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Native American Cultures of North Term Paper

… Native American Culture

Intolerance of native religion is a theme that pervades Native American studies, as the conditions that many Indian nations suffered were guised with a highly religiously motivated idea of manifest destiny. The Cherokee nation was no exception, as many members sought to live a life that was chosen for them, rather than made by choice. One hundred and fifty years of Cherokee history is peppered first with the ideal manifest destiny of taming the uncultured "barbarian" spirit by faith. Early in the Cherokee history there was struggles with conversion, indoctrination and intolerance of traditional ways. The modern Cherokee movement has been to meld Christianity (forced upon them by white society, with the spirit of the old knowledge and religion, which like many…. [read more]


Native Americans Transition From Freedom Essay

… Imperialism and Global Expansion:

The struggle to overcome isolation by Native Americans began with the economic prosperity that the country experienced. Native Americans struggled to overcome isolation because their perspective on the world was different from the views of European societies. Their struggle from isolation was also coupled with other people's belief that the United States could promote the cause of freedom and democracy only by war. With such perspectives, overcoming isolation was difficult for Native Americans though they overcame isolation through imperialism and global expansion through economic forces.

Changes to the Native American Themes:

The themes that the Native Americans used in their struggle to overcome isolation later changed mainly as a result of development of railroads in the western part of the United…. [read more]


Native American Culture Term Paper

… In 1968 the first tribal college opened on the Navajo reservation and by 1995, there were twenty-nine such college (Natives Pp). There are numerous radio stations, as well a newspapers and periodicals (Natives Pp).

A common concept among the majority of Native tribes is that of a dual divinity: "a Creator who is responsible for the creation of the world and is recognized in religious ritual and prayers, and a mythical individual, a hero or trickster, who teaches culture, proper behavior and provides sustenance to the tribe" (Native pp). Totems are a part of the spiritual path and represent the understanding cultural heritage as well as personality types (Meeks pp). Animal totems embody not only spiritual beings, messengers and guides, but also "embody some very…. [read more]


Native Americans: Separate and Unequal Term Paper

… 3). In a manner that mirrors the attitude of the Quechans, the Cherokee also sought federal protection, but wanted to maintain their sovereignty. In other words, Native Americans were trying to negotiate a place within the expanding European society in North America, but without sacrificing their values, beliefs, and sovereignty. The colonial powers, whether British, Spanish, French, or U.S., responded sometimes brutally by segregating them physically and culturally.

An essential component of the colonial response was to establish boarding schools through the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) (Oliver, 1996, p. 10-13). The goal was to indoctrinate Native American children in Christian values, the English language, property ownership, and the American work ethic, while stripping them of their native culture and language. Twenty-five boarding schools were…. [read more]


American Indian Studies Native Essay

… It was traditionally used to transmit religious beliefs because it conveys cultural tradition" (Oral Tradition And Origin Myth, n.d).

One of the most widespread forms of oral tradition is the story. Storytelling is a skill passed down from one generation to another. Just as with any arrangement of art, practice is the key. The storyteller must be able to gain the complete attention of the listeners; otherwise part of the lesson will be lost. The transmission of lessons by word of mouth leaves them susceptible to dissimilar understandings and fading forever. The story can cease to survive if it is forgotten; because there are no backup copies, the people's memories are the keepers of the scripts (Oral Tradition and Origin Myth, n.d).

One manner in…. [read more]


Natisve Americans Native Essay

… al, 142). Native Americans, who were former allies of the French, were treated by British in a hostile and controlling manner. To this, they reacted in such a way that they launched Pontiac War.

The rebellion had been initiated in order to challenge Britain and the Native Americans, had been successful in displacing the British from their forts and forcing them to remove their policies, which had initiated the Pontiac War. However, by 1764, Native Americans concentrated on making peace with the British. This act had been initiated in as Native Americans did not have the stamina and the weapons and guns to fight the war as they did not have allies to supply them with weapons.

The decade of war in the Seven Years…. [read more]


Native Americans Dakota and Lakota Essay

… The Native Indians also further declined with the arrival of the Europeans. Diseases took the best of every village including pneumonia, cholera, smallpox, and measles. The Indians had no built-in immunity to help them fight these diseases and so they either severely suffered from malnutrition or even died. This also forced them to leave their native villages, farming lands and their traditional hunting (Sutton, 2009).

Early historians, explorers, and colonialists considered the Native Americans as godless heathens and barbarians. Evidently, many the missionaries tried their best to convert the religion of the Natives, which they considered it as their divine obligation to save the savaged souls. In many cases, the Native Americans had involved themselves in trade with the English in terms of food supply…. [read more]


Native American and European Cultures Essay

… How could someone own something that they were actually a part of? As the Europeans did not feel a special connection to the world as a whole, they also did not have the same ideas of reciprocity as the Native Americans. ("Native American-European Contact") As part of a greater whole, the Native Americans always felt an obligation to the world as a whole. This led to problems with the Europeans when it came to social customs, diplomacy, etc., as the Europeans were self-centered, profit-oriented, and willing to exploit or destroy whatever got in their way.

Without contact with the Old World, the Native Americans were extremely different from the Europeans who arrived beginning in the 15th century. While some tried to find similarities between the…. [read more]


History of Native Americans Essay

… 3. What is the Indian Reorganization Act or "Indian New Deal"?

The Indian New Deal or the Indian Reorganization Act could be recognized as the only dazzling mark by which the United States' administration treated the minorities elegantly (Roberts).

The Indian New Deal terminated the Allotment Act and reconsolidate the reservation lands for Native Americans so that they could be restored to the communal society. The next step that was taken was the organization of the Native American tribes as a corporation. This New Deal also reformed the education for the minorities. The federal government was asked to allocate more funds to schools for the accommodation of a higher number of native children. The encouragement of Native Americans' traditional art and craft was also a…. [read more]


Native Americans Essay

… The Trail of Tears refers to the path that the Cherokee were forced to take after leaving their land and heading to Oklahoma in the brutal winters of 1838 and 1839 (2010). It is reported that about 5,000 Cherokee Indians lost their lives out the approximately 18,000 that were forced to go on this trip that was over 800 miles long (2010).

Marriage between Cherokee and Europeans were common in the 19th century; however, a well-know figure in Cherokee history is a man named Sequoyah who was of French-Cherokee heritage who came a generation before it intermarriage was common between white and Indian individuals (Waddington 2006). He is the only person who ever came up with a writing system for any indigenous North American language…. [read more]


Native American Responses to Anglo Essay

… Native Americans and Westward Expansion

Although the period in American history known as Westward Expansion brings to mind covered wagons of settlers moving to develop open land in the West, the West had been settled, and explored, far before this era. In fact, during the colonial times, the French, Spanish, and even Russians, joined the British in exploring and colonizing the new world ("American Westward Movement" 2008). For the Americans, Westward expansion meant the furthering of a nation, new business opportunities, and exotic lands. For the Native Americans, it meant tears.

The Native American reaction to Westward expansion and nation building was filled with sorrow. This is to be expected, based on what the Americans forced the Native Americans to give up so that they…. [read more]


Native Americans and Korean Term Paper

… Native Americans and Korean-Americans are separated by tens of thousands of years when it comes to immigration to the Americas.

The history of Native Americans and their migration to the Americas was traced between 9000 and 50000 years ago. When tackling the topic of migration of the native Americans, one can go as far as almost 50000 years ago. Searches based on DNA are revealed by Sandro Bonatto and Francisco Salzano who write an article about their analysis of "all available sequences of the first hypervariable segment of the human mitochondrial DNA control region." They support the theory of one single major migration that led to the formation and spreading across Americas of the Native Americans, coming from East Central Asia first to Beringia and…. [read more]


Indians'old World: Native Americans Essay

… Through the study of archaeological digs, it has been determined that Native American cultures did not isolate themselves from each other as broadly as once thought. Historians have largely depicted most Native American tribes as operating as individual units completely independent of other tribes but there is archaeological evidence that indicates that Native Americans actually engaged in a highly integrated system of trade and exchange of skills that allowed different Native American cultures to assist each other. Materials native to certain areas of the country such as the Great Lakes or the Rocky Mountains have been found in other areas of the country giving rise to the theory that the Native Americans traded with each other in order to supplement their own supply of goods…. [read more]


Life in Sherman Alexie's Reservation Blues Term Paper

… All at once the crossroads of the Native American reservation offer a point of meeting between Native American and African-American history and a point of divergence between Native American and white American influence.



That the novel presents the crossroads of Wellpinit as a potentially hopeful point in space that offer a chance at redemption instead of damnation is important, because for the most part, life on the reservation is neither hopeful nor redemptive. The space of the reservation is a space where "death, alcohol, poverty, book-burning, and child abuse find their place," and everyday life is not conducive to hope or the possibility of change due to the centuries-long legacy of colonialism (Meredith 446; Evans 52). This too serves as both a…. [read more]


Wounded Knee II Essay

… All remaining land would be opened up for sale to white settlers, timber companies, mines and railroads. By 1934 when the allotment process ended, over two-thirds of the reservation land held by Native Americans in 1887 had been lost, and 90,000 had become completely landless. No matter whether it was the original intention of Dawes or not, the effect was to increase the poverty of the Indians. In addition, the Indian trust funds created by Dawes to manage royalties for oil, timber and mineral rights, which still exist today, have turned out to by monumentally corrupt and incompetent. In many cases, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) simply lost the records and was unable to account for billions of dollars in payments that were owed…. [read more]


Fashion the Misappropriation of Native Research Paper

… It is highly likely that what the Navajo are doing will be the wave of the future. Native American imagery is often highly aesthetic, so much so that Vogue and other haute couture magazines are catching onto the trend and marketing Native-inspired wear. If more and more Native companies can emerge onto the high fashion catwalks, then the scales would be more in balance. As of now, Vogue and other magazines depict models "wearing Native-inspired fashions and including no Native American designers, photographers or other consultants in the process," (Nittle).

One Austin, Texas manufacturer and retailer forged a close tie with the Navajo nation because he wanted to use the tribal name. Fermin Navar and his business partner Phil Brader "signed a 75-year licensing agreement…. [read more]


Puritans and Native Americans Term Paper

… These were people whose idea of God had justified the beheading of the King of England, Charles the First, who could hardly be accused of being a godless heathen; in fact, he was beheaded because his Christian God was insufficiently Puritan. In some sense, the Native Americans were hardly the only victims of Puritan self-righteousness: before going to war with Native Americans, the Puritans had treated the King of England and the population of Ireland with the same lofty contempt.

For that reason, Rowlandson's story of her captivity is more full of Biblical quotations than any attempt to understand the social structure or mores of the Native Americans that abducted her: they were "heathens" and that was enough understanding as far as the Puritans were…. [read more]


Native Art of North Term Paper

… She and Laurens Hammack describe in detail the ritual and cosmological role of caves, solstice marking, the two-headed snake, lakes, shrines, and kickball games intended to make rain. The parallels also include the deities known in Mexico as Quetzalcoatl, Tlaloc, and Tezcatlipoca." (Sorenson, 1987)

II. Similarities of Ceramics

Ceramics is another area of art form that can be found as similar in North American and Mesoamerican Indian cultures. For example, Ceramics from the middle Savannah River in Georgia and South Carolina (known as Stallings, Stallings Island, or St. Simons) are similar to those of the earlier Puerto Homiga ceramics of Colombia. The following pictures show first, a piece of Stallings Ceramic followed by two pictures of Puerto Homiga ceramics of Colombia.

Figure 1 -- Stallings…. [read more]


North American Place Names Research Paper

… North American Place Names

North American settlements

Europeans are responsible for naming most of the present day locations in North America, as they renamed the territories they settled on the basis of the circumstances they came across the respective places, considering religious names and Europeans places or influential individuals as essential in the process of designation. Even with that, a series of Native American places managed to keep their initial names, either because they were not considered of great importance for the settlers or because their original inhabitants struggled to preserve their cultural heritage.

The city of Jamestown in the state of Virginia owes its name to King James I of England, given that the person to finance the Virginia Company of London in 1607…. [read more]


Native Americans and Their Health Issues Essay

… Health of Native Americans

The Health Issues of Native Americans

Native Americans -- as a minority cultural group with many subcultures -- have a bleak history in the United States. They have a history of being ignored, or being persecuted, or indeed relegated to poverty status over the last few hundred years. The data available also shows that Native Americans suffer from poor health in many aspects of their lives.

According to Indian Health Services, American Indians and Alaska Natives "have long experienced lower health status" when they are compared with other cultures in the U.S. In fact, Native Americans and Alaska Natives have a life expectancy that is 2.4 years less than all other ethnic groups in the U.S. (74.5 years for Native Peoples…. [read more]


Native Mythology to North America Term Paper

… In contrast to what Christians and Catholics believe that the first man and woman were Adam and Eve and were created by God, the myths of Native Americans have diverse ideas on origin of the earth, as well as the origin of the first man and woman. Some people believe that the earth came from the mud brought back by a person who dived in the ocean. Others, on the other hand, say that the earth is on the back of a giant turtle (Oaklamia, 2003). The first man and woman were said to came from a cave, or that they were brought on earth by a hero to assess them on how they can manage the earth.

In the myths that we have inherited…. [read more]


Colonial America: Questions Puritans Essay

… In contrast, African-Americans had far less leverage as slaves. In particular, slaves laboring to harvest cash crops of the South were isolated from developing American society and created their own culture, in contrast to the smaller numbers of house servants in the North.

Q3. Investing in the New England area or the Chesapeake?

The New England colonies are much more independent from the British crown in terms of their governance. The "Massachusetts Bay Colony had to obey English laws. However, its charter provided more independence than did the royal charter of Virginia" (The Pilgrims and Puritans come to America to avoid religious persecution," Holt Social Studies, 2012). New England society is governed by and influenced by religious norms, much more so than the American South.…. [read more]


American Colonies the Puritans Who Arrived Essay

… ¶ … American Colonies

The Puritans who arrived in America in 1630 were on a mission to build a -city upon a hill- as an example of what could be done in a society committed to Gods laws. In the first century of settlement, however, the challenges that they encountered compromised aspects of their mission. Discuss these challenges and the Puritans' response to them.

Some of the first settlers who arrived in America in 1630 were Puritans, determined to make their new settlement "a city on a hill" as a symbol of how successful a society could be if it were committed to God's laws. However, the challenges they faced upon their arrival in the New World compromised aspects of this mission, and the Puritans…. [read more]


Weatherford Indian Givers Brief Summary Book Review

… Moreover, from 1492 until his death he was insistent about collecting what he regarded as his fair share of the profits, and downright paranoid in his belief that he was being denied the wealth, honor and glory due to him. He believed this was because of his relatively humble and obscure birth, and perhaps this was partially true, although his personality was hardly one to inspire trust and loyalty, either from his subordinates or superiors. Columbus in real life showed a very consistent pattern of deceit and low cunning, even against the men on his own ships, but he was an extremely determined man who used any means necessary to achieve his objectives. This is definitely not the Columbus portrayed in the movie, but then…. [read more]


Peoples of Eastern North America and the American Democracy Essay

… American Democracy

Contact between Europeans and Native Americans undoubtedly shaped the course of New World history. Political alliances enabled strategic partnerships for trade as well as land settlements. Pre-existing rivalries between the French and British were played out on New World grounds, and the indigenous peoples served critical roles. Moreover, as Johansen points out, European settlers witnessed Enlightenment values in practice among Iroquois Confederacy government. It was as if the Iroquois offered a concrete vision of what the future of the United States might look like. Therefore, the indigenous people of North America did in fact shape the formation of the United States.

The indigenous people of North America quite literally shaped the formation of the United States by determining which colonial power(s) had access…. [read more]


Keeping Native American Language Alive Term Paper

… The Aztec-Tanoan language includes tribes in New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California and Utah (Columbia Encyclopedia).

Legislation

In 1990, Congress passed the "Native American Languages Act (saving a culture, 2002)" and brought to the forefront the importance of saving the indigenous languages of the United States. This act "mandates that the government preserve and promote the right of Indians to use and develop their indigenous languages (saving a culture, 2002)." In 1992, there was additional legislation that provided annual grants for language recovery programs and these grants are still in place today (saving in culture, 2002).

This legislation was a big change from the government's normally hostile attitude concerning the language and customs of the Indians.

Conclusion

There are some Native American languages that have either…. [read more]


Diversity of Native American Nations Essay

… He spoke Keresan when he was growing up, and went to Indian schools, as did most of the children in the tribe. In the seventh grade, students in those schools were not allowed to speak their native languages anymore, and had to speak English. This was designed to assimilate them into the prevailing culture, so they could be more accepted by the American people. By placing them into mainstream culture, they would be losing a lot of their heritage, but they would not have to worry about not being accepted by other people around them, so it was believed that they would benefit (Ortiz, 1987). Cultural dissonance became a big part of Ortiz's life, because he saw the changes in himself and his friends as…. [read more]


Civil War American Indian Term Paper

… ¶ … conflict between Native Americans and colonists was inevitable from the beginning. The insurgence of colonialism from the 17th to the 18th century led to the complete transformation of the Eastern American frontier from wilderness to colonial settlements. As a result, the "Indian Civil Wars" between the colonists and the various Indian nations represented some of the bloodiest conflicts in American history. This conflict, which occurred concurrently with the American revolutionary war eventually led to the destruction of the Indian Nations west of the Mississippi. Although often discussed within history books as massacres and genocide, a real examination of the Indian wars upon standards of a "just war" has been lacking. The following analysis will look to understand the conflicts between Native Americans and…. [read more]


American History Final Exam Stages Term Paper

… Turner lived at a time before a large middle class existed or the U.S. had become a consumer society, so he naturally thought of pioneers as farmers and ranchers who moved the agricultural frontier to the West. In his era, even though the country was rapidly industrializing, the majority of people still lived on farms and in small towns. For this reason and was always the main goal of Manifest Destiny, while industrial capitalism required a different type of imperialism that acquired markets and raw materials overseas rather than colonies. Eastern capitalists since the time of Alexander Hamilton and the early Federalists and Whigs had always had a very limited interest in expanding the agrarian frontier, and even less in the expansion of slavery. They…. [read more]


Native Americans the Aleutian Islands Term Paper

… ' who owned titles and resources, while the commoners, although free, did not. The 'ruling class' did not, however, rule by divine right. Instead:

Inherited chiefly or elite status had to be validated by performance -- leadership of raids to acquire slaves and booty, management of trade and political alliances, and success in organizing food and wealth production by the corporate kin group. Successful 'rich men' organized feasts (potlatches) and ceremonies which served to redistribute goods and enhance personal and group... household size was thereby linked to potential political influence. (Crowell, unpaged)

There were also occupational and ritual classes, which included artists, shamans, whalers and the Alutiiq kas'at, or 'wise men.' The communities supported these specialists, especially the shamans. (Crowell, unpaged)

While the political arrangements…. [read more]

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