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Middle Eastern Civilization Essay

… Middle Eastern Civilization

The era before the rise of Islam, the first six centuries of the Common Era, were set forth due to the development of major events. One of the biggest and important of these events is the establishment and rise of Christianity. The spread of Christianity marked the end for many pre-Christian religions with the exception of Judaism and the Persian religion. The conversion of Emperor Constantine began a religious transformation of the Roman Empire. The Roman state was used to promote and protect the new religion. By Emperor Justinian's time, the Roman Empire was not only used to promote Christianity's supremacy among other religions but universal adherence to one religious doctrine. The second major development is the shift of power from the…. [read more]


Middle Eastern Civilization Term Paper

… Middle East Civilization I (HIS 251-01N)

Cities-

The Umayyad, Abbasid, and early Middle Periods of Islamic history were some of the greatest in its history marked by significant technological and cultural progress. Known as the Golden Age of Islam, most Middle Easterners lived in cities during these periods that were constructed along Byzantine and Roman models with towers and gates along each wall and two perpendicular axial streets that intersected at a small square. Sometimes this square was covered by a dome on pillars. The rest of the city was laid out according to the grid that the two main streets established. The cities themselves possessed a local identity, which its inhabitants enforced with their sense of responsibility of keeping order and peace. Dwellings were…. [read more]


Middle East Has the Presence Essay

… If the Assad regime falls, however, civil war could well begin again, leading to a partition of the country. For the time being, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf monarchies have been least affected by the revolutions, and it is by no means certain that regime change there would result in governments any more tolerant of minority groups.

Contrary to its current situation, Islamic civilization in the golden age of the Ottomans experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements, and the result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements. At the height of its power and glory, the Ottoman Empire controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa, with borders as far east…. [read more]


Pottery Making Art Islamic Civilization Essay

… In this sense, researchers establish the early medieval period until the twelfth century when pottery becomes an art. The Middle period represents the peak of the phenomenon, while the post medieval reflects the coming into being of Islamic pottery and its recognition as a well established artistic component of the Islamic culture.

Overall, it can be concluded that Islamic pottery has made significant impact on the way in which it completed the structure of the Islamic culture. It was influenced by the Chinese pottery but, at the same time, it managed to become an important cultural aspect by adapting materials, techniques, and symbols to the local identities of the peninsula. Moreover, through the innovations Islamic culture brought to this activity, pottery has also influenced other…. [read more]


Middle East on the Eve of Modernity Book Report

… ¶ … Middle East on the Eve of Modernity: Aleppo in the Eighteenth Century

Abraham Marcus has written a book from which most American students would learn valuable information. It is hard to cover all of world history in an overview course because of the large span of time, but most world history courses focus on Western civilization. In his book, the Middle East on the Eve of Modernity: Aleppo in the Eighteenth Century, the author shows us that the Middle East had a rich, varied and complex history that was well-established before their culture experienced modernization such as the effects of the Industrial Revolution.

This reader found surprises in every chapter. For instance, American students learn about the Crimean War and the Crusades from…. [read more]


Civilization Historical Analysis the Daring Essay

… While Portuguese made huge profits by trading precious metals and other condiments such as Chocolates, Tobacco and others to various countries around the world. This accumulated wealth later on financed the luxurious lives of Monarchs and the holy war. Such infuse of sudden wealth and precious metals could not last forever hence later on resulting in inflation, poverty and public liabilities.

In my view the intentions of Columbus were fair and ideological, aimed towards the betterment of the Christian religion and to decrease the dependence on the then Muslim enemy. Although such a motivation could not translate in to results later on as Columbus found the "New World" though it was never his intention. After his death the prime motivation by all the countries making…. [read more]


Middle School Grades Social Studies Curriculum Term Paper

… Middle School Social Studies

Sixth Grade:

The sixth grade social studies program emphasizes the interdependence of all people in the Eastern Hemisphere. The lessons and activities for this grade level draw specific examples of nations and regions of the Eastern Hemisphere selected by the district. It is highly recommended the lessons also compare and contrast to this specific information with similar information from the United States, Canada, and Latin America.

The sixth grade program focuses on a sixth grade social science perspective with emphasis on the interaction of geography and economics. The core disciplines of geography and economics are used and developed to draw relationships and understanding in social/culture, political, and historic aspects of life in the Eastern

Hemisphere. Focus should be on turning points…. [read more]


Greater Middle East Gulf Region Essay

… ¶ … Middle East/Gulf region

The Middle East region and in a large view the Greater Middle East is one of the most significant geographical, strategic, spiritual and historical areas of the world. It is found between two other great civilizations, the European and the Asian one and it is the origin of the most important religions besides the Asian ones like Christianity, Islam or Judaism. The Greater Middle East is also the birthplace of some of the most meaningful civilizations of mankind like the Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, Persian or Median ones.

One of the most important socio-political events that took place in this tumultuous region was the seventh century Arabic conquest of the most part of the region, removing the Byzantine and Sassanid…. [read more]


Early Civilization Term Paper

… ¶ … Civilizations

Singers of an ancient Egyptian hymn to the Nile cried, "O inundation of the Nile, offerings are made unto you, men are immolated to you, great festivals are instituted for you," testimony to the direct and clear relationship between the peoples of the Nile and the land on which they thrived. Similarly, the peoples of the Tigris-Euphrates valley also honored the ebbs and flows of their great rivers, keenly in touch with the ability of the waters, currents, tides, and rains to determine the outcomes of harvests. Early civilizations devoted attention to geography in their religious and literary texts, illustrating the key role that agriculture played in the development of Egyptian and Mesopotamian cultures. From nomadic hunter-gatherers organized into small bands to…. [read more]


Clash of Civilizations Samuel P. Huntington's Book Term Paper

… ¶ … Clash of Civilizations

Samuel P. Huntington's book the Clash of Civilizations and the Coming of the New World Order emerged from an essay he wrote in the journal Foreign Affairs in the Summer of 1993 in which he set forth his main thesis, a thesis he would expand and develop in his later book:

It is my hypothesis that the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. Nation states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. The clash of civilizations will be…. [read more]


Learn so Little Essay

… The terracotta warriors were meant to protect the First Emperor Shihuangdi in the afterlife. They were built during the Qin dynasty 221-206 BCE. The emperor unified China by building the first portion of the Great Wall.

The Terracotta Army is striking in its lifelike depiction of the protectors of the Emperor. They are as large as real-life warriors of the age, and their expressions and gestures are highly individualized. Their function is symbolic, given that they are supposed to protect the Emperor after death. Yet they are also a work of highly detailed craftsmanship, and testimony to the power of the emperor. The Emperor was able to demand great detail in terms of how he was supposed to be honored after death.

The afterlife was…. [read more]


Cold War Has Brought Renewed Term Paper

… It was simple. Divide the world as it had been prior to the breakup of the Soviet Union but replace the Soviet threat with the Islamic threat. This is what many political theorists did but, as has already been pointed out, such characterization is short-sighted and inaccurate. There is no monolithic Islam world. The Islam world is diverse and there is no unified civilization which is rising up and organizing to defeat the influences of the Western world (Eksteins).

Whether or not the clash of civilization theory holds true will be determined by future events. There are strong arguments on both sides of the issue and there is substantial evidence to support either argument. The reality is that only time will provide the answers. Somehow…. [read more]


European Colonialism in the Middle East History Essay

… European Colonialism in the Middle East

History reveals how the European powers carved out their own colonies in the Middle East, partly for the sheer power of ownership and domination, and partly due to Europe's need for the valuable resources that the Middle East could provide. These power grabs have had a profound effect on the lives of the people in those nations. This paper will review and critique two countries in the Middle East that came under the colonial authority of European nations -- Iran and Egypt.

The Literature on Impacts of European Colonial Activity: David Seddon describes colonialism as the "process and later the system" through which the powers in Europe "intervened in, occupied, settled and defined as 'colonies'" (Seddon, 2004). Moreover, some…. [read more]


Globalization and Middle Eastern Culture Term Paper

… Science and technology are accepted, but they are to be subordinated to Islamic belief and values in order to guard against the Westernization and secularization of Muslim society."

By its very nature globalization impacts on people's way of life and often causes adjustments to the pattern of the dominant global culture. This has meant that the affect of globalization on Middle-Eastern counties has become a very controversial issue.

To a large extent, globalization promotes integration of the world and calls for the removal of all cultural barriers. Although globalization is a vital process toward transferring knowledge and education to the world, it still has its negative effects on most cultures and civilizations. Its impact on cultures, in this case the Arabic culture, is relatively controversial.…. [read more]


Islamic Civilization Essay

… It is the beginning of the Abbasid caliphate which historians often mark as the beginning of the "Golden Age" of Islam, and in fact, "Persians had played a distinguishing part of the flowering of Muslim literature in Arabic…" (Maceachern 31) And while Arabic was heavily influenced by the Persian language and its literature, the pre-Islamic language of Persia, which most Persians retained, also became heavily influenced by Arabic words, as well as being written in the Arabic script.

From the time of the fall of the Umayyid dynasty, sometime around 750, the Islamic world has been divided among various factions. One of these factions, which traced its origin to the daughter of Mohammed, Fatima, was the Fatimid dynasty. This caliphate primarily ruled over North Africa,…. [read more]


Historical Relationship of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Literature Review

… Western Civilization

MESOPOTAMIA

Historical and Geographic Background -- The word Mesopotamia is Greek and means "the land between two rivers," in this case, the Tigris and Euphrates river systems. This area is considered to be the cradle of civilization, in that it is one of the first verifiable areas of organized urbanization and domestication of plants and animals. Modern scholarship has extended the actual area of influence for Mesopotamia as far north as parts of Southeastern Turkey and parts of Khuzestan, forming a much larger area of influence for organized civilization (Dlott, 2007). The Sumerian period (from the indigenous peoples: Sumerians and Akkadians) dominated the Middle Eastern region from approximately 3100 BC to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC. During this period, of course,…. [read more]


Strategic Security Term Paper

… Strategic Security in the Middle East

"Man's capacity for justice makes democracy possible; but man's inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary…" (Reinhold Niebuhr, et al., 2011).

Need for Perspective

The volatile Middle East region has weighed heavily on the minds of American strategic policymakers, diplomats, members of Congress, State Department and Defense Department strategists, occupants of the White House and others for many years and for good reasons. Following the terrorist attacks of 2011, new strategies were launched by the United States designed to fight a so-called "war on terror" but in the American homeland these strategies -- considered by some to be invasive of personal liberties -- were put in motion to protect citizens from another round of devastating terrorist attacks.

Most recently the…. [read more]


Globalization in "The Clash of Civilizations," Samuel Term Paper

… Globalization

In "The Clash of Civilizations," Samuel P. Huntington claims that cultural differences will be the greatest source of conflict in the 21st century world: more so than economics or political ideology. Huntington notes, "the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural." Prior to World War One, most of the culture clashes took place regionally: such as those between various European tribes. During the 20th century a new type of culture clash emerged: one that would reveal the deep chasm between East and West. Framing the world in terms of East and West indicates how important the division is in defining cultural…. [read more]


Western Civilization Mesopotamian Religion Term Paper

… Western Civilization

Mesopotamian religion is the first to be recorded. Because they had very little knowledge on the universe, Mesopotamians believed that they were surrounded by water, and that the world was born out of that immense body of water. Also, their religious faith was polytheistic, and they sought to explain everything around them by interpreting what they believed to be messages from the gods. Unlike Mesopotamian faith, Judaism is a monotheistic religion, and has no principles of faith that are recognized by all Jews. Also, it has no central religious authority and is considered to be centered on the individual to a larger extent than the other formal religions. However, central authority resides in the sacred writings and traditions that are still closely respected…. [read more]


Ancient Civilizations: Society Subcultures and the State Essay

… Ancient Civilizations: Society Subcultures and the State

The dynamics of early civilizations that in their totality form the society that subordinates itself to the state, or leadership, and perhaps in very early civilizations means the stronger forces within the society. Those dynamics fall into subculture categories like religion, trade and exchange, the protections afforded the society in the action of warfare, and the technology that is created to support the society and to protect it; and the need to coordinate these subcultures and to organize it into an effective and cohesive working system gives rise to the state. Through archeological excavation and study and analysis remains and artifacts from the ancient civilizations, a pattern emerges in the socialization of the ancient society, the rise of…. [read more]


History of the Eastern Half Term Paper

… ¶ … history of the eastern half of the Roman Empire is so different from the western half. It also discusses the factors that contributed to a distinctive Western European culture.

The basic reason for striking difference between the history of the eastern and the western parts of the Roman Empire was the geographical distance between the two. When the Roman Republic expanded following the defeat of Carthage and annexation of Greece and Asia Minor by the Romans, it was not easy for the central government in Rome to effectively rule the distant corners of its territories due to the slow communication and transportation at the time. Hence, even before the advent of the Roman Empire in 27 BC, the territories of the Roman Republic…. [read more]


Clash of Civilizations Term Paper

… ¶ … Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order written by Samuel P. Huntington is actually an expansion of his 1993 article entitled the Clash of Civilizations. The main aim of article was in fact to imagine a new post-Cold War world order. The new world order that Huntington puts forward in his article, and then book, is based on the thesis according to which "The most important distinctions among peoples are [no longer] ideological, political, or economic. They are cultural" (Huntington 1993: 21). This means that after the Cold War, societies were no longer divided according to ideological differences - such as the opposition between democracy and communism, for instance - but by cultural differences which will determine new patters of cohesion.…. [read more]


Witness Accounts of Ancient Eastern Art Essay

… ¶ … Witness Accounts of Ancient Eastern Art

Since the beginnings of time mankind has been devoted to creating art, with some of the first complex works of art being produced in the land between Tigris and Euphrates, by the Mesopotamian civilization. In their endeavor to create art, Mesopotamians typically concentrated on making connections between their leaders and the divine. The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the best examples relating to the degree to which Mesopotamians venerated their kings. Gilgamesh is believed to have been a Sumerian ruler reigning sometime during the 27th century B.C. In the city of Uruk (Thackara).

The Babylonian poem relates to how the ancient ruler himself wrote the epic on a stone, making it possible for it to be…. [read more]


Olmec Civilization Research Paper

… Olmec Civilization

http://www.crystalinks.com/olmec.html)

The Olmec culture has been the focus of intense discussion and archeological exploration in recent years. It is considered to be one of the most interesting and also one of the mysterious ancient civilizations. The Olmec civilization is considered to be the first known ordered civilization to arise in Mesoamerica.

It was also the first civilization in the region to build huge monumental temple mounds and building.

In the Preclassic Period, the period when this civilization flourished, the following Gulf Coast sites were occupied in overlapping succession; Firstly, San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, which was occupied between 1450 and 400 BC., then at La Venta from 2250- 500 BC and Zapotes from 1000-50 BC.

One of the most remarkable relics that we have of…. [read more]


1500's World Civilization Essay

… ¶ … Roman Republic became an Empire for two reasons: change in the governing structure under Julius Caesar and others, and the conquering and then administration of most of the known world surrounding the Mediterranean. Beginning with the Punic Wars, and especially after Hannibal and the Carthaginian invasion of the Italian peninsula, it became clear that in order to survive, the citizenry was more acceptable of a strong military ruler and increased patriotism. The process was economic expansion followed by military hegemony to protect the interests of the state. Each area that Rome conquered provided needed resources for the Empire, but required governing and the military to maintain order. Thus, after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC the worldview of Rome was economic expansion, territorial control,…. [read more]


Environmental Issues, Business Ethics Research Paper

… In addition, Lebanon lacks analogous regulatory elements that uphold ethics programs. Companies in the region focus on their initiatives that contribute towards the long-term sustainability of the company.

Corporate integrity and ethics can also fall on this focus, but they hardly focused on it. The type of business here aims in moneymaking. The initiatives include good governance within the company and corporate responsibility including some ethic programs. Their main aim is to improve the country's operations, and ignoring the ethical needs. The companies forget about the workforce as being a powerful asset (Herde, 2005).

Example

For example, Dubai aspires in being an international business spot. Corporate responsibility has happened in Dubai for over three years, and at this point, there are no developed best business…. [read more]


Western Civilization Between the Reformation Term Paper

… The truth had been considered as a "crime" by the Church simply because it does not support its theistic claims. The emergence of the Scientific Revolution gave way for other ideas to develop, which optimized humanity's potential to intellectually develop freely, unrestrained by the teachings and norms of the Church.

2. The economic develops of early modern societies in the West determined the kind of governments subsisted to by the contemporary governments at present. Take as an example the history of Britain as a colonizer of Eastern societies during the 16th-18th centuries. Bowen's analysis of the East India Company, which is an economic entity originating from Britain, operating and regulating the flow of raw materials from India to Europe (specifically Britain) posits that "trade and…. [read more]


Western Civilization From Prehistory Term Paper

… The British, French, and other empires spread across the globe. And although neither country was in the strict sense "ruled by a monarch," the idea behind the concept remained the same. Territorial expansion was a means toward achieving glory and immortality.

Of course, things have changed in the more than two thousand years since Alexander's time. In recent centuries, the way of the warrior has lost something of its old luster, and would-be conquerors have found it increasingly essential to justify their ambitions by other means. So, in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries we have the concept of the White Man's burden, and the idea of the Western Powers bringing enlightenment and civilization to the benighted races of the Earth. Still more recently, however, even…. [read more]


Historical Background Relationship and Contribution of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… ¶ … society as if it were essentially autonomous: There were the Egyptians, and the Greeks, and then the Romans, and so forth. But while, of course, there are core practices, habits, and beliefs -- and historical moments -- that set off these and other societies from each other, there are many key connections as well. Societies borrow from each other all the time; indeed, one might argue that the level of "borrowing" from one culture to the next arises to the level of grand larceny.

When one thinks about it, though, there is every reason for societies to borrow from each other in the same way that one generation learns from its predecessor, and passes on what it has learned. Some of what different…. [read more]


World History Development of Civilization Term Paper

… Twentieth Century History

Need opening and over all summary of this Era of conflict:

In order to understand how the world of 2005 came about, it is necessary to consider the effects of World War I and II, the Cold War, and the changes modern technological warfare has had on the political structure, the impact of nationalism, and the world of new options and opportunities for individual nations.

During the post World War I era of the 1920's and the depression of the 1930's, the west had divided into three camps: the capitalist democracies, the fascists and the authoritarian nations of central and Eastern Europe, and the communist Soviet Union. By 1941, all three camps-along with much of the rest of the world-had again been…. [read more]

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