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Modern Art a Primary Concern Essay

… This is a purist piece. "Tableu 11" by Mondrian directly addresses the golden ratio and geometry, as it is a series of quadrilaterals of primary colors and black. Mondrian plays with both color and form here. The quadrilaterals without color contextualize the ones with color and the white quadrilaterals balance the work, else it might be overloaded with color, form, and shape. The dispersal of color seems odd, but the overall sense of the work is that it is even (balanced).

Scwitter's "Merzbau" is quite angular and dimensional. There is a lack of curvature and color. This piece is more concerned with movement, shape, and form. Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase" is also primarily concerned with movement and form. Neither piece is focused upon realism.…. [read more]

Art in "Burial at Ornans Essay

… Pointillism accesses our brains' capacity to fill in missing or implied information to create a coherent, articulated whole. This anticipates abstractions in form and interaction with the viewer. Reference Signac's "Femmes au Puits" and Seurat's "La Parade de Cirque" as examples of pointillism.

"Salon de la rue des Moulins" is full of saturated reds. The furniture is red, some articles of clothing are red, and a few of the women are redheads. It is very warm and visually stimulating. The women are comfortable and relaxing as evident by their posing and facial expressions. The yellows and blacks provide the greatest contrast in hue and tone in this piece. Most of the action occurs on the left two-thirds of the painting, where the reds are concentrated…. [read more]

Art Culture: Public Space Term Paper

… This is because the 20th century public sphere constitutes organized individuals that exert their influence over public debate and sphere institutionally. This public cannot appreciate the placement of public art in the public sphere, unlike the 18th century public. According to Habermaes, public art gained popularity in the 18th century, since the public was subject to political decisions and interests. In that era, the public sphere was marked by a close link between church, state, public, and private sectors, under a feudal system. In this system, the power relations and levels of power saw political authority hold the highest levels of power (Habermaes 52). At this high level of power, politicians and rulers represented their ideals and state inform of symbols in the public sphere,…. [read more]

Art of Colonial Latin America Research Paper

… Art of Colonial Latin America

In her essay, "Art of Colonial America," Bailey provides a timely overview of 330-year period of Latin American colonial art to the 21st century. The first point made by Bailey is that at no time in history has Latin American art been as relevant and important as today and goes on to support these assertions with several examples to demonstrate why. Another important point made by Bailey concerns the creativity of these artworks irrespective of the artists' origins, a point once again supported with examples from the historical record. To determine how other curators have interpreted these two primary issues through the exhibition of colonial Latin American works, this paper provides a review of Painting a New World: Mexican Art…. [read more]

Art History Roy Lichtenstein Term Paper

… They are totally formed by the way their culture has defined them. Even the title Stepping Out implies a falseness. They are dressing up and moving outside their true reality into a night life culture which they have been programmed to crave.

Stepping Out like the bulk of Lichtenstein's work stands in the center of the Pop Art era. As quoted in Art News in November of 1963, Roy Lichtenstein said: "Pop Art is an involvement with what I think to be the most brazen and threatening characteristics of our culture, things we hate, but which are also powerful in their impingement on us" ( Other artists like Andy Warhol, with his repetitive advertising industry images as seen in 32 Capmbell's Soup Cans (1961-62) and…. [read more]

Art Analysis: ART21 After Reviewing Essay

… The title of this work states: this is no time for dreaming. For whatever feelings or opportunities dreaming provides us, this is no time for that now. This logic begs the question, if it is not time for dreaming, what is it time for then? Tossing papers about in an empty room might be the perfect time for dreaming because the reality of the situation is not fun.

Forever is a series of installations where the primary source material is bicycles. Weiwei used approximately 1,200 bicycles to construct his exhibit. Weiwei is an artist that often expresses messages that are aware of the 21st century Chinese reality, condition and culture. His work is very connected and heavily themed around the diversity of meaning of the…. [read more]

Art History the Transition Thesis

… The church's influence changes the effect of a scene that would otherwise appear explicitly and obviously erotic.

Fragonard's The Swing, however, celebrates the central figure's sexuality by taking an opposite tack. Rather than couch the woman's sexuality in religious imagery, the painting explores in a positively secular fashion by portraying the adulterous couple in a positive light. The woman's lover is granted a view up her dress while her cuckolded husband stands in the shadows, demonstrating a complete ideological reversal in regards to sexuality, and particularly women's sexuality. Where before Teresa's sexuality had to be couched in the language of a miraculous appearance, the sexuality of the figure in The Swing is shown to have a worldly, naturalistic character that values the blessing of Cupid…. [read more]

Art in America Term Paper

… Art in America


According to a modern definition, abstract expressionism is a rather generic title, due to being made up of a variety of different artistic styles and formats. Basically speaking, abstraction emphasizes taking very recognizable things in the natural world and re-shaping them until they do not visually represent anything one might find in nature. Thus, the artist expresses his/her own viewpoint or perspective through re-shaping the natural world until it reflects a specific ideal or principle.

After World War II in 1945, expressionist artists in the United States began to assert their own individual personalities through their artwork, such as personal identities and even their own psychological makeup. Although expressionism can be traced back to artists like Gauguin and Van Gogh…. [read more]

Art Painting No. Untitled #14 Essay

… Although abstract, paintings in the Ocean Park series like this one clearly capture the houses and condominiums that comprise the Santa Monica area. Panes of glass are rendered in white, but allow for the sense of refracted light, as the artist applies color in variable swathes. Moreover, Diebenkorn manages to convey the sense of peering out at the sea. A stained glass-like effect is evident, with structures of light and color.


Mick Jagger

Artist: Andy Warhol

Date: 1976

Paragraph: Perhaps more than any other artist in the 20th century, Andy Warhol blended pop and fine art into a cohesive whole. His social milieu included rock giants like Mick Jagger, who Warhol first met in the early 1960s, even before the Rolling Stones…. [read more]

Abstract Expressionist Painting Artistic Research Paper

… [8: Ibid. ]

The following piece is an excellent example of Rothko's reductionist forms. The piece is entitied "White, Red on Yellow" and is an excellent example of reductivism and the use of color to create a dramatic impact. It is a simplistic looking painting upon first glance. However, these paintings were not meant to be viewed in passing. One is supposed to sit and contemplate them, to see if an emotion arose As the viewer continues to gaze at the painting, they begin to notice the fabulous subtelties of the painting that are not apparent at first glance or if the painting is viewed from far away. One begins to notice tha the top square is not white, but is instead muted tones of…. [read more]

Art History of the 21st Century Essay

… Art History & the 21st Century

French writer Charles Peguy commented in 1913 that, "the world has changed less since the time of Jesus Christ than it has in the last thirty years"

.This was the beginning of modernism, a time of significant change in the world that was illustrated at the World's Fairs, "those festivals of high machine-age capitalism in which nation after nation showed off its industrial strength and the breadth of its colonial resources"

In 1889, the Eiffel Tower was the magnificent construction of the World's Fair in Paris -- designed by an engineer rather than an architect, a decision that was frowned upon by the Beaux-Arts architects; but engineer Gustave Eiffel, created an iconic piece of functional art inspired by the…. [read more]

Art and Politics "Light Being Essay

… One of the values of the American spirit was certainly practicality and as a result this was embodied in its architecture. The city made the most efficient and effective use of its resources to promote growth and expansion. This was eventually explained in terms of evolution which was made popular by none other than Charles Darwin and his theories of natural selection. Americans had opportunities for economic and social mobility that were not available to other countries. However, to achieve this mobility people had to be creative in regards to their practicality and functionality. The best designs were the ones that produced the most efficient and effective use of both resources and time towards organizational or societal goals.

Other societies had very different goals however.…. [read more]

Post-Revolutionary French Art Essay

… Grisby also uses the opinion of modern art historians to corroborate her opinions; this also helps to strengthen her argument regarding the significance of Gross's painting.

In her article titled Nudity A la Grecque in 1799, Grisby also sets out to challenge some of the popular notions commonly associated with this work of art. She employs primary sources to support her interpretation of the piece and also to bring to light a broader understanding of the significance of the painting. This understanding is not distracted or hindered by the particulars of the painting. In her article Grisby directly challenges the commonly accepted scholarly interpretation of the piece which claims that it is a representation aimed at reconciling the fractured and divided post-Revolutionary French society using…. [read more]

Henri Matisse -- Western Tradition Term Paper

… Throughout his long life, his gift for combining colors in unsuspecting ways and for inventing new combinations never ceased, and although he preferred to work in two dimensions, his paintings always conveyed the idea of three dimensional space. One of his closest friends, Geroge Waldemar, once stated that Matisse "knows how to make his spaces eloquent. His lines (are) often fragmentary, but even his spaces seem to speak" (Escholier 119), meaning that Matisse used his great talent to project space on a two-dimensional canvas with startling results.

In an early painting called Le Luxe (1907-08, oil on canvas), the background of sea, hills and sky complement the three nudes figures, and despite their apparent simplicity, demonstrates Matisse's mastery of human anatomy and to some of…. [read more]

Baroque Period Annotated Bibliography Chaffee Term Paper

… The naturalism and dramatic impact of Caravaggio's work, coupled with his insistent realism, are what made his artwork so famous.

Martin, John Rupert. Baroque. New York: Harper & Row, 1977.

This is an introductory book for understanding Baroque artists and their tremendous variety. Martin defines the Baroque characteristics and how powerful naturalism and the acceptance of sensual experience dominated the art of the era. Martin also emphasizes the modern balance between the secular and the religious in the Baroque era and addresses the spiritual or mystical qualities that were characterized in most paintings of the Baroque period.

Norberg-Schulz, Christian. "The art of persuasion. (Baroque art in Central

Europe)."UNESCO Courier 21 n1 (1987):4.

In "The art of persuasion," Norberg-Schulz addresses the art of the early eighteenth…. [read more]

Boundary of Art Andy Warhol Term Paper

… The Boundary of Art: Andy Warhol
In the middle part of the 20th century, Abstract Expressionism rules
the visual arts scene with a sense of serious experimentation that was in
its own way very constraining. The next generation of artists would appeal
to the media of popular culture as a way to simultaneously be liberated
from the prejudices of Expression and to broaden the palette of commercial
art. Turning concepts such as mass consumerism, the commoditization of
mankind and general materialism into a pointed philosophical statement, the
so-called 'Pop Art' movement would change significantly the both the visual
presentation and intended statement of the work dominating the scene in the
late 1950s and early 1960s. As our research shows, this would be a genuine
transition,…. [read more]

19th Century Art First Question - Three Term Paper

… 19th Century Art


Considered one of the most influential art movements of the twentieth century, Cubism defined not only a transformative period of art but influenced the careers of the individual artists who directed the movement as well.

Cubism is traditionally divided into three phases: The proto-cubist, or Cezanne Phase, when Picasso and Braque, both considered the innovators and initiators of the Cubist movement, first followed the guidance and advice of Paul Cezanne and began treating nature in their art as consisting of the "cone the sphere and the cylinder" (ArtLex, ¶2); the Hermetic or Analytic Cubism period when cubism had been defined as an art form, and the Synthetic Cubism or Collage period of 1912-1919 when later…. [read more]

Museum Methods Term Paper

… Although I agree with the basic structure of this definition, I would prefer more emphasis on the level of required professional standards necessary to designate an institution as a museum. Many non-profit institutions are established to enrich our society including, schools, libraries and community social and cultural organizations. Many of these institutions are essential in the preservation of values and identity and education of our citizens. The term museum should not be generally applied to these entities simply because they offer public enrichment under a non-profit designation. Museums should also be very clear in determining the scope of the institution; their role should be defined with clarity and selectivity, and with a recognition of wider social and cultural purpose. Attracting individuals with comparable interests to…. [read more]

Ancient Egyptian Art Term Paper

… Visual Arts of Africa and the African Diaspora From Ancient Egyptian Art to Contemporary Times

Thutmosis III wearing the Atef crown.

From the Temple of Amun at Deir el-Bahri (mid-15th c. B.C.)

Toussaint l'Overture Series 1937 by Jacob Lawrence

From Rhapsodies in Black)

First, in response to the questions concerning the rules of creating a Works Cited list and its function in academic writing, as well as what an Annotated Bibliography and its value is:

What is an Annotated Bibliography and what is its value in academic writing?

Annotated Bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform…. [read more]

Arts and Crafts Movement Term Paper

… ¶ … Arts and Crafts Movement, beginning in 1860, was a movement pioneered by William Morris and Charles Voysey. The movement came in response to the industrial turn of the century. It was a way to rebel against the mechanical way of manufacturing in order to bring back traditional crafts as a decorative and valuable form rather than the requirement it had been previously. The Arts and Crafts Movement or the "anti-industrial movement" founded by Morris and Voysey was immensely successful, although the industrial revolution pressed on as technology progressed.

The movement gained traction due to its challenge of not just manufacturing, but also challenging Victorian era tastes. These attitudes stemmed from social reform concerns of thinkers such as John Ruskin and Walter Crane who,…. [read more]

Ernst Research Paper

… A Max Ernst composition is one that combines disparate elements in the same way that dreams do: they make no literal sense as would a newspaper article. On a visceral level, though, the mind does seem to grasp the inner meanings and emotional content of the art. Dada and surrealism were important movements in that they asked art critics, art historians, art collectors, and art appreciators to revisit the perennial question, "What is art?"


Max Ernst spent from 1922 to 1941 in Paris. Like the other surrealists, Ernst enjoyed a good degree of popularity, owing to the trend towards avant-garde in art. The art movement in Paris was embracing the international scene also, welcoming artists from places like Germany. Unfortunately, World War Two changed…. [read more]

Impact of Community Essay

… Q2. Dillard, Hyde and Bueno present several ways to understand inspiration as an important part of creating. In this essay, pinpoint an important myth or two concerning inspiration that these theorists debunk. Be specific, keeping in mind that all of these artists and theorists approach inspiration in practical and concrete ways.

Hyde's concept of a creative artist is one which is securely grounded in a larger community and thus runs contrary to the idealized concept of a Renaissance artist, creating art in isolation, alone. Writers must be connected to a community to have something to articulate. Communication is a gift in the sense that it is an exchange for Hyde, and the meaning must be located outside of the artist's own framework of inner experience.…. [read more]

Navajo Society Navajo Culture Essay

… With each passing generation, young people are becoming further separated from their traditional values and belief systems. Elders are respected as keepers of the past and will continue to play an important role in preserving traditional Navajo values. This is a struggle that plagues many cultures, not only the Navajo.

Sickness and Healing

How humans treat sickness and healing can give the ethnographer many clues as to the society and culture. As with the traditional belief system and economy, the Navajo way of treating the ill is unique and provides many clues to the traditional Navajo way of life. The Navajo take a religious approach to sickness and healing. They use a herbalism, shamans, and singers in their traditional medical practice. Like many facets of…. [read more]

Basic History of Western Art Term Paper

… ¶ … History of Western Art

Donatello's David is a clear influence of the classical style over the Renaissance art. The sculpture features a nude representation of carefully studied anatomy that depicts a certain level of feminity. It reminds of the Greek pursuit for beauty and realistic representation of the human figure, as well as the illustration of a major biblical event. It is an important work of art of the Renaissance period that shows a clear vision of the ideology of an era, where the religious crisis of the Christian church was bringing new solutions for society. On one hand, because of the many conflicts the church had over the middle ages period that resulted in a loss of spiritual faith from the people,…. [read more]

Art Myth and Revolt: Cy Twombly Term Paper

… ¶ … Art

Myth and Revolt: Cy Twombly, Anselm Kiefer, and Louise Bourgeois

This exhibition will feature the works of three of the most heroic names in contemporary art - Cy Twombly, Anselm Kiefer, and Louise Bourgeois. Each of these artists has produced a vast body of work that makes extensive use of myth through idiosyncratic - and hence, revolutionary means. As such, Bourgeois, Kiefer, and Twombly are in many ways the last of the modernists. At the same time, their output serves as a sort of bridge, connecting the expressionistic tendencies of the 20th century to the neo-conceptual practices of the present. Through an extensive evaluation of surface and meaning, these three artists have each left an indelible mark in the art historical canon…. [read more]

Italian Renaissance Art Mannerism Research Paper

… Artists were apparently using the light to reach from a practical point outside of the painting. Now light was inflicted randomly, sometimes originating from a source inside the composition, like a halo; sometimes impending from different ways, lighting elements make a sort of an odd angle and casting shadows that appear unreasonable. Light indicated religion and could be expended to convert a predictable location into a heavenly realm.

Spiritual intensity was a common characteristic during this period especially in the area of painting. Some rejected to the fact that Mannerism has shown a high degree of religious passion because in their eyes, it was not representing orthodox faith. Regardless, experts still came up with a new way of differentiating among the divine and the mortal.…. [read more]

Art of War by Sun Research Paper

… g. 60:40, 70:30, or 80:20), then mastering the terrain and exploiting the advantages conferred by the weather can become very important in tilting the odds. In other words, if the general of a smaller army is able to use the terrain and weather to his advantage, he can definitely increase his odds of winning against a larger army.

Clearly, the United States cleverly exploited the weather, terrain and people factors (tian shi di li ren he? ) to their maximum advantage. Similarly, in business, it is extremely difficult for a small firm to take on a large corporation if they are both selling the same product. In general, a large company enjoys many advantages, including economies of scale. It is therefore not surprising to find…. [read more]

Modern Iconography Term Paper

… ¶ … Iconography picture is worth a thousand words.

Everyone has heard this saying before, but what does it really mean? Are we to infer that every work of art is loaded with meaning, waiting for a detailed interpretation? Is there such a thing as a "right" or "wrong" interpretation of a work of art? How does one go about discovering the meaning of a work of art? Can works of art be "read" like books, or do they require specialized knowledge?

These are all questions that iconography has attempted to answer throughout the ages. Today, iconography - the study of meaning in works of art - is more vital than ever before. But the nature of this approach to interpreting works of art continues…. [read more]

Russian Constructivism Artistic and Architectural Term Paper

… 11).

The largest peaks for the success of women artists developed in the pre-revolutionary period and during the Constructivist period of the 1920's. As Yablonskaya notes, during the late 1920's and early 1930's, women artists led two contrary developments, "one of an intimate and personal character, as with the art of Antonia Sofronova, and the other more publicly affirmative as with the work of Sarra Lebedeva and Vera Mukhina," (Yablonskaya, p. 12). The woman artist that had a significant influence on the Constructivist movement was Lyubov Papova.

Popova was an influential Russian painter and designer who was born into a wealthy family and trained as a teacher before beginning her artistic studies with Stanislav Zhukovsky and Konstantin Yuon. Inspired by Russian architecture, she developed a…. [read more]

Mindful vs. Traditional Martial Arts Thesis

… , 2001). As the existing research is largely limited to teenagers who are beyond the prime window of opportunity for prevention or early intervention efforts, this study will focus on children age 8-12, where early connections may inoculate at-risk students and set them on a more favorable trajectory. Terrence Webster-Doyle (personal communication, July 1, 2011) illuminates that by effectively challenging the self-imposed limits of each child, students will quickly realize that they can accomplish much more than they ever thought possible. Essentially, this parallels the old adage that we are each our own worst enemy -- the biggest fight for each of us, regardless of age, is within.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

Mindfulness psychotherapies are considered the third wave of behavior therapy, preceded by cognitive…. [read more]

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