, fever, intense diarrhea and can even be fatal to the very old or children.

Typical transmission comes from eating unwashed vegetables or undercooked meat.

It is not the bacteria itself that causes sickness, but the toxins that are produced as the bacteria feeds. These toxins bind to intestinal cells, disrupting their function, often deforming the cell and eventually killing it. Diarrhea is caused by both the inflammatory response the cell has to the toxin and the effacement that happens when too many intestinal cells are affected (Escherichia coli, 2012).

Bacterial infections are typically treated…. [read more]

Laboratory Medicine in Resource Limited Settings Research Paper

… ¶ … Improving the Quality of Medical Laboratory Services in Resource-Limited Settings

The critical nature of emergency medical services in Saharan and Sub-Saharan Africa is paramount as development during the 21st century is poised to arouse Africa to harness its power to become a global economic player. The Aforementioned emergency care is akin to emergency medical response teams that can arrive on-site with an onsite laboratory where blood testing, transfusion (if blood packs are obtained), where diagnosis of communicable diseases via laboratory testing is essential.

However, there are many issues associated with the availability of on-site diagnosis or locality over a large geographic region where a stand-alone facility with microbiology laboratory and diagnostic department is available. Economic constraints limit the development of such a network…. [read more]

Aviation Industry Flu Pandemic Outbreak Risk Thesis

… In case of the SARS outbreak in China the public transportation wasn't shut down but the amount of passengers decreased a lot as, people stopped using the public transportation to avoid getting infected. Similarly, trends of decrease in the number of employees was noted in the air transportation such as, the flights in Pacific Asia decreased by 45% as compared to the year before and there was a decrease of 69% in the flights between U.S. And Hong Kong (Brigantic et al., 2009).

However, it can easily be estimated from these above given scenarios that if an influenza pandemic did occur and stay for 12 to 36 months what would be the amount of damage that it would cause in the world…. [read more]

Naegleria Fowleri in Florida: Pathways Research Paper

… In sum, the researchers determined that, "There are strong indications that the isolation of nonpathogenic seropositive strains from water is an indication for the occurrence of pathogenic N. fowleri" (de Jonckheere & Voorde, 1977, p.12).

A seminal study by de Jonckheere, Van Dijcka and van de Voorde (1975) investigated the distribution of N. fowleri to determine its role as the causal agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. For this study, the principal researchers isolated N. fowleri from water taken from a thermally polluted canal (de Jonckheere et al., 1977). According to de Jonckheere and his associates, "These amoeboflagellates were not isolated from another thermally polluted canal in the neighbourhood indicating that, apart from high temperature, other factors are involved in the selective proliferation of N. fowleri"…. [read more]

Kemp Health Center Outsourcing Plan Term Paper

… The capability of the microbiology staff needs to be seriously assessed to help determine which tests will remain in-house. With the abundance of inaccurate tests it is important that only tests that the staff can effectively handle remain in-house. Incorrect interpretations result in flawed therapy. Physicians rely heavily on fast, accurate tests for disease prevention, diagnosis and prevention.

Cost and Quality also play a big role in making the decision to outsource. With the prevalence of inaccurate tests at KHC that impact quality and reduced reimbursement rates from insurance companies, outsourcing is an option that could possibly reduce the looming debt. For a community hospital as small as KHC, tests that are too complicated to be performed onsite, and those that are rarely ordered, should…. [read more]

Meningitis, and How They Affect the Body Term Paper

… ¶ … meningitis, and how they affect the body. It will cover signs and symptoms, types of meningitis and causes of the disease. This paper will then discuss treatment and prevention (including preventing transmission of this highly contagious disease).


Meningitis means an inflammation of the meninges, or the membrane around the brain and spinal cord. It can be caused by a number of factors, but infectious meningitis is due to multiplication of fungal, viral or bacterial organisms. All may develop as the result of a compromised immune system, and may be secondary to other infections in the body.

Bacterial meningitis occurs most frequently amongst children, although recent improvements in diagnosis and treatment of H. influenzae meningitis has resulted in a change of the mean…. [read more]

Advanced Practice Nursing Admission Summarize Admission Essay

… I would like more in-depth knowledge of these subjects, and my work in hospice and home healthcare has convinced me of the need for nurses to strive to more fully understand how a patient's mental state can impact their experience of healthcare.

As I work and attend school at the same time, both my academic and real life nursing experiences will feed one another. I realize that balancing work and school will be a considerable challenge, but in all of my professional experiences, I have had to multitask and engage in efficient time management. By going to school while working, I will be able to see what I learn in the classroom reflected in the real life of a nurse.

To be a truly capable…. [read more]

Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes Water Term Paper

… It is very possible that genomic and phenotypic factors (discussed later in this work) combine along with protectants such as trehalose. Different media concentrations induced E. coli to generate different compounds. Researchers induced the E. coli production of glycine betaine by varying the NaCl concentrations and the consequent osmotic stress. Glycine betaine has been implicated in desiccation protection for several higher plans such as grams and tobacco. Glycine betaine has also been suggested as a protectant against desiccation for certain lactobacilli. (Teunissen et al., 1992). from short-term viability experiments.

In this sense, both trehalose and glycine betaine can be considered compatible solutes because their presence (in response to the osmotic stress that draws water away from the cell) is compatible with the processes that occur…. [read more]

Disaster Plan Thesis

… ¶ … difficult step in responding to an attack using biological weapons is identifying the incident for what it is. This requires alert clinicians and medical staff who are able to identify cases of disease that can be attributed to conscious and purposeful infection by an enemy agent (Gerberding et al. 2002). In the given scenario, there is abundant evidence that something is wrong, and the hospital staff recognized the sudden influx of patients with respiratory complaints as the possible beginnings of an epidemic, and the concentration of infection centered on the convention definitely suggests a deliberate act of bioterrorism. There are many possible causes for the upper respiratory infection that is the most common complaint from the attendees at the convention. Given the previous…. [read more]

E. Coli Term Paper

… Odwalla

According to the Seattle-King County Department of Public Health and the Washington State Department of Health: in October 1996, an outbreak of E. coli 0157:H7 was found to have been caused by unpasteurized apple juice. The apple juice was sold under the brand name of Odwalla through retail outlets such as a coffee shop chain, grocery stores and other locations.

"Twelve children who had consumed the contaminated apple juice developed hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) secondary to E. coli infections and suffered kidney failure and other complications." (Odwalla 1996)

Upon discovery of the sometimes fatal infection, the company immediately took a number of steps to protect consumers, as well as the company's bottom line. The company ordered a complete recall of all products containing apple…. [read more]

Malaria Parasitemia Effect on Human Platelets Thesis

… What is most certain is that malaria can be directly linked to the reduction of platelet count in humans. The severity of malaria, however, does not seem to have an underlying impact on the platelet count.

Relationship Between Platelet Aggregate Flag and Platelet-Count

Platelet clumping has been found to exist in malaria infection cases and has been described as the most vital platelet abnormality observed in most studies. There have been a large number of small platelets that have been seen to be mixing up or clamping with a few giant platelets. This could be due to cytokine interference of megakaryopoiesis (Maina et al., 2010, p. 8). The peripheral blood smears from samples obtained have shown that samples with platelet aggregate flag indicated small platelet…. [read more]

Dangers of Excessive Candida Albicans Article

… ¶ … Reduction of Candida Albicans "Yeast" Overgrowth Using Fungal Defense and Primal Defense Along With Lifestyle Modifications: A 23 Patient Pilot study. By Goldberg P.A.

The article is a report of a research that was conducted among 23 candidates in order to evaluate the effect of ingestion of Fungal Defense and Primal Defense and also adhering to the recommended protocol of supportive lifestyle aspects over a research term of 120 days on the high levels of Candida antibody titers in the blood of the participants and high yeast counts in their stool.

The author introduces the report by outlining that the Candida Albicans falls in the same family as yeast and is known to be a case of several health challenges that people go…. [read more]

Tracking Dengue Fever in China Research Paper

… In summary, a number of different findings consistently support concluding that the Guangzhou 2010 dengue outbreak was the result of an introduced DENV-4 strain from Thailand.


DVBD (Division of Vector Borne Diseases). (2011). Information on Aedes albopictus. U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 18 Apr. 2012 from

Jing, Qin-Long, Yang, Zhi-Cong, Luo, Lei, Xiao, Xin-Cai, Di, Biao, He, Peng et al. (2012). Emergence of dengue virus 4 genotype II in Guangzhou, China, 1010: Survey and molecular epidemiology of one community outbreak. BMC Infectious Diseases, 12,

NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases). (2007). Dengue Fever. National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 18 Apr. 2012 from

Shepherd, Suzanne M. (2012). Dengue. Medscape Reference. Retrieved…. [read more]

Bacterial Meningitis in Children Term Paper

… Bacterial Meningitis in Children: An Overview

Bacterial meningitis represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Meningitis is defined as inflammation of the protective membranes, known as meninges, that surround the brain and spinal cord (Chavez-Bueno et al., 2005). The most common types of bacteria that cause bacterial meningitis in children aged 3 months and older are S. pneumoniae and N. meningitdis, and are responsible for 80% of cases in the United States (Brouwer et al., 2010). Symptoms of bacterial meningitis in children vary between infants and older children: infants typically present with fever, poor feeding, irritability, lethargy, and vomiting, while older children generally present with more clinically characteristic meningeal irritability, vomiting, photophobia, headache, and neck stiffness (Brouwer et al., 2010). Risk…. [read more]

Cephalosporin Romano, A. ). "Cross-Reactivity Article

… Cephalosporin

Romano, a. (2004). "Cross-Reactivity and Tolerability of Cephalosporins in Patients with Immediate Hypersensitivity to Penicillins." Annals of Internal Medicines, 141 (1): 16-22.

The antibiotic group, Cephalosporins, are a class of lactam antibiotics originally isolated from cultures of acremonium from refuse in Sardinia in 1948, just post World War II by Giuseppe Brotzu. Brotzu noticed that these cultures produced substances that appeared to be effective against the bacteria that caused typhoid fever. At this point in medical history, antibiotics were in great need and part of the medical world's most researched topics. Further study of the Cephalosporins found that the mechanism and efficacy were somewhat analogous to penicillin, but in some specific ways, a bit more powerful (Podolsky, 1998).

Like penicillin, the cephalosporin class…. [read more]

DNA the Genetics of Height Thesis


The Genetics of Height

DNA has a huge impact in growth and development. It has long been associated with determining height, and recent studies in specific genetic modifications back that assertion up. However, there are other factors influencing height, such as diet and prescribed medications. Additionally, research shows that there is a multitude of other genetic combinations which may have their own impact on each unique individual's height.

Two recent gene abnormalities have been discovered to have an impact on height. Both HGMA2 and GDF5 can impact on height. According to research, about "90% of our height variation is linked to DNA," (Anitei 2007). The discovery of these genes then solidifies this concept. The link within the case of HGMA2 was discovered by a…. [read more]

Neuroborreliosis Borrelia Burgdorferi or Bb Thesis

… Neuroborreliosis

Borrelia burgdorferi or Bb is a species of spirochetes or small and round-shaped bacteria, which cause lyme disease in human beings.

They are delivered to the human body by any of the several strains of Ixodes ticks, which suck on white-footed mice and white-tailed deer. The Lone Star tick is also a suspect species for transmitting relapsing fevers. Ixode ticks occur in these animal hosts in larval, nymph and adult stages. They are tinier than a grain of sand. Infection of humans takes 12 to 72 hours. Even fetuses can be infected. After a tick bite, an average person develops erythema migrans. This is a reddish rash at the bite site, which looks like a "bull's eye." The rash usually disappears in 3 or…. [read more]

Cholera Was Not Recognized Term Paper

… Cholera was not recognized as such until the late nineteenth century, it has been afflicting its victims for centuries. "In 1832, in the days before germ theory, it was an affliction without cause or logic" (Jortner, 2007, p. 234). At that time, the cholera virus would seemingly pick its victims randomly, oftentimes the first affects would be felt in the morning, and the victim would be dead by evening. "Symptoms were multiform and terrifying: muscular cramps, spasmodic vomiting, fever, a constant stream of rice-water diarrhea. It was known, alternately, as Asiatic cholera, pestilential cholera, spasmodic cholera, and the blue pest" (Jortner, p. 234).

Writings from the ancient Sanskrit era mention the diarrheal disease, providing evidence that it has been afflicting mankind for centuries, and even…. [read more]

Saudi Arabia Surveillance Intro the Knowledge Term Paper

… Saudi Arabia Surveillance Intro

The Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Ministry of Health Physicians Toward Surveillance System in Saudi Arabia

Surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of health data in the process of describing and monitoring a health event (Jajosky & Groseclose, 2004). The information is used for planning, implementing and evaluating public health intervention programs (Waife & Davenhall, 2005). An epidemiological surveillance system is a set of interrelated elements and activities which contributes to the achievement of surveillance objectives. It is usually well-known as a central part of a health care system in order to monitor priority health events which are known to be taking place in the population (World Health Organization, 1998). This study explores the knowledge, attitude and practices…. [read more]

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