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Standards-Based Assessment Across the Nation Term Paper

… Include parents and students in training as appropriate to ensure a full partnership with all the key stakeholders. Building a community of practice around a comprehensive progress monitoring improvement process -- within the school and across the community -- will ensure that a commitment builds for effective use of the process.

3. Find and use available resources. Technical assistance and research centers can provide resource maps and literature reviews for use by states and districts. Existing state and district initiatives in the content areas can also be essential resources to schools. Examples of these include Reading First programs and state and local chapters of professional organizations such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the National Staff Development Council, National Council of Teachers of…. [read more]

Grade 1 Math Standards Essay

… Through performance standards design, the two systems have developed a system of conceptual nesting rather than simply relying on the more conventional system of learning tiers. Too often, in previously employed standards for mathematics performance, students advanced through their demonstrations of mathematical reasoning by moving from one tier to the next presumably more advanced tier. For instance, first graders needed to demonstrate that they could count to 100 before they began addition, or the like. The point is that the performance standard categories were treated as discrete teaching and learning units. The approach taken by the North Carolina Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards and the North Carolina Common Core state standards is integrative -- the standards do not assume that children will achieve an understanding…. [read more]

NCTM Process Standards Essay

… ¶ … NCTM Process Standards


In my class, problem-solving activities were integrated into every learning unit. Some of the methods deployed included learning how to use fractions in a hands-on fashion. As well as doing standard fraction-related problems on paper, students were asked to make visual representations of fractions and use them to solve word problems.

Learning how to make unit conversions was one of the most useful skills learned by the students. Students were given problems similar to those they might cope with in daily life, such as converting standard measurements to the metric system and vice versa. Students also were given the task of painting an imaginary room, and were asked to scale 'up' the amount of paint it would take to…. [read more]

NCTM's Agenda for Action and Standards Term Paper

… Mathematics

Over time, new generations of students come equipped with unique and different background knowledge. In the 1980s, NCTM, or the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, launched a new Agenda for Action. American students had moved from a largely agricultural-based society to one that was focused on science, technology, and information. NCTM provides the blueprints from which mathematic curriculum is built across the country. In order to meet the needs of a changing society, they felt the urgent need to update the mathematic standards to fit the students of the 80s, and they continue to update the standards for today's students (Krulic, 2003, p. 21).

Many updates were made to the Agenda for Action in 2000. In the 1989 version, four standards, called process…. [read more]

Middle School Mathematics Curriculum and Standards Research Paper

… Middle School Mathematics Curriculum and Standards

In a preface to a discussion about curriculum and standards for middle school, the National Council on Teachers of Mathematics (n.d.) notes

The middle grades represent a significant turning point in students' lives [and they] solidify conceptions about themselves as learners of mathematics. They arrive at conclusions about their competence in mathematics, their attitudes, their interest, and their motivation. These conceptions will influence how they approach the study of mathematics in later years, which in turn will affect their later career and personal opportunities.

The standards guide curriculum development in ten areas: numbers and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability, problem solving, reasoning and proof, communications, connections, and representation. For each area, the standards specify what students…. [read more]

Mathematics for Elementary Educators Essay

… ¶ … globalization and the structures of testing in the "No Child Left Behind Initiative," it is becoming even more important that K-8 teachers be prepared to teach basic concepts of mathematics that adhere to their individual State standards, but also to a rigorous, diverse, and multicultural community. In the same way that a basic level of literacy is required before pursuing upper levels of schooling, certain mathematical constructs are vital in today's complex world of computerization, science, and the synergistic approach to many core courses. For too many people, mathematics stopped making sense somewhere along the way. Either slowly or dramatically, they gave up on the field as hopelessly baffling and difficult, and they grew up to be adults who -- confident that others…. [read more]

Algebra Lesson Plans and Curriculum Term Paper

… (p. 38).

A large category of algebra misconceptions has been documented in Algebra: Some Common Misconceptions under the category of "The Meaning of Letters." These relate to students' difficulty with the meaning of letter variables. They may completely ignore letters and consider them irrelevant. For example, add 3 to x + 4 and the answer is 7. Or they may think that there are: 1) "rules used to determine which number a letter stands for," 2) specific letters for specific values, 3) a letter can only have one value, 4) a letter has to be a natural number, and 5) forgetting the signs for the variables. These represent a small group of misconceptions surrounding the use of variables in algebraic expressions. None are explicitly addressed…. [read more]

What's Math Got to Do With it by Jo Boaler Research Paper

… ¶ … Math Got to Do With it? By Jo Boaler

Boaler, Jo. What's Math Got to Do With It? Helping Children Learn to Love Their Least

Favorite Subject -- and Why It's Important for America. New York: Viking, 2008.

Very often, students will whine in math class: 'when will we ever use this in real life?' This explains the title of Jo Boaler's book: What's Math Got to Do With It? Her answer: everything. Math is used everywhere in real life. However, the students' question underlines the abstract nature of what is taught in most math classes, despite the fact that math is a very practical discipline. Teachers must make students understand that math did not arise as a subject to torment children: it…. [read more]

Geometry Manipulative Essay

… Geometry Manipulative

Elementary Geometry Manipulative

Introducing complex math problems can be difficult to introduce to elementary students. Yet, there are many patterns within mathematics that, if explained properly, can be learned by young eager minds. Thus, it is with this in mind that this geometry lesson aims to teach angle relationships to fifth graders.

The math level being explored is that of the fifth grade. This is an old enough age to begin implementing algebraic and geometrical conceits within the curriculum. Within this grade level, there are three major standards presented by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM): multiplicative thinking, equivalence, and computational fluency, (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics 1989). Thus, it is a perfect age for the beginning basics of geometry.…. [read more]

Online Field Trip Comprised of Visits Essay

… Online field trip comprised of visits to five online locations. Each website was related to the teaching and understanding of mathematics. The contents of the sites included information for teachers, parents and students. Some sites were concerned with the testing of particular skills other focused on providing relevant information to interested persons. The following paragraphs will provide a brief summary of the specific websites.

The first site visited was titled "Illumination: Resources for Teaching Math." This website was well organized and vivid. There were links for activities, lessons, standards and other online math resources. The home page of the site provided easy access to some of the more relevant resources on the site. The material on this site is designed to make, the teaching of…. [read more]

Math Curriculum Development Term Paper

… Math Curriculum

Science and its modes of studies are very much reliant on the mathematical techniques which have been heavily evaluated over the past few years. Numerous studies like the ones conducted by Mike Cass et al. (2003) and Lynn T. Goldsmith and June Mark (1999) have analyzed both the teaching techniques used for mathematics as well as the overall sections that are included in its course. In these studies the common conclusions that were made regarding fundamental knowledge of mathematic formulas and techniques is that these allow the students to develop essentially their primary aptitudes in the subject. Other studies also highlight that by solving the simpler questions through the use of fundamental formulas allows the students to find vague and difficult answer to…. [read more]

Teaching Math Concepts to Improve Test Scores Term Paper

… Elementary Measurement: Area, Perimeter, Volume

In an era of increased demands for teacher and student accountability, identifying better ways of delivering educational services represents a timely and worthwhile endeavor. There are some significant constraints involved in teaching young learners about mathematics concepts, though, that must be taken into account in devising such approaches. Nevertheless, the mandate is clear and state-level high-stakes testing regimens across the country currently require that all students achieve minimum performance standards on reading and mathematics tests in order to be promoted to the next grade. In this environment, identifying what works best and what does not is an important first step, and these issues are discussed further below.

Problem Statement and Needs Analysis

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Math Resource Critiques Essay

… Mathematics: A Critique of Two Products

Jump Math


Jump Math refers to an educational resource primarily to be harnessed by teachers which covers the curriculum needed for students from grades one to eight. It uses a pedagogical method referred to as "guided discovery" or "micro-investigation" which supports the student making small discoveries or steps, learning basic concepts one at a time which they can then build on. "Students learn and understand mathematical concepts by answering questions and working independently to challenges, while being strictly controlled by the teacher and receiving support at all times" ( Essentially the method believes in the balance of the student engaging in exploration, with assessment and evaluation: discovery is safe because the teacher is always there to help aid…. [read more]

Albert Einstein, a Famously Mediocre Term Paper

… This is not an exhaustive list of elements that could be included in a student's portfolio, but it is a start. You need to consider the concept and build components into it that are appropriate for you and your students. (Ashe, 11)

Although a certain degree of leeway is always afforded teachers that wish to innovate, it often is difficult for these teachers to adopt sweeping changes. In certain respects, this is preferable: the interaction between parents associations in the community and school administrators has traditionally kept teachers in check as this insures that the ultimate authority over the welfare of students lies in the hands of their parents. Although this process is at odds with European systems that favor the national co-ordination of education…. [read more]

Objective Map Essay

… Mathematics

Grade 9

H.S School Curriculum

Lynchburg, VA

Spiritual Principle

To everything there is a season, and a time to every purpose under heaven (KJV Ecclesiastics 3:1-8)

Standard 1: Students will be able to explain the principles of, graph, and solve step and piecewise functions.

They will be able to convert absolute into piecewise functions.

Standard 2: Students will be able to graph and solve exponential functions and use them to model and predict real life scenarios.

Standard 3: Students will be able to solve quadratic equations and inequalities in one variable. Students will be able to determine and graph the inverses of linear, quadratic and power functions, including restricted domains

Suggested Activities and Experiences


Students will list the types of real world experiences…. [read more]

Relearn Several Mathematical Concepts Essay

… Then, the teacher should practice the new concept with some problems with the class as a whole. This allows students who do not quite understand based on instruction to have some first-hand experience in the problem solving. After this, the teacher should ask the class if the concept and the instructions are clear enough. Some students will not admit to misunderstanding. Part of this is because they do not wish to be singled out or made to feel stupid in front of their peers. The teacher should also state that should a student need additional help or support, they can discuss it with the teacher during recess or before or after school.

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has six principles and five process…. [read more]

Mathematics Education Research Proposal


This study, which examined the effects of mathematics reform on teacher practices in Massachusetts, had two central purposes: (a) to identify reform-related practices in mathematics instruction that have increased, decreased, or not changed since the implementation of high-stakes testing according to educators' perceptions and (b) to determine educators' perceptions of the effects of reform-related practices on student achievement since the implementation of high-stakes testing. High-stakes testing is a dramatic change in education practice and has changed the face of mathematics instruction, yet there is only limited research on its effects. This study investigated the perceptions of educators, both generally and by demographic,…. [read more]

Appropriating Technology in Ways That Make a Difference for Student Understanding Thesis

… ¶ … Technology in Ways That Make a Difference for Student Understanding

Many of the tasks we propose can be accomplished only if academic leaders model, invite, and ultimately demand learning about learning on a regular and formal basis; not only as a formal part of job expectations but also informally through the establishment of rituals, routines, and experiences that are constantly inviting (and expecting) people to learn. A key job of the academic leader is to make clear that the school must be a model learning organization -- and to make it one.

But here, as in most important areas of life, modeling the behavior we seek is a prerequisite. The academic leader must model thoughtful inquiry and learning in the reform process. Rather…. [read more]

Organizational Health Educational Institutions Essay

… The refrain is often heard that not enough students graduate with degrees in STEM majors, and that students in America are not able to compete with students in Canada, Finland, and South Korea who score higher on their mathematics tests than do students in the U.S. ("Business Coalition," 1998; Hacker, 2012).

Section IV: A Learning Solution Proposal

The expectation that people should have a solid grounding in arithmetic and basic numerical skills, such as ratios, decimals, and estimating, is both fair and prudent (Association of Manufacturers," 1998; Teachers of Mathematics," 1989). Yet the changing workforce is likely to alter the skillsets needed by employees in manufacturing-relevant positions. In fact, the Georgetown center on Education and the Workforce has provided a definitive analysis that indicates only…. [read more]

Educational Assessment Methods and Standards Term Paper

… However, the transition to from traditional to alternative assessments can be tricky at times, particularly when students have become accustomed to conventional methods. Typically, students initially respond to alternative assessments with confusion and frustration, since they are not sure what is expected of them under this new method. Therefore, teachers that utilize alternative assessment methods are trained to explain the situation and the assignment very carefully before students begin their work on the problem, also known as modeling assessment tasks. This action provides students with a framework for completing the assignment using individual skills, and this model creates student confidence in the tasks being performed (Silbermann, 2003). However, it is somewhat of a challenge for teachers when performing alternative assessments, as they must be careful…. [read more]

Mathematics Education Term Paper

… Mathematics Education

The objective of this work is to describe five specific methods of questions and strategies that encourage students to discuss their ideas, procedures, rules and definitions that they used to solve a problem and to discuss at least four ways in which justification of solutions to improve students' relational understanding of mathematics.

The work of Jones (2000) entitled: "Instructional Approaches to Teaching Problem Solving in Mathematics: Integrating Theories of Learning and Technology" states that: "Problem solving is defined by Kantowski as 'a situation for which the individual confronting it has no readily accessible algorithm that will guarantee a solution." (2000) NCTM standards define problem solving as "the process by which students experience the power and usefulness of mathematics in the world around them."…. [read more]

Math Achievement in African-American Boys Versus Their White Counterparts Term Paper

… math achievement African-American vs. white American



The objective of this work is to focus on mathematical achievement in African-American boys vs. their white counterparts. Addressed will be risk factors such as family income, mother's education, single-parent households, primary language non-English, etc. The theoretical framework will focus on the work of Vygotsky and one other theorist as to how they would tie into the main topic.

The disparities in the educational attainment of African-American and White American males is clearly noted in previous research study however, the precise factors or elements that cause African-American males to underachieve in mathematics is not known. The work of Moody states that three theoretical proposals exist that attempt to provide an…. [read more]

Positive Outcome in the Educational Term Paper

… Third, there is a growing awareness that rapid technological change and our nation's economic competativeness will compel workers to adapt existing skills and learn new ones to optimize performance.

As noted, interest in thinking and problem solving has been renewed, but traditional approaches to teaching these skills have met with very mixed results (Nickerson, Perkins, & Smith, 1986). It now appears that the efficacy of these efforts was determined by at least three interrelated factors: First, instructional designers often failed to appreciate the importance of domain-specific knowledge in effective thinking and problem solving (Chi, Glaser, & Farr, 1988). Programs that emphasize the use of generic reasoning and problem-solving heuristics may be theoretically general across situations, but they usually lack power in any specific situation (Anderson,…. [read more]

Prof Organizations / Curriculum Website Research Paper

… The National Education Association was founded in 1857 in Philadelphia as the National Teachers' Association. In 1900, there were fewer than 2,400 members, but by 2001, the rolls had swelled to more than 2.3 million members in over 13,000 local affiliate organizations (Kirkpatrick, 2001). By the early 1970s, the NEA also became the first national education organization with a political action committee. It remains one of the nation's largest and most influential. The NEA led the charge for the establishment of a U.S. Department of Education, which Congress did with the support of Jimmy Carter in 1979. Since then, the NEA has made strong showings at both the Republican and Democratic National Conventions. The NEA and its affiliate organizations engage in direct political action at…. [read more]

Differentiated Learning Simply Research Paper

… Grouping students of different ability levels to encourage 'peer teaching' is another option when dealing with a class with different ability levels (Enhance learning with technology, 2011, Guidance Learning with Technology).

Differentiated grading will always be controversial because of concerns about what constitutes 'fairness.' Is it fair to hold a student to a seemingly lower standard, because the student faces additional learning challenges? How to ensure that the teacher's perceptions of those challenges are accurate? This is why pre-assessment is an important component of the grading process. Before defining the criteria by which students will be assessed at the beginning of the unit, teachers are able to create a timeline of improvement expectations for individual students. The expectations of the grading process should be clear…. [read more]

Examples in Excellence: Jaime Escalante Teaching Calculus Essay

… Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the Midcontinent Research for Education and Learning [Web]. Retrieved

Berkas, N., & Pattison, C. (2007, November). Manipulatives: More than a special education intervention. NCTM News Bulletin. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [Web] Retreived

Jesness, J. (July 2002). Stand and Deliver revisited. Reason. Retreived

Marzell, T.L. (2012). Chalkboard Champions: Twelve Remarkable Teachers Who Educated America's Disenfranchised Students, Tucson, AZ: Wheatmark. Retrieved



Menendez, R. And Musca, T. (1988). Stand and Deliver. [Film} Warner Bros.

Schraff, A.E. (2008). Jaime Escalante: Inspirational Math Teacher, Enslow Publishers, Inc., p. 12. Retrieved

Steedly, K., Dragoo, K., Arefeh, S. And Luke, S.D. (2008, 2012). Effective Mathematics Instruction. Evidence for Education, III (I). Retrieved…. [read more]

Educational Reflections Background- Mr. Billings Is Principal Essay

… Educational Reflections

Background- Mr. Billings is principal at XYZ School. Recently, a group of parents approached Principal Billings expressing some concern that they did not feel that the level of communication between teachers and parents was at the level they wanted. Oddly, when Principal Billings spoke with a group of teachers, they were confused, thinking they communicated quite a bit to parents. Billings decided to collect data to evaluate the issues surrounding communications.

Strengths and Weaknesses of School- Clearly, Principal Billings runs a school in which both parents and teachers can communicate their issues in an open, honest, and professional manner. Parents are not afraid of Billings, and not afraid to express their concerns. Likewise, the teachers are unafraid of his taking sides, and know…. [read more]

Mathematics Teachers in the Classroom Internet Sites Term Paper

… ¶ … Mathematics Teachers in the Classroom

Internet sites

The Teacher Education Materials Project (TE-MAT) is a database of math and science resources, such as books and DVDs that can be searched by keywords or by concept the teacher wishes to teach, and the teacher's available resources. The website ( teacher a searchable index of materials he or she can use in curriculum design that are specifically directed to the teacher's grade level, approach, and degree to which he or she wishes to use digital material. The database is helpful in finding new books for students to be used in addition to the textbook.

The Mathematics Teacher Education Resource Place provides a database of helpful lesson plans and articles ( the lesson plans are quite…. [read more]

Education: Teaching Math to Students With Disabilities Term Paper

… Student Websites

There also are a number of websites that are specifically geared towards assisting students with or without disabilities at all grades deal with math topics that they do not understand. Five of these have been outlined below.

i) The Alberta Government Website:

This site provides registered users with easily understandable resources/reading materials and assessment questions on lesson topics of their choice. A new user has to register for an account, in which they provide information on, among other things, their grade. Once the account has been created, the user logs in and selects a lesson topic from study skills, current events, geography, math, or reading. The site then avails relevant books and simplified reading materials on the requested topic, and a set…. [read more]

Are Educational Evaluations in U.S. Schools Truly Reflective of the Ability of Culturally Diverse Students? Term Paper

… ¶ … Educational Evaluations in Culturally Diverse U.S. Schools Today

An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Standardized Evaluations in Culturally Diverse U.S. Schools Today

Today, the primary goal of education in the U.S. is an education that fosters the intellectual, social and personal development of virtually all students to their highest potential. In order to obtain this goal in a diverse classroom environment, a culturally sensitive teacher recognizes that cultural conventions inform their own approach to teaching, as well as to inform the student's approach to learning. Teaching diverse cultures is growing in the U.S. And is an important learning process of all students in all cultures. Cultural is central to learning; in fact, not only does culture shape the thinking process, it also defines…. [read more]

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