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Apollo Moon Landing Essay

… Apollo 8 orbited the moon ten times, over a period of 20 hours, and many photos were made close-up of the moon. But the photographs of earth taken by the astronauts aboard Apollo 8 were so stunning it raised the consciousness of many people that had perhaps been a bit skeptical about traveling to the moon. Moreover, on Christmas Eve, 1968, the Apollo astronauts broadcast a program that included the first 10 verses of the Book of Genesis, the most watched television program worldwide of any previous televised program.

Then, after Apollo 9 and 10 had also gone to the moon and back, Apollo 11, on July 16, 1969, took off from the Kennedy Space Center. The huge vehicle (with rocket boosters) stood 363 feet…. [read more]

Moon and Apollo Missions Research Paper

… ¶ … Apollo space missions. Inquiries, for example, like who began the Space Race and why, what was fulfilled on these expeditions and what were the identities of the acclaimed individuals on these missions will be responded to. The American public mentality towards space investigation will also be deliberated upon.

Who Started the Space Race and Why?

At the end of World War II in the 1940's, another clash started. It was referred to as the Cold War; this fight set two of the world's greatest superpowers at that time, the communist Union of socialist soviet republics (USSR) and the capitalist and democratic United States (U.S.) against one another. Starting just before 1960s, space would get to be an alternative field where this rivalry would…. [read more]

Apollo Program on Technology Research Paper

… Clearly, the Apollo program has led to technological innovation in a wide range of fields. While most people may have realized that the space program contributed to R&D in computer science, they may not have realized the role that such R&D played in developing products in multiple other areas. One of the concerns about the modern U.S. space program, which no longer has any missions that are comparable to the Apollo program, is that it will not provide sufficient incentive for the type of R&D programs that enabled these major technological changes.


Bravo Technical Resources, Inc. (2010). Tales from IT history: The Apollo missions and tech innovation. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from Bravo Tech website:

Gaudin, S. (2009, July 20). NASA's Apollo technology…. [read more]

Moon Landing Conspiracy Theory Term Paper

… Moon Landing Conspiracy Theory

The aim of this paper is to present elements that might point towards a possible conspiracy theory related to the Apollo mission to land a human being on the moon and return safely on Earth. Among the topics that will be discussed we shall include background information, evidence of conspiracy and possible reasons that lead to the existence of this conspiracy theory. In the end, the conclusion will make reference to the issues related to the persons involved - politicians and the suspect disappearance conditions of the staff and astronauts.

Human beings were always led by instincts of exploring the surrounding areas and space was a particular attraction in human history. The Moon, as the largest visible cosmic entity, has filled…. [read more]

Apollo Program and President John F. Kennedy Term Paper

… John F. Kennedy and the Apollo Program

Among other things, the 1960's will probably be remembered most prominently for its culmination in the moon landing, successfully achieved by the United States of America. Often hidden from public view is the political intrigue and innuendo accompanying such large, prestigious projects. President John F. Kennedy, the American president at the time, played the main deciding role in the launch and success of the Apollo program. Interestingly, his interest was not so much focused on space exploration itself, but rather on the political ends to be gained from the success of such a publicly popular endeavor. While President Kennedy announced the goal of an American moon landing before the end of the decade on 25 May 1961, there…. [read more]

Apollo 11 Neil Armstrong Term Paper

… Buzz Aldrin - Apollo 11 Landmark Mission

Each person is a witness to history in the making as the events of the world unfold each day. Some of the events will stand as remarkable over the course of a person's life, and some will take on a significance that is larger than life, meaning that a person might perceive it as the greatest accomplishment of mankind ever witnessed. There are also tragic events, like the assassination of a world leader whose life was a positive force in the world. Such events weigh heavy on those people who felt their own special or particular connection to that leader or to his accomplishments. Other events will serve to be a uniting force of a nation, which inspires…. [read more]

Missions to Mars Term Paper

… Physics - Mission to Mars


The Apollo Space Program that culminated in a spectacular series of moon landings concluded in 1973 and the focus of subsequent American space programs shifted to developing reusable space vehicles like the Space Shuttle. At the time, the Lunar landings restored national pride in our technological accomplishments after a few particularly difficult setbacks in the race to space against the Soviet Union.

At the height of the Cold War, the Soviets stunned the world by putting Sputnik, the first manmade satellite into orbit. In the next few years, the United States would experience a series of setbacks, resulting in the destruction of unmanned rockets on the launch pad and after take-off, and the newly formed National Aeronautics…. [read more]

Apollo Research Paper

… Apollo 1

Who, What, When, Why, and How?

This work in writing intends to examine Apollo 1 in terms of who, what, when, where, why and how and to note this outcomes of this NASA mission and make recommendations in retrospect to this event in American space history.

Who, What, Where, and When

Apollo 1 (204) was conducting a launch pad test from Pad 240A (7) with Virgil 'Gus' Ivan Grissom, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF, Edward Higgins White, II Lieutenant Colonel, USAF, and Roger Bruce Chaffee, Lieutenant Commander USN aboard on January 27, 1967 when tragedy struck. Apollo 1 burned in a flash with the three astronauts inside the launch vehicle.

Why, and How

It is reported that the Administration of the National Aeronautics and Space…. [read more]

Gemini Throughout History Research Paper

… This made it possible for the Gemini to effectively dock and perform the necessary requirements for traveling to the moon.

Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than comments from Hacker (1977) who said, "Gemini neared its operational phase, however, things were different. Apollo managers and engineers quickly sought help in various areas. James Church wanted to learn about Gemini program control experience, especially when the Gemini people succeeded in controlling program costs. Calvin Perrine asked for information on ground test programs as the Gemini development and test experts began meeting delivery schedules more successfully. Rolf Lanzkron and Joseph Loftus were anxious to learn anything from the Gemini crews that might be applicable to Apollo flight problems. Even North American, the Apollo…. [read more]

Human Race's Exploration of the Moon Thesis


Although the moon, Earth's only natural satellite, has been the focus of much study and inquiry for hundreds of years, it was not until the dawn of the age of technology circa the early 1950's that humans began to seriously consider sending rockets, probes and man himself to this lonely and mysterious outpost some 230,000 miles from planet Earth. Of course, the United States and the Soviet Union (i.e., today's Russia) are the nations best-known for their activities related to exploring the moon, but beginning around the mid-1990's, other nations like China, Japan, India and France set out to explore this body in space via a number of probes and satellites, some of which were highly successful and have added…. [read more]

Man on the Moon: Voyages of Apollo Astronauts by Andrew Chaikin Book Review

… Man on the Moon

A Great Leap of Wonder, Born of Innumerable Tiny Steps

Every page of A Man on the Moon demonstrates both Andrew Chaikin's lifelong love for the Apollo Program and the eight years he spent researching its fine details. At first (and to be honest, second) glance, the book appears not so much closely argued as densely documented, with every incident reconstructed from interviews and mission recordings and then arranged in chronological order -- often with time stamps to further authenticate each event as a tiny, isolated stage in the gigantic process of sending human beings to the moon.

The effect can be daunting and even off-putting at first, but soon Chaikin starts revealing the larger purpose behind the minutia. Once again,…. [read more]

Aeronautics National Space Craft Program Proposal Establishment Research Paper

… Aeronautics

National Space Craft Program Proposal

Establishment of a Special committee on Special development

Apollo 1 (as-204)

Apollo 7 (as 205)

Apollo 9 (as 504)

Apollo 10 (as 505)

Apollo 11 (as 506)

Apollo 12 (as 507)

Apollo 13 (as 508)

Apollo 14 (as 509)

Apollo 15 (as 510)

Apollo 16 (as 511)

Apollo 17 (as 512)

Management Lessons

Apollo 1

Management lesson

Apollo communications and Design

Management Lesson

Estimated cost of Research and Development

The Apollo service module has greatly contributed to the development of Space exploration. With the development of different blocks and modifications done on the design and safety requirements, the Apollo has become more efficient than it was at it's inception. It has been characterized by a series of space launches…. [read more]

Cold War and the Conquest of Space Thesis

… ¶ … Cold War and the Conquest of Space

On July 20, 1969, the United States accomplished the impossible. It was on this day that Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins set world history. On this day, this crew landed on the moon, finally proving once and for all that America led the world in technology and achievements. In the beginning, there were only two contenders in the race. However, recently, others are beginning to enter into the picture. In order to understand this fascination with the great beyond, one must understand the original race for space and the two superpowers that duked it out.

After WWII, the European powers were in disarray with no clear leader. The U.S. And the Soviet Union used…. [read more]

Space Race at the End of World Term Paper

… Space Race

At the end of World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States were locked into a bitter battle of military positioning and propaganda known as the Cold War. Stemming from this, as technology advancements showed the world the military capabilities of space exploration, the two nations became engaged in a "Space Race," as both attempted to conquer the space beyond the Earth. From the first satellite launched into space by the Soviet Union, to the first animals in space, to space probes, lunar landings, and humans in space, the Soviet Union appeared to rule the race. However, in 1969, the United States launched Apollo 11, which allowed the first human being to walk on the moon, essentially ending much of the…. [read more]

Nation-Altering Event of the 1960S Term Paper

… " The tragedies that have occurred as a result of space flight, from the Challenger explosion in 1993 to the recent Columbia shuttle disaster pull the nation closer together while pointing out the grave danger astronauts still face. Space flight has changed America and Americans, and the 1960s were the very height of change and advance, making this event one of the most pivotal in the history of the decade.


Byrnes, Mark E. Politics and Space: Image Making by NASA. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.

Flatow, Ira, "Analysis: Anniversary of First Plans for Going to the Moon." Talk of the Nation Science Friday (NPR). 25 May 2001.

Levins, Harry. "In 1969, the U.S. Won the Cold War Race to the Moon." St. Louis Post-Dispatch.…. [read more]

Space Program Term Paper

… It cannot, however, be denied that nearly all of these achievements could have been accomplished at a fraction of the cost that was spent on "manned" flights into space if the policy objectives had been to scientific benefits only.

Supporters of "manned" flights, on the other hand, argue that the human dexterity and ingenuity cannot be matched by robots. For example, the Soviets brought back samples of the moon's surface through cheaply-built unmanned "Luna" spacecrafts in the 1970s. Astronauts of the Apollo missions did the same. The difference is that geologically trained astronauts were able to select the most representative, interesting, and/or exotic samples while the Luna samples were scooped up at random by the robotic probes. (Spudis) Other tasks and field experiments carried out…. [read more]

Space History and the Reason to Maintain a Space Program Research Paper

… ¶ … Maintain a Space Program

History of the Space Program

It all started in the early 60s when a former Massachusetts senator John F Kennedy ran for presidency flanked by Lyndon B. Johnson as a running mate. Kennedy's campaign strategy was hinged on his vicious attacks on the sitting president for failing Americans by sitting and watching as the country slid into socio economic abyss, locally and internationally. In particular, Fredrick Kennedy accused Eisenhower of staying lukewarm on the missile gap problem; a perceived lag by the U.S. to keep at par with their Russian counterparts in developing long-range missiles with robust destructive capacities. The latter accusation was later found to be false. He was vehemently opposed to the earlier ambitions by the communists…. [read more]

Why Should We Continue the NASA Space Program? Research Proposal

… ¶ … NASA Space Program?

Our Nations' Greatest Gains are based on Space Exploration

Our nation's crisis economically today is directly related to the lack of consistent innovation gained from investments in space exploration and the many processes required to make these programs successful. From the most fundamental aspects of project management that today guide the development, testing and commercial launch of commercial, military and private aircraft to the development of razor-thin chemical polymers (Fischetti, Herbert, 68) that act as heat shields of returning capsules, the space program delivers a higher national return on investment than any other activity today. What makes the continual investment in space exploration and programs so critical in these recessionary times is that America needs a continual stream of new…. [read more]

Space Physiology Love of Extremes Research Paper

… In total, 11 Apollo flights were, then sent into space between the period 1968 and 1972. Twelve astronauts proceeded to work on the moon following Neil Armstrong's first walk on the lunar surface that happened on 20 July 1969, in the 11th Apollo mission. The missions demonstrated that indeed astronauts could do very productive work on the lunar surface that had only a sixth of the Earth's gravity. While these missions entailed simple observations on physiological adjustments within the spaceflight, doctors conducted an in depth examination of crewmembers primarily prior as well as upon completion of their missions. During these flights, the crewmembers described some minor physiological changes like space motion sickness (SMS). Nevertheless, human beings were now able to exist as well as do…. [read more]

NASA and Integrated Financial Management Term Paper

… However, the landing on the moon and the decline of the Cold War, among other factors, initiated changes in NASA's direction. Budget cuts caused officials to become more concerned about the survival of the space agency. NASA was forced to subcontract research and development that was previously conducted in-house (McCurdy).

As funding and accountability to Congress became an issue, the agency's mantra of encouraging risk and tolerating failure declined. Congress and the public wanted to see successful and dramatic programs, such as Apollo. However, high-profile failures like the 1967 Apollo fire and later, the Challenger explosion raised doubt on the feasibility and safety of the space program (McCurdy).

As a result, McCurdy observes, "professional employees watched the tolerance for risk and failure decrease at a…. [read more]

Space Vehicles for Future Research Paper

… Such technological growths will as well have fascinating implications on the hotel industry. Notably, the required technology for initial orbital accommodation is much simpler than that required by the passenger launch space vehicles. It is also simpler than that required within the orbiting research stations. Here, there is no need for extremely accurate high-speed computers, communications, attitude controls, and/or custom designed research equipment. Perhaps by 2030, orbital hotels will be beyond the first generations encompassing clusters of ordinary pre-fabricated modules, including large structures such as entertainment complexes, sports centers, and resort hotels assembled within the earth's orbit.

As the scenario described above develops, commercial incentives will arise thereby leading to at least one propellant service station within every hotel orbits, supplying hydrogen, oxygen, and water.…. [read more]

Space Exploration He Space Shuttle Essay

… Advocates of manned space travel counter that "to save money and reduce failure rates to a minimum, robotic probes are stripped down to essentials," and do not yield as much effective data as do manned spacecrafts (Rahls, 2005:1). However, it is important to note that if manned space vehicles eliminated or sharply reduced in number, then unmanned vehicles could potentially become more sophisticated, given the cost savings that would ensue. Robotic missions, with proper investment, could also become even more effective if the funds currently focused on manned missions were diverted to unmanned computerized technology. While in the past human-staffed missions were able to obtain more precise measurements, computers are improving constantly, and the problems encountered in the past may be less burdensome in the…. [read more]

Military Spending on Boeing in Seattle From 1970-1994 Term Paper

… Boeing Spending - 1974 to 1990

The purpose of this work is to research Boeing from the year of 1974 to the year of 1990 and identify the spending by Boeing for those years in terms of projects, expenditures on projects as well as the environment within the Aircraft production industry to those specific years and the shifts and transitions of the industry and how Boeing was affected or in turn effected the industry.

Beginning business July 15, 1916 under the name "B & W," Boeing was founded by Williams E. Boeing. "B & W" changed names first to that of "Pacific Aero" and then to "The Boeing Airplane Company." William Boeing was a Yale scholar and after he acquired his knowledge and learning about…. [read more]

Is Space Exploration Necessary? Research Paper

… ¶ … Against Deep-Space Exploration

In April 2010, U.S. President Barack Obama announced his intention to support continued space exploration as a fundamentally valuable human endeavor. More specifically, President Obama reiterated his belief that the nation should commit itself to putting a man on Mars much the way the nation did in connection with the effort to land a man on the Moon in the 1960s. Several prominent retired former NASA astronauts support the President's view, most notably, retired U.S. Air Force Colonel "Buzz" Aldrin. Meanwhile, other retired astronauts (including Neil Armstrong, who commended Aldrin's historic Apollo 11 Lunar Mission in 1969) believe that the nation should first commit more resources to returning to the Moon instead.

Still others question the need to continue deep-space…. [read more]

English Class. Topic- When Neil Essay

… The film inside cameras was not only safe from being overheated, as it actually had to be kept from freezing.

Shadows and light are one of the most important factors influencing hoax believers, as some photographs and videos appear to show other sources of light. Light was unevenly distributed, however, because of the fact that the moon itself generated light. Because its surface is very bright, the moon is capable to reflect sunlight, therefore meaning that there were also shadows and light caused by the moon itself.

All things considered, most hoax-related theories are easy to refute when taking into account logical data. Conspiracies will always attract many individuals, as people are inclined to express distrust consequent to coming across the smallest piece of data…. [read more]

Gemini Space Program Research Paper

… The Von Braun team had quickly traveled to the Redstone Arsenal located in Huntsville, Alabama to work on the Explorer satellite and were working on a moon rocket booster -- the Saturn which was to produce 1.5 million pounds of thrust which was more than a sufficient amount to boost the new spacecraft into orbit. It is reported that the storability of the fuels also were a positive factor for NASA as the vehicle could be fuel without being unloaded and refueled traveling through extended holds with cryogenic fuels such as liquid oxygen. (NASA, 2000, paraphrased) The following figure shows the final Gemini design.

Figure 3

Final Gemini Design

Source: Adcock (2010)

The following figure shows the Gemini Ejection Seat.

Figure 4

Gemini Ejection Seat…. [read more]

Boeing Is Considered the Leader Term Paper

… Counseling and referral services are provided.

Commuting Assistance Program - Boeing offers financial assistance to encourage employees to use a bus or van pool.


Boeing has a well-developed graduate opportunity program with opportunities in all fields.

Boeing lists career options in the following categories: aeronautical and astronautical engineering; chemical engineering and chemistry; civil engineering; electrical and electronics engineering; industrial engineering; mathematics and statistics; mechanical engineering; metallurgical engineering; physics; psychology, physiology, biology, medicine; business administration, economic, law, marketing.

As can be seen, there are opportunities for almost every type of graduate, though there is a major focus on engineering graduates.

Boeing looks for employees with an understanding of their discipline and also with teamwork skills, the ability to think critically and creatively, the…. [read more]

Is Space Exploration Necessary? Research Paper

… ¶ … Space Exploration Necessary

More than most of us can imagine, astronomy as a study has been around for long. Our first tour into the unknown realm outside our atmosphere started only just after half a century ago. Hitherto, we have made enormous coverage which has exceeded the projections despite the various setbacks. We have made successful landing on the immensely mysterious night candle and using expensive suits which are well thought out and designed, walked into the vast emptiness. And 50 years into the pursuit of our search for novel colonies, most people are asking why. Questions are being raised on the importance of spending billions of dollars on things which are not important while many more people are dying down here on…. [read more]

Aeronautics Degree Program as Enrolled Thesis

… ¶ … Aeronautics degree program as enrolled in by the student who wrote this report. There were several topics looked at for this project including increased visual intraocular pressure and other impairments during human spacefl9ight, the effects on space travel of the increase commercialization of the space programs around the world, the utilization of flight simulators by NASA and the pros and cons therein, the effects of transient vibrations and/or shock loads on spacecraft engines as well as with the structural integrity and the effect of space weather phenomenon such as geomagnetic storms, radiation blasts from the Sun and other radiation-giving bodies on NASA missions and aviation missions around the country in general. Relating to the last of those topics, how the data from the…. [read more]

NASA Value Chain Analysis Term Paper

… With regard to public relations and fundraising outsourcing, there are challenges and difficulties here as well. For instance, NASA's responsibility is to its shareholders -- the tax paying citizens of the America. To that regard, is it safe to outsource public relations work, as the outsource group would be responsible for selling the agency to 250,000,000 million shareholders? One misstep could undermine the public's faith in NASA.

With regard to fundraising, this process is so core to NASA's survival -- without fundraising efforts, both from private sources and in lobbying Congress for larger budgets, -- NASA does not survive -- is it safe to outsource it to a third party? Probably the answer is yes for this simple reason -- here, it is not so…. [read more]

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