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Native American Literature Annotated Bibliography

… Native American Lit

Wise, Bill and Bill Farnsworth (ill.). Louis Sockalexis: Native American Baseball Pioneer. New York: Lee & Low, 2007.

ISBN: 1584302690 9781584302698, 31 pages, color illustrations, IRA Children's Book Award, Carter G. Woodson Book Award. Juvenile audience.

A biography of professional baseball player Louis Sockalexis. Growing up in the late nineteenth century, Louis' dreams of becoming a baseball player were ridiculed because he was Native American. His success did not end the racism that plague him. Despite this, he managed to achieve his personal dreams and erode the racial barriers in this country to some degree.

-Somewhat overly simplistic in language given the subject matter; could be made more challenging

-Brevity of presentation allows for a quick yet highly informative read

-Illustrations well-matched…. [read more]

American Indian Studies Native Essay

… It was traditionally used to transmit religious beliefs because it conveys cultural tradition" (Oral Tradition And Origin Myth, n.d).

One of the most widespread forms of oral tradition is the story. Storytelling is a skill passed down from one generation to another. Just as with any arrangement of art, practice is the key. The storyteller must be able to gain the complete attention of the listeners; otherwise part of the lesson will be lost. The transmission of lessons by word of mouth leaves them susceptible to dissimilar understandings and fading forever. The story can cease to survive if it is forgotten; because there are no backup copies, the people's memories are the keepers of the scripts (Oral Tradition and Origin Myth, n.d).

One manner in…. [read more]

Native American Writers the Feminine Earth Mother Term Paper

… Native American Writers

The Feminine Earth Mother Through Two Different Styles

Comparison and Contrast of Cusick and Topahonso's Native American Literature

Though their work has echoed off the hills and valleys of the United States since before the first European even began to conceive of the New World, Native Americans have only recently been included in the survey of American Literature. In fact, David Cusick's early literary work concerning the Iraqouis Native Americans succeeded not only in establishing the Native American literary genre, but also in encouraging scholars to reevaluate Native American History Combining the melodious sounds of a sophisticated oral tradition with the beautiful imagery of an untainted United States' wilderness, Native American authors have given American Literature a unique selection of poetry and…. [read more]

Native American Expressive Culture Term Paper

… Native American Expressive Culture

The Native American tradition can be seen as an evolving cultural tradition that encompasses countless expressions of creativity, from many varied cultures and expressions of culture. Native American cultural expression has been at various times subverted and reformed. During the 19th century and into the 20th century there was a large movement to force assimilation of Native Americans, in white English speaking culture.


Allison, and Vining 193) the circumstances of this change were developed as a series of boarding schools, where children were taken from their homes and subjected to English only learning environments, where they were barred from speaking in their native languages and barred for the most part from participating in Native American cultural expressions.

Spack 120) This…. [read more]

Native Americans: Separate and Unequal Term Paper

… 3). In a manner that mirrors the attitude of the Quechans, the Cherokee also sought federal protection, but wanted to maintain their sovereignty. In other words, Native Americans were trying to negotiate a place within the expanding European society in North America, but without sacrificing their values, beliefs, and sovereignty. The colonial powers, whether British, Spanish, French, or U.S., responded sometimes brutally by segregating them physically and culturally.

An essential component of the colonial response was to establish boarding schools through the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) (Oliver, 1996, p. 10-13). The goal was to indoctrinate Native American children in Christian values, the English language, property ownership, and the American work ethic, while stripping them of their native culture and language. Twenty-five boarding schools were…. [read more]

American Literature 1820 -- 1865 Thesis

… Chapter III primarily unfolds as a dialogue between Bumpo and his native colleague, as they discuss the 'back story' of the book, and describe how the white man came to North America. "So I ask you, Chingachgook, what passed, according to the traditions of the red men, when our fathers first met?" (Cooper 27). Although somewhat contrived, the exchange establishes the complex and multi-layered nature of white-native relations. Bumpo is racially white, but his ethnic identification embraces both native and European culture, even though in the eyes of Chingachgook, he can never be 'pure' native. The fact that being 'the last of the Mohicans' with a pure bloodline like Chingachgook's son Uncas has value shows that the division between white and native can be blurred…. [read more]

Native American Comparison Essay

… This question is asked in reference to the narrator informing the reader that the name of the song is "Exodus." He is wondering if there is a deeper meaning to the fact that both of these groups enjoy a song which is about leaving an oppressive location and moving to a space where they can be tolerated as a people. Biblically, exodus refers to the Jews leaving Egypt and travelling to the Promised Land, but it can mean any time wherein a group who has been systematically marginalized comes to a time and an attitude where they break away and become free. This is an intentional historical allusion. The exodus for both Native Americans and the majority culture could be a fleeing from the history…. [read more]

Native Americans Essay

… The Trail of Tears refers to the path that the Cherokee were forced to take after leaving their land and heading to Oklahoma in the brutal winters of 1838 and 1839 (2010). It is reported that about 5,000 Cherokee Indians lost their lives out the approximately 18,000 that were forced to go on this trip that was over 800 miles long (2010).

Marriage between Cherokee and Europeans were common in the 19th century; however, a well-know figure in Cherokee history is a man named Sequoyah who was of French-Cherokee heritage who came a generation before it intermarriage was common between white and Indian individuals (Waddington 2006). He is the only person who ever came up with a writing system for any indigenous North American language…. [read more]

American Literature and the Great Essay

… The first of these authors, Zora Neale Hurston, published her first major anthropological work Mules and Men in 1935, just as the Federal Writer's Project was getting underway. Mules and Men is a piece of literary anthropology, and in it Hurston attempts to record the folk tales of the South, and particularly of rural blacks, "before it's too late" (Hurston 8). Hurston's desire to record these folk tales in the wake of the Great Depression demonstrates quite a different response to the Depression than Steinbeck, because where Steinbeck's work seems to mourn the loss of an almost idealized pre-Depression world, Hurston recognizes that the world before the Depression was not especially positive (at least for blacks), and thus it is her duty so salvage whatever…. [read more]

Native American Gaming in February Term Paper

… It is believed that this continued onslaught of casino talk is more than a mere ploy to gain revenue for Minnesota, a state that has shown large deficits (Melmer Pp). According to William Hardaker, attorney for Shakopee Sioux, it is an attack on American Indian tribal government in that the legislators are asking the tribes to set aside sovereignty, which is not an economic issue (Melmer Pp).

Minnesota was one of the first states to negotiate gaming compacts under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, and while many states and tribes placed a time limit on the compacts, Minnesota tribes acquired no limit compacts (Melmer Pp). And although the newest bills are dead for now, they are still available to be attached as riders to other…. [read more]

Life in Sherman Alexie's Reservation Blues Term Paper

… All at once the crossroads of the Native American reservation offer a point of meeting between Native American and African-American history and a point of divergence between Native American and white American influence.

That the novel presents the crossroads of Wellpinit as a potentially hopeful point in space that offer a chance at redemption instead of damnation is important, because for the most part, life on the reservation is neither hopeful nor redemptive. The space of the reservation is a space where "death, alcohol, poverty, book-burning, and child abuse find their place," and everyday life is not conducive to hope or the possibility of change due to the centuries-long legacy of colonialism (Meredith 446; Evans 52). This too serves as both a…. [read more]

Social Change for American Indian Societies Term Paper

… NATIVE AMERICAN WORLDVIEW is grounded in historical and cultural changes and traditions. There may not only single way of looking at the world among surviving indigenous populations in the Americas but there are some common characteristics that shape the broader worldview. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Native Americans had had to experience political discrimination including an forceful assimilation policy that often used military power, forced relocation, repression, social and cultural regulation process and ban on use of some cultural ceremonies. Rick Hill (1988) writes about this prejudice:

There was also an assumption that Indians would be better off not being Indians, so that all 'pagan' trappings should be removed to liberate the Indian people from their inferior culture. The religion of the Indian people…. [read more]

American Ethnic Literature Analyzing Essay

… Iranian American writers, for example, "grapple with exile [and] 'depict cultural identity as caught between abstract theories of boundary-free identity, the politics and problematics of representation, and the painful realities of exile, authoritarianism, and social marginalization" (Karim, Rahimieh, 2008, p. 10). In the modern American landscape, in other words, melting pot standards are resisted -- but definite and clear ethnic identity is difficult to manifest (especially when the landscape is hostile to what it perceives as a foreign threat). Liberty, opportunity, and equality are therefore not truly experienced by the Ethnic American writer unless he adapts to what the WASP lays out as conditions for joining the club.

In conclusion, the Ethnic American writer is in a way an outsider to the American tradition but…. [read more]

Native American Children's Literature Term Paper

… Folklore

Teaching Native American Folklore to Children

This paper will examine Donna Norton's typology of Native American folklore and examine how this typology can be a useful pedagogical tool when approaching a diverse student body and when teaching a multicultural curriculum.

Classifying Native American folklore into different types of tales, such as "Setting-the-World-in-Order Tales," "Family Drama Tales," "Trickster Tales," "Threshold Tales" and "Combination Tales," is not simply an effective way to introduce aspects of native culture to young children in a diverse classroom (Norton 2005: 82-87). It can also be a powerful method to draw connections between the children's own cultures and Native American mythology. For example, "Trickster Tales" are "common in folklore all over the world," perhaps the most culturally pervasive kind of tale…. [read more]

Memory, a Voyage Into History Essay

… With Sherman Alexie and his novel, Reservation Blues the novel centers are characters from the 1990's whose interactions include a talking guitar, the living dead, and other cosmic happenings. Like with Momaday, historic memory as well as tribal and individual memory play prominent roles within the world of the novel and allow the environment to represent those memories. On the surface, Alexie's novel is a story of twentieth-century American Indian bildungsroman. Because the characters in the story are reservation Indians, their passage into adulthood is burdened by the question of what kind of "Indians" they will be and who they will inevitably be.

Reservation Blues struggles with major questions of community and identity, with a similar style to Momaday in rapid changes in narrative points-of-view…. [read more]

Puritans and Native Americans Term Paper

… These were people whose idea of God had justified the beheading of the King of England, Charles the First, who could hardly be accused of being a godless heathen; in fact, he was beheaded because his Christian God was insufficiently Puritan. In some sense, the Native Americans were hardly the only victims of Puritan self-righteousness: before going to war with Native Americans, the Puritans had treated the King of England and the population of Ireland with the same lofty contempt.

For that reason, Rowlandson's story of her captivity is more full of Biblical quotations than any attempt to understand the social structure or mores of the Native Americans that abducted her: they were "heathens" and that was enough understanding as far as the Puritans were…. [read more]

Native American Literature the Themes Term Paper

… The snakes thrust against Ama's house are then a sign of the relative luck experienced later, when the panther is killed. This luck manifests itself when Ama is not convicted of the crime, and is free to go home.

This kind of dichotomy in imagery also shows that all things are seen in a dual way by the tribe. No purely good or evil qualities are imposed upon any single thing, in the way that Westerners would do. This is also an idea perpetuated in Sacred Hoop. All things are part of an eternal cycle, during which both good and bad occurs, while no pure good or pure bad can be connected perpetually to one thing.

The Tree and the Storm

Close to Ama's house…. [read more]

American Literature, Like All Other Nationalistic Term Paper

… American Literature, like all other nationalistic literature has had an evolution that marks frequently changing opinions with regard to what are to be included in the voice of literature. What do we consider the "classic" works of American literature and how do such representations display what is American literature? What it means to be American literature has expanded, as the political and social climate has changed to include previously disenfranchised voices, such as Native Americans as well as disenfranchised immigrants from many nations of origin. One example of this expansion can be found in analogies, as they have grown. Harper Single Volume American Literature is no exception as it has grown with others to more fully express the "American experience" now including works from authors…. [read more]

American Experience Term Paper

… American Literature

The End of Savagery: The Abolition of Traditional, American Indian Societies to pave way for the White American's "New World" Society

America between the 18th and 19th centuries experienced a transition from being a traditional to a gradually modernizing society. With increased capabilities to be more mobile and travel other territories all over the world, the Western nations -- European nations, in particular -- sought to discover new societies and territories wherein they can establish new societies, extensions of societies that they already have in their own respective countries. With the objective of expanding their power and influence around the world, these Western nations found success when they discovered the territory they called the "New World," the territory that is now known as…. [read more]

American Literature Myth in the Poetry of Allen Ginsberg a Jungian Analysis Term Paper

… American Literature

Allen Ginsberg's epic poem Howel, is not only a personal statement of society, but also a classic poem full of illusions to mythology and psychology. It is a history lesson of the 1950s and 1060s, an era of chaotic change and social unrest. It is considered to be one of the principal works of the Beat Generation, being held up alongside of Jack Kerouac's on the Road and William S. Burroughs' Naked Lunch. The poem was first performed, in the custom of the Beat Generation, in 1955 in San Francisco. It was published shortly afterwards by City Lights Bookstore. At its core, Howl is a collection of stories and experiences relating to the author's friends and contemporaries. It is told in a tumbling…. [read more]

Career Developmental Needs of Native Americans Thesis

… Career Developmental Needs of Native Americans

The objective of this work is to examine the career developmental needs of Native Americans and primarily those residing in urban areas and reservations and specifically those in the Southwestern portion of the United States.

Historically, and as noted in the work of Delcruz (1978) social reality and historical relationships are much slower to change than "congressional wisdom," or in other words that which is legislated is often slow in application and implementation in changing the method that has been used throughout history in deal with relationships and the everyday real-life experiences of certain minorities and in this study specifically that of the Native American Indian.

Background of the Study

The work of Joseph B. Delzcruz entitled: "Educational Programs…. [read more]

Conflict and Cooperation: Native Americans Annotated Bibliography

… While the results were often bloody (as in the 1622 Massacre, King Philips War's, among other battles), it often goes unnoticed that they often were not. While violent battles may more easily capture people's attention, in the end what should be emphasized when studying early interactions between Native Americans and European colonizers is the degree to which they cooperated and tried to understand each other.

Works Cited

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America. New York:

Cornell University Press, 2000.

-- . "English Perceptions of Treacherym 1583-1640: The Case of the American 'Savage'." The Historical Journal. Vol 20. No. 2. (June 1977) pp. 263-287.

-- . Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony. 2nd Edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield

Publishers, 2007.

Johnson, Caleb.…. [read more]

Reasons for Ritual in Native American Traditions Essay

… ¶ … Ritual in Native American Traditions

The Impenetrability of the Native American Mind

Donald Lee Fixico, a Native American author intending to introduce and defend the Indian worldview to a nonwhite audience states in his book the American Indian Mind that Native Americans such as himself, even after being socialized into white society, have a cultural worldview that is integrally and profoundly different than whites, a worldview that is anathema to the linearity and scientific rationalism endemic to white society. Viewing Native culture as such, even to defend the beauty and uniqueness a perspective that has been devalued by white society, may seem to run the risk of essentializing Native Americans and reducing native rituals cultures to museum pieces. According to editor and author…. [read more]

Multiculturalism in American Literature Essay

… That is, these texts exist in a clear cultural and historic moment, and without understanding of that moment, or the tropes that go with it, it can be difficult to closely read the texts. This is the case for any type of literature, the severe weighting toward Western literature meant that readers who had little grounding in the appropriate myths were effectively barred from a large amount of curriculum. However, by expanding readings to induce a variety of cultures, is possible to give more students access points to the literature. The advantage of a more multicultural canon is that it becomes readable to students who have experiences outside traditional, mainstream American backgrounds.

As schools become more inclusive of other backgrounds, there is an increasing amount…. [read more]

Native Mythology to North America Term Paper

… In contrast to what Christians and Catholics believe that the first man and woman were Adam and Eve and were created by God, the myths of Native Americans have diverse ideas on origin of the earth, as well as the origin of the first man and woman. Some people believe that the earth came from the mud brought back by a person who dived in the ocean. Others, on the other hand, say that the earth is on the back of a giant turtle (Oaklamia, 2003). The first man and woman were said to came from a cave, or that they were brought on earth by a hero to assess them on how they can manage the earth.

In the myths that we have inherited…. [read more]

Bias in Curricula Native American Essay

… All of the Indian characters are grunting savages. The time period, place and tribes involved are unknown, and the storyline is rather dark. Other legends use terms such as "squaw," "papoose," "chief," and "redskin." Wardrobe descriptions are always of beads, feathers, and buckskin and there is often vanishing Indian concept at play -- Native Americans are portrayed as a soon-to-be-extinct species, with no place or existence as human beings in contemporary America. In one story, animals "become" Indians simply by carrying bows and arrows or dressing the part in Indian clothing. In another children "play Indian" as if "Indian" was a role that one could assume as one can dress up like doctors or cowboys or baseball players. By comparison, it would be very politically…. [read more]

telling the values of native americans Essay

… Instead of the two worlds in existence in the Iroquois version, the Navajo present a minimum of four worlds. Moreover, the four worlds of the Navajo are neither good nor evil. They are not in opposition with one another; instead, they coexist and each has its own role or part to play in the universal order. The arrival of the Europeans would have been theoretically less disruptive within the Navajo worldview, which would have permitted the heterogeneity. For the Iroquois, the arrival of the Europeans could have been more easily aligned with the concept of the dark world or the bad mind detailed in the creation story.
Social order is imparted largely through gender binaries in both the Navajo and Iroquois creation tales. These gender…. [read more]

American Ethnic Literature Essay

… In this argument, Anzaldua uses the concept of how language help define the experience of minority individuals, which is very often a theme that is not explicitly expressed in American ethnic literature. Here, she writes, "Chicanas who grew up speaking Chicano Spanish have internalized the belief that we speak poor Spanish. It is illegitimate, a bastard language. And because we internalized how our language has been used against us at the dominant culture, we use our language differences against each other," (Anzaldua 2950). There is a need for the individual and society at large to except these hybrid forms of identity in contemporary American culture. Language is crucial to the formation of both culture and identity. By being denied this by both Americans and Mexicans,…. [read more]

Weatherford Indian Givers Brief Summary Book Review

… Moreover, from 1492 until his death he was insistent about collecting what he regarded as his fair share of the profits, and downright paranoid in his belief that he was being denied the wealth, honor and glory due to him. He believed this was because of his relatively humble and obscure birth, and perhaps this was partially true, although his personality was hardly one to inspire trust and loyalty, either from his subordinates or superiors. Columbus in real life showed a very consistent pattern of deceit and low cunning, even against the men on his own ships, but he was an extremely determined man who used any means necessary to achieve his objectives. This is definitely not the Columbus portrayed in the movie, but then…. [read more]

Native American Tricksters Tales Essay

… American Literature

Native American Tricksters Tales

The "Bungling Host" contains a couple of good lessons about how people should not behave. The firs lesson is about how one should not always want to be just like everyone else. The rabbit watched the bear prepare his meal and when the bear came to his house for dinner he wanted to prepare his meal in the same way. But when he slit his belly he injured himself. If the rabbit had just prepared his dinner the way that he had always done he would not have ended up getting injured.

The second lesson that this tale teaches is that of how things are not always as they appear. When the rabbit got injured and the bear went…. [read more]

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