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Mergers and Acquisitions Essay

… Another type of acquisition is a reverse merger, a deal that enables a private company to get publicly-listed in a relatively short time period. A reverse merger occurs when a private company that has strong prospects and is eager to raise financing buys a publicly-listed shell company, usually one with no business and limited assets. The private company reverse merges into the public company, and together they become an entirely new public corporation with tradable shares.

Regardless of their category or structure, all mergers and acquisitions have one common goal: they are all meant to create synergy that makes the value of the combined companies greater than the sum of the two parts. The success of a merger or acquisition depends on whether this synergy…. [read more]


Monopoly Radical Treatise Essay

… Under this format, high capacity multipoint-to-multipoint communication has become highly centralized. Hence customers now have the choice and the capability of directly selecting and downloading from video and information servers any programming of their choice. In other words, mass media have become, to a very significant extent, individualized in this current era (Noam, n.d.).

It is important to note that during the era of limited media, the government put into place various forms of regulations and legislations aimed at limiting the market powers of the few players. The limits placed on broadcast station ownership and on phone company activities, as well as rate regulation are examples of these restrictive and regulatory policies. However, many of these restrictions were lifted when the media moved into the…. [read more]


Merger Activity Due in Large Term Paper

… ¶ … merger activity due in large part to the internationalization of trade, the globalization of the transportation industry and innovations in telecommunications. Mergers have been used for a wide range of purposes, including achieving a synergistic effect, breaking up corporations that have become too large and unwieldy, and to help companies expend their market share in other regions. Over time, merger activity tends to assume a pattern of waves that can be attributed to several known factors such as severe economic shock or lax government regulatory polices, but a wide range of other factors have also been shown to contribute to the cyclical pattern of wave mergers, an issue that is the focus of this study. The primary aims of this study were to…. [read more]


Monopoly...Is a Great Enemy to Good Management Term Paper

… Monopoly...is a great enemy to good management.' Adam Smith

Introduction definition of Monopoly is 'it exists when there is only one supplier of a product or service.'

BPP Business Organizations, PG 106). Pure monopoly exists when a single firm is the sole producer of a product for which there are no close substitutes. If a pure monopoly is viewed from a consumers point it is quite undesirable while if it's viewed from a business point-of-view it is a way to maximize profits.

A definition of Oligopoly is 'when there are a few large suppliers, whose business decisions affect each other.' (BPP Business Organizations, Pg 108)

This happens when only a few firms are in the market. There are not many producers and a lot of…. [read more]


Merger a Continuation Essay

… Self-expansion: An alternative strategy

The mega-mergers between these ISP companies were hotly criticized, and it is questionable if more mergers will be permitted in the industry, particularly if the current administration remains in power, versus an even more business-friendly administration. In terms of expanding the current companies, for example, the SBC/AT&T transaction was "subject to approval by shareholders of both companies, two federal agencies, and at least 26 states" (SBC and AT&T to become nation's largest telecom firm, 2005, PBS News Hour). Mergers, however, have a far greater attraction for ISPs. Once a customer has become accustomed to a particular service provider, there are high transaction costs and a high level of aggravation in terms of switching. This is why mergers are a far easier…. [read more]


Mergers and Acquisitions: A Risk Assessment Term Paper

… Mergers and Acquisitions: A Risk Assessment

This paper assesses the impact mergers and acquisitions have on business, including sensible and dubious reasons an enterprise may have for engaging in such a relationship, the benefits and costs of mergers and acquisitions and the financial risks associated with merging or acquiring an organization in another country.

Sensible and Dubious Reasons for M&a

Mergers and acquisitions are more commonplace now than ever before, touted by many as a tool for increasing organizational efficiency, diversifying resources, and promoting greater value for shareholders and employees, as well as customers working with an organization (Galpin & Herndon, 2000). When initiated as a tool for improving strategic performance, and engaging two companies offering complementary services, a merger or acquisition is a sensible…. [read more]


Monopoly...Is a Great Enemy to Good Management Term Paper

… Monopoly...is a great enemy to good management

Adam Smith, 1776, "The Wealth of Nations," Book I, Chapter XI, Part I,

Adam Smith was born in 1723 in Kirkcaldy, Scotland (Falkner, 1997) and dedicated his life to the philosophical studies. He was also a pioneer of the economics theories which guide us today and his ideas were later on adopted and developed by several renowned economists, such as David Ricardo (1772-1823) or Karl Max (1818-1883). "With the Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith installed himself as the fountainhead of contemporary economic thought. Currents of Adam Smith ran through David Ricardo and Karl Marx in the nineteenth century and through Keynes and Friedman in the twentieth." (Henderson, 1999-2002)

In 1776, Smith published his works in economics, the most…. [read more]


Monopolies v. Competition Term Paper

… Monopoly vs. Competition

This paper presents an in-depth examination of the airline industry and the recent arguments over whether airline companies are being conducted as monopolies or competitors. The writer uses several examples of congressional testimony to illustrate the differences between the two. The writer also uses other chosen pieces of literature to discuss the difference between an airline monopoly and competition. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.

In recent years, there has been much attention paid to the airline industry and how it is conducting itself in business as a whole. While security became a major issue following the events of 9-11 it was not only security that was impacted on that fateful day. In addition, many of the airlines took…. [read more]


Monopolies vs. Competition in a Perfectly Competitive Term Paper

… Monopolies vs. Competition

In a perfectly competitive market, price is determined by the true forces of market supply and demand; the seller can only control the quantity of goods it produces. In the long run, the firm maximizes profit or minimizes loss by producing the output where marginal revenue equals marginal cost. A competitive firm's marginal revenue is the given market price. However, barriers to entry (i.e. legal, sociological, natural, technology factors) prevent perfect competition and create alternative market structures, namely monopolies, oligopolies and monopolistic competition as summarized in Figure 1. Barriers to entry create the potential for long-run economic profit and prevent competitive pressures from pushing price down to average total cost. Many economists believe that a significant reduction in competition will lead to…. [read more]


Merger From the Perspective Essay

… On the other hand, mergence can be threatening to the public as a whole since it disallows smaller companies to flourish and successfully compete. By businesses becoming oligopolies, they usurp the market place and tend to swallow up resources and competition. More so, using the allocative efficiency model, monopoles tend to increase price above the marginal cost of production proving disadvantageous to consumers. Allocative efficiency occurs where there is an optimal distribution -- amongst different companies -- of goods and services, and when these different companies equally, but in their own way, consider consumer's preferences. Here, the price will equal the marginal cost or production since consumers pay for the marginal utility that they receive. Firms in Perfect Competition are supposed to produce at an…. [read more]


Regulation of Mergers Government Essay

… While Android lagged behind for several months as the tablets of competitors such as Visio and Amazon Kindle waited for them to come out with compatible applications (TabletPCDevices, 2010).

If the company decides to borrow money in the hope of funding a new innovation that is expected to increase stock price, market share and profits. The interest rate will play a part in the return to the firm. If the borrower believes in the firm's ability to repay the loan the interest rate may be more favorable, compared to a company that may have a track record of risky investments. Inflation can occur if the lender considers the loan a risk and will adjust the interest rates to hedge against losing capital in the ability…. [read more]


Economics of Monopoly Power Essay

… 3). Explain the economic consequences that would unfold if one of the major four sports leagues in the United States reorganized into a single-entity league. Discuss the consequences for players and fans.

If such an event happened, this would lead to what is referred to as oligopoly in the economics arena. This will mean that there will be a small group of participants who will have the ability to control and have influence over the forces supply and the prices in this market. In our case, this newly formed oligopoly will be able to give the remaining three leagues a hard time in terms of determining the forces in the sports fraternity. This will include the pay of the players being influenced by this groups…. [read more]


Monopolies vs. Mergers Term Paper

… ¶ … business world, both monopolies and mergers cause concern among consumers, the government, and suppliers alike. While there are vast differences between the two situations, they also have many similarities, and both can have drastic effects on competition, pricing, suppliers, product quality, innovation, and the economy in general. This paper will compare mergers and monopolies, and will discuss how each causes the issues above. In addition, this paper will show that while mergers and monopolies may be different in how they are accomplished, the end result in both cases can be large companies who have the power and ability to negatively affect the economy.

First, it is important to define what is meant by the terms monopoly and merger. From an economic standpoint, a…. [read more]


Monopoly and an Oligopoly Term Paper

… The government too facilitates monopoly creation in de jure monopoly. Intellectual property protection is a form government-granted monopolies ("Government-granted," 2005). However, government does work to reduce market power as well, in the form of anti-trust laws and liberalization.

SBC and ATT Merger:

The welfare effects of this merger will be significant. The merger of these two communication giants will further increase the oligopoly in the marketplace, and may even lead to an eventual monopoly. Traditionally, these types of markets equate to higher prices for lower quality products and services, which will negatively impact customers who are unable to find a viable substitute.

The cost advantages, for the corporation, will be significant. Again, they will be better positioned to take advantage of economies of scale. This…. [read more]


Merger of Publicis and Omnicom Essay

… The company's market capitalization is likely to increase dramatically and these organizations consequently merged some big advertising companies with BBDU, Saatchi & Saatchi, Publicis Worldwide, Leo Burnett, DigitasLBi, Ketchum, StarcomMediaVest, and ZenithOptimedia under single ownership. Many other companies will also consider the merger in order to maintain a status in the industry.

Change in labor demand

Often when the companies merge, the event is followed by huge layoffs. The case is not true here however. The demand in labor does not only remain the same rather it seems to increase in future. There is a rational explanation for it. The employees at two companies have complementary skills thus they cannot be fired. Rather they make up team that will synergize and will offer more productivity…. [read more]


Economic Model for Monopoly Analysis in Telecommunication Term Paper

… ¶ … Economic Model for Monopoly Analysis in Telecommunication:

Proposal to demonstrate Uniqueness. Mathematical Economic Model.

The Telecommunications Act of 1996 sought to end the monopoly that once existed in the telecommunications industry. Since its adoption, the telecommunications industry has been undergoing a period of rapid change and development. The entry of new players into the market encouraged them to seek new ways to attract and keep customers. These changes have led to a rapid influx of new technology and services.

Many times what defines a monopoly is not clear in every circumstance and there are many pending lawsuits for violations of Anti-trust laws in the courts today. Economic models are useful in resolving issues of whether a monopoly truly exists, or whether claims are…. [read more]


Oligopoly and a Monopoly: Viewed Term Paper

… But the merger also raises the question -- when two different forms of communication coalesce, is it a monopoly? SBC and AT& T. offer different communications services and technology to the potential consumer, one through evolving global wireless technology, and the other through the use of more conventional landlines. The overlap between the users of such consumers is not perfect, currently, moreover as AT& T. has less of a global outreach than SBC.

Thus, it seems like the two companies are merging services and expanding their consumer's range of services, rather than narrowing consumer choice and range of opportunities and do not currently fit the example of a monopoly. But as AT& T's own evolution demonstrates as a company, a company can begin as a…. [read more]


Business Regulation of Mergers Essay

… Aghion (et al., 2005) also argues that the presence of the threat of new entrants in an industry will also help to promote growth, and drive innovation; not only in products and services where firms wish to remain competitive to consumers, but also in the processes associated with productivity. The positive economic benefits of competition are also supported by Porter (2000) who found a positive correlation between the level of local competition and the level of antitrust regulation with the growth rate of the economy measured as GDP. Nicolleti (et al., 2000) also found similar results when undertaking research on OECD countries, looking specifically at industries which were deregulated, found a positive correlation between competition levels and economic growth levels. This indicates that controls to…. [read more]


Corporate Mergers and the Public Term Paper

… A direct chain of command was created in which those who were delegated power were made responsible to successively higher and more concentrated echelons. One observer, struck by the "highly militarized" organization of the steel industry, found military terminology appropriate to describe its organization.

Therefore, employers were fully capable of developing new skills when it came to managing these new industrial enterprises. Corporations grew to a size hitherto unimagined, their vastness and complexity requiring the development of a whole new managerial apparatus. Hundreds, or even thousands, of highly trained personnel would be needed to oversee the highly technical means of production, and to superintend armies of unskilled, or semi-skilled laborers:

The operation of the ... [New] systems required the creation of a complex managerial structure…. [read more]


ATandT and T-Mobile Merger Essay

… Therefore, in effect, the FCC has been indirectly (although possibly inadvertently) favoring competitors such as Verizon over ATT and T-Mobile. Certainly, no one who is familiar with the market can be in the dark about the potential effects of a delay upon the two companies, in particular ATT. Even if the deal is approved, the delay will cost ATT billions and will negatively affect the company's bottomline. Verizon has expanded continued to expand its market-leading 4G-LTE network to cover about 200 million subscribers in the United States. This gives it largely the biggest next-generation network 4 G. network. Sprint is now ahead of schedule in the effort to bring its 4G network online and it has even begun selling an iPhone. C Spire is also…. [read more]


Mobile / Sprint Merger Essay

… In this order of ideas, the new organization would possess a larger share of the market and would as such gain the adherent financial benefits.

Another plus of the merger would refer to the consolidation of the competitive position. In this order of ideas, prior to a merger, T-Mobile and Sprint remain cutthroat competitors which invest significant amounts of resources in the improvement of their own, individual competitive positions. The scope of such measures is that of ensuring wider market shares and improving the competitive position.

With the completion of the merger however, the competition posed by T-Mobile and Sprint for each other would be eliminated. At a financial level, this means that the two joining organizations would no longer use impressive financial resources to…. [read more]


Sprint Nextel Merger Term Paper

… Sprint Nextel Merger

History of Sprint

Sprint Corporation's history started in 1899, when its founder, Cleyson Brown, founded the Brown Telephone Company in Abilene, Kansas (Sprint Nextel, 2007). In 1972 the company's name was changed into United Telecommunications. The company acquired GTE Sprint in 1986, and started to be referred to as Sprint (Wikipedia, 2007). Although most telecommunications resources state that Sprint stands for Southern Pacific Railway Internal Network for Telecommunications, it seems that the real provenience of the name is: Switched Private Network Telecommunications.

The first six metropolitan areas to benefit from Sprint services were: New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Anaheim. In 1986, Sprint merged with U.S. Telecom, forming U.S. Sprint. Later, in 1991, the newly formed U.S. Sprint was…. [read more]


Company Mergers on Employees Term Paper

… Typically, employee morale and consequently productivity gets affected negatively once the news of an impending merger gets out. In addition, the fear of being laid off sometimes results in talented managerial and other staff hedging their risk by switching jobs. Unfortunately, senior management get so caught up in issues concerning finance, assets and markets that they tend to de-prioritize employee merger issues, often with disastrous results.

Post merger, other issues that run the risk of negatively affecting employees include less than successful integration of management vision, style, and culture. Failure to effectively integrate these aspects results in conflict, which can damage organizational relationships between management, employees, customers, suppliers, and stockholders. Thus, it is obvious that extreme care has to be taken to carefully plan for…. [read more]


Competition vs. Monopolies in the American Economy Term Paper

… Competition vs. Monopolies

In the American Economy, business is controlled by the government and the consumer. When a person is the owner of a business that is alone in its product that it provides for the consumer, it is said to be a monopoly. As a monopoly you have sole control over price. Monopolies are regulated by the government in order to prevent the misuse of power that a monopoly has.

If a person can only get turkey, for example from one store. Then the store can charge a lot more for that turkey than it could if the store next door was selling it too because then there would be competition. Also, the store would not have to produce a better quality of turkey…. [read more]


Media and Monopoly in 1983 Term Paper

… "Mass Media and Society." 25 Aug. 2000. Virginia Commonwealth University 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.people.vcu.edu/~dcroteau/370%20Media/business_ch_5.htm

Marin, Brian, "Environment and Public Health." 2001. University of Wollongong. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/pubs/01ceenv.html

Media Reform Information Center. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.corporations.org/media/

Miller, Mark Crispin. "What's Wrong With This Picture?." The Nation. 20 Dec. 2001. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20020107&s=miller

Moore, Wes. "Television: Opiate of the Masses." FamilyResource.com. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.familyresource.com/lifestyles/10/166/

Parenti, Michael, "Methods of Media Manipulation." Third World Traveler. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Media/MediaManip_Parenti.html

The Media Monopoly by Ben H. Bagdikian." EServer. 31 Oct. 2003. http://eserver.org/filmtv/media-monopoly.txt

Media Reform Information Center. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.corporations.org/media/

Miller, Mark Crispin. "What's Wrong With This Picture?." The Nation. 20 Dec. 2001. 31 Oct. 2003. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20020107&s=miller

Croteau, David and Hoynes, William. "Mass Media and Society." 25…. [read more]


De Beer's International Diamond Monopoly Research Proposal

… De Beer's International Diamond Monopoly

Company overview

De Beers Consolidated mines was formed in 1888 in South Africa from the merger between the companies of Barney Banato and Cecil Rhodes. The new entity was the only one to have diamond mining operations in the country. One year later, Rhodes signed an agreement with the London-based diamong syndicate in which the former agreed to buy a fixed amount of diamonds per year at an agreed price, thus, keeping under control both the output of diamonds and their price (Wikipedia, Accessed March 09).

The Diamond Trading Company, De Beers Group's distribution arm is sorting, valuing and selling approximately 40% of the world's rough diamonds from the value point-of-view. The De Beers Group has either joint-ventures or wholly-owned…. [read more]


Market Competition and Regulation Essay

… Market, Competition and Regulation

The competitive environment that characterizes today's global economy has determine numerous companies to resort to anti-competitive practices and international organizations to establish sets of rules and regulations designed in order to prevent such practices from taking place. Antitrust laws are being developed and implemented by countries within their boundaries, but can also be developed by international organizations, like the European Union.

The European Union, through its commissions, is quite active in this direction. This is because the European Union intends to build a competitive environment where all companies have equal opportunities at addressing the European market. As a consequence, the EU has established a series of laws that must be followed by companies that intend to do business in the European…. [read more]


Media Conglomeration Term Paper

… Media Conglomeration: A Monopoly

While it may seem that continuous government deregulation of the telecommunications industry would result in increased competition, the opposite is actually true. The telecommunications industry has instead seen an accelerating wave of corporate mergers and acquisitions that have created a small number of multi-billion-dollar media conglomerates (National Vanguard Books, 2004). The biggest media conglomerates are rapidly growing by consuming their competition, almost tripling in size during the 1990s. As a result, it is likely that one of these megamedia companies produces or distributes the majority of television shows, radio programs, movies and print publications.

The largest media conglomerate is AOL-Time Warner, which was formed when AOL acquired Time Warner for $160 billion in 2000 (National Vanguard Books, 2004). Prior to the…. [read more]


Changes in Industry the Case of Microsoft Essay

… ¶ … Industry- the case of Microsoft

Merger Regulations

Government regulation in mergers

Companies intending to merge are required to provide information on their transactions to government for authorization. They are required to provide information on market share, and any other industry related matters which would essentially change upon the merger. The authorities concerned will use the information provided to ascertain if the merger will lead to anticompetitive practices thus, loss of welfare. When assessing the information details, rival companies may provide the information to the body. The information will be considered and if the regulatory body is satisfied that the merger is okay to undertake they would recommend. On the contrary if the merger is bound to be harmful to the market equilibrium then…. [read more]

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