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Neuroscience and Human Development Research Paper

… In contrast, motor neurons transmit action potentials from the central nervous system toward the periphery (Seeley et al., 2005).

Neurons and their Electrical Activity

The nervous system is composed of millions of nerve cells called neurons. Neurons are the parenchyma of the nervous system which performs every function of the nervous system from simple sensory functions to complex thinking and analysis. Neurons, upon receipt of stimuli, transmit responsive signals to other neurons or to effector organs. Clark (2005) observes that the anatomy of a neuron is composed of four main parts; the cell body, the dendrites, the axon, and the nerve fibers. Given the importance of each of the neuron components, it is important to discuss how each work separately and in tandem to achieve…. [read more]

Adult Education Within Human Resources Term Paper

… Meanwhile, a scholarly and well-thought-out piece in Adult Education Quarterly (Glastra, et al., 2004), speaks to many issues within the context of "Lifelong Learning" (LLL), and sees the big picture of today's workplace and learning dynamics. Indeed, the article, which was published in August, is entitled, "Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning," and emphasizes from the outset that "Globalization and individualization have radically changed both the economic system and the personal life world in industrial or postindustrial nation-states."

Building a good life, Glastra explains, "has become an individual responsibility demanding reflexivity and skills." How do the present approaches with reference to LLL "relate to the requirements of a competitive economy, on one hand, and the good life on the other hand," Glastra asks. And moreover, how…. [read more]

Humans as a Diverse Species of Primate Term Paper

… Humans as a Diverse Species of Primate

Earlier it has been really hard for humans to acknowledge that we are indeed one among the primate species and that we are distinct from other primate species only in certain ways with regard to the construction of our body. But presently there is no question of any disbelief. (O'Neil 2007, p. 569) it was Linnaeus who was able to distinguish the fundamental morphological resemblances among humans and other non-human primates like apes by clubbing them collectively in the order 'primates', albeit in different genera. For this he did not employ any mid-way group of arrangement between 'genus' and 'order'. (Bruce & Ayayla 1978, p. 264) Within the human populace as also in case of the other primate…. [read more]

Psychology Development Early Childhood Medelein Essay

… There was also child abuse rating from the interviews as well as those reported by the participants.

It was observed that the mother withdrawal from the child was seen as a major contributor to the possible formation of the BPD and the suicidal tendencies. There was also observation of the disorganized controlling of the behavior of the child at the age of 8 as an independent contributor to BPD. Childhood abuse was also observed to be a central factor to suicidal tendencies in the mid childhood .

Nancy M. George, (2013). Assessing Sleep in Adolescents Through a Better Understanding of Sleep Physiology. Vol. 113, No. 6

The research is preoccupied with the concept of progression in age and the change in sleep pattern. As the…. [read more]

Neuroscience Hormones and the Nervous Term Paper

… At times, the manner in which things are accomplished seems almost arbitrary due to the complexity of the body's operations. That is, the many different individual hormonal mechanisms and the complexity of their interactions with the electrical triggers sent by the nervous system seem to have occurred almost through happenstance. A more direct and consistent system for creating responses and achieving certain functions would make more sense, it would seem, yet the body has evolved specifically to coordinate and successfully manipulate a range of chemical and electrical messengers instead. I'm sure that a more in-depth study of the endocrine and nervous systems and their interactions than what is supplied in the text (and the brief supplemental online research that I engaged in) would make these…. [read more]

Human Memory Literature Review Chapter

… Another intriguing aspect of Conway & Pleydell-Pearce's research about human memory and autobiographical memories is not just that autobiographical memories exist, but how they believe them to function. They contend that autobiographical memories are constantly present, yet are "activated" by events or occurrences in our present lives that trigger these memories, as well as their influence.

A fundamental premise of our approach is that autobiographical memories are transitory dynamic mental constructions generated from an underlying knowledge base. This knowledge base, or regions of it, is minutely sensitive to cues, and patterns of activation constantly arise and dissipate over the indexes of autobiographical memory knowledge structures. Such endogenous patterns of activation may not coalesce into "memories," nor do they necessarily or even usually enter into consciousness;…. [read more]

Human Nature Book Summary Jeeves Term Paper

… Altogether, the authors avoid straight reductivism regarding either religion or individualism, although they allow for what they see as a natural discomfort with new cloning technologies and the idea that the ability to see one's self as a person is powerful yet perhaps biologically bound in certain cognitive structures or created, societal assumptions.

Part III

Philosophical Overview

There are some possible holes in the authors' understanding, as even they acknowledge, particularly Jeeves in his conclusion, that humans may demand a more satisfying logic to the definition of the self. Also, one possible limit to all of the essays of the book is that almost all of the authors accept the Western orientation towards the concept of the 'self.' The popular religious or philosophical conception Buddhism…. [read more]

Human Embryonic Stem Cells Thesis

… Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Stem cell studies are on the very cutting edge of biological advancement and research. These undifferentiated cells have the potential to become any cell in the body, from a simple part of a hair follicle to a complex neuron. Because research into this area is so new, there are still many scientific and ethical dilemmas surrounding stem cell research, especially research that involves human embryonic stem cells. These are the cells that have caused so much media and political attention over the past decade; the moral and ethical debates surrounding their uses are often heated and always too complex and controversial to allow for the emergence of a clear conclusion.

The issue comes from the fact that embryos are often destroyed…. [read more]

Human Biological Variation Is Human Behavior Genetically Influenced or Biologically Term Paper

… Human Biological Variation: Is human behavior genetically influenced or biologically influenced?

For decades, scientists and philosophers of every sort have attempted to determine whether nature or nurture was the more important factor in human behavior. Theologians, also, have entered the debate, as -- in the wake of questions of how to treat various socially influential 'behaviors' such as gender identification and homosexuality -- coming to some conclusion regarding the genesis of human behaviors seems more compelling. The work to date on the subject seems to point in the direction of a duality, although one aspect of that duality might be worthy of slightly more weight. It would seem that there is a consensus across many fields of study that nature is more largely responsible in…. [read more]

Cognitive Psychology Absolutely Nothing Interests Essay

… Ultimately, it was this adamant denial which allowed for the rise in cognitive psychology which chose to acknowledge the connection (Davenport, 2001).

With the advent of the computer, came a dramatic change in the way psychology is viewed. The technology allowed psychologists to theorize about the internal human mechanisms making decisions regarding behavior as computers used programming to come to logical ends. It was this comparison to the human mind that provided cognitive psychology with a model upon which to speculate about human behavior (Stone, 20011). Thus, this milestone became known in psychology as the computer metaphor (Stone, 2011). While the human brain cannot actually be reduced to mechanistic functions like a computer can be, how a computer operates can help explain how the brain…. [read more]

Human Behavior Theories Term Paper

… This includes behavior, learning, physical and mental health. Research shows that parenting is the primary influence on a child's development. The first three years are the ones are the most sensitive periods for the optimal growth of a child.

First, exercises health and nutrition are critical in the development of a child. When the child's brain is relatively immature, it is vulnerable to the adverse environmental impacts on its developing functions and architecture. This creates a permanent impairment with lifelong adverse effects on mental and physical health learning and behavior. Disruption on the intensity, pattern, and timing of the environmentally and genetically determined messages can result in diminished functional capabilities and mal-organization of the child. One night Alejandro, Isagani's father came home fatigued and passed…. [read more]

Developing Stutter During Childhood Term Paper

… ¶ … Stutter during Childhood

Human development is divided into several life-spans and sometimes certain unnatural obstacles inhibit normal growth of human beings. These obstacles may be environmental, genetic, or a combination of both. Attempting or inability to overcome these obstacles may cause numerous psychological problems for those affected. The psychological effects may be especially long-lasting if these obstacles start at the early stage of life. Stuttering is one of the conditions that start during childhood. Researchers and scholars do not have a clear explanation on whether stuttering is a psychological, physiological, or neurological condition, but the symptoms of stuttering are clearly related to numerous psychological disorders. And understanding the development of stuttering during childhood may help psychologists help with potential intervention therapies. Available studies…. [read more]

Human Psychology Drives Economy Animal Essay

… The other factor he cited as a contributor to the financial meltdown was Americans irrationality in terms of being optimistic rather than realistic in their financial decisions, his study have largely borrowed on behavioral economics theory.

Benhabib & Roger (1999) have again been quoted relating human psychology to the financial crisis that was witnessed in the United States; they continue on to say that "powerful psychological forces were exposed in the recent crisis, as individual been irrationally optimistic of high returns from the capital market and increasing prices on houses."

Animal Spirit-How human psychology drives economy

The topic of the essay coincides with a book published by two renowned economists known as Robert Shiller and George Akerlof, the two partnered in the year 2009, to…. [read more]

Infant Brain Development Research Paper

… Infant Brain Development

Complex dynamic processes underlie the development of various functionalities of the infant brain and its maturation into an adult brain. Today, neurologists have concurred that both nature and nurture play a significant role during the initial years of development of the brain. Advancements in neuroimaging techniques including the various refinements in MRI and optical tomography have made possible the focused study of the various developmental stages of the brain in an infant. Healthy interactions with the child by touching, talking, playing, smiling, etc. help to develop the functionalities of the brain to the fullest potential. Early years of parenting are crucial for the healthy development of a child's Brain and the effects last a lifetime.


Brain development is a protracted process…. [read more]

Classical Conditioning by Pavlov Research Paper

… It is basically a glutmate antagonist, which acts by creating obstruction of voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels. Conditioned emotional response (CER) model was used in rates by Mirza and some others. Under this model, houselights (CR) were used with electric foot shocks. This was done to check whether this CS would result in compact lever pressing for getting the food. Through research it was confirmed that Na+ agonist caused blockage of the anxiolytic possessions of lamotrigine while Ca+ channels failed to do so. Therefore, a conclusion was reached that axxiolytic traits can be removed by the usage of Na+ channels (Mirza et al., 2005). When lamotrigine was used with PTSD by Hertzberg and colleagues, under the petite double blind test of patients, it was found…. [read more]

Night Vision Goggles: Fatigue Literature Review

… The signal-processing unit sends images in various colors after which the infrared filter excessive colors (Parush, 2011). Although the NVG is a great night viewing device, it is prudent to note that the process involved in image processing deters quality. In most cases, pilots will often struggle to view all details provided in the NVG display hence creating the problems of fatigue and cognitive misjudgments (Bailey, 2012).


Navigation risk

Piloting, especially in field combat is a demanding task that requires considerate physical movements. The pilot mounted with the NVG visualizer requires constant view of the environment surrounding him. Failing to do so may result to accidents. According to Rash et al. (2009), accidents involved in military flights are primarily caused by poor visualization. In…. [read more]

Personality Development in Assimilating Children Term Paper

… These technologies are being used by neuroscientists to demonstrate how personality traits can be associated with differences in the functioning and structure of the brain. Through genetic and molecular biology research, cognitive psychologists are finding links between genetic main effects and the Big Five personality constructs. Specifically, genetic main effects show as tightly clustered for Extraversion and Neuroticism, but less so for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness (Krueger & Johnson, 2008).


Clearly, theories about dominant personality types and genetic heritability demonstrate fluid and organic relationship, but the theoretical emphasis remains focused on the seeming reciprocity of genetic and environmental influence. There is some basis in the literature to represent environmental influences on personality as more transitory and genetic influences as more stabilizing. An observation endorsed…. [read more]

Brain Research and a Brain Friendly (Compatible) Term Paper

… Brain Research and a Brain Friendly (Compatible) Classroom

Review of the Relevant Literature

This chapter reviews the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning recent brain research findings and its sources over the past 10-15 years. Following an overview of the subject, a discussion about the "critical periods" in a child's brain development will show that there is powerful new evidence from neuroscience that the early years of development set the base for competence and coping skills that affect learning, behavior and health throughout life. The findings from this research could be used to enhance or better yet enrich how to better develop the minds so that learning can be maximized in the classroom.

Background and Overview.

The nation's schools are struggling to meet the needs of…. [read more]

Adolescent Brain the Cross-Cultural Differences Reaction Paper

… The role of nutrition, of course, may also play an important role in the brain development of children and adolescents. Such contextual and environmental factors would impact their consequential experiences of emotional strain.

Works Cited

Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne, Burnett, Stephanie and Dahl, Ronald E. "The Role of Puberty in the Developing Adolescent Brain." Human Brain Mapping 31(6): 926-933

Chen, C., & Farruggia, S. "Culture and Adolescent Development." Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 11, Chapter 2). 2002, August. Retrieved:

Choudhury, Suparna. "Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?" Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci (June/September 2010) 5 (2-3): 159-167. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsp030.

Dishion, Thomas J. And Tipsord, Jessica M. "Peer Contagion in Child and Adolescent Social and Emotional Development." Annual Review of Psychology. Vol.…. [read more]

Child Psychology Music and Brain Research Paper

… McDonnell foundation is upset that the motivation for music education is being hijacked. "If our intent is to use science and research to form policy, to guide educational practice and to give parents assistance, it's incumbent on people putting forth those arguments to get the science right. If they choose not to get the science right, if they choose to misinterpret it or over-simplify, we just have another instance of political rhetoric." (

He brings up the key dispute over policies which are based on this research. In the scientific community, there exists significant suspicion regarding Raushers research.

But the scientific community is always slow to accept new theories. Science is built like a pyramid, with each new finding resting on the layer below it.…. [read more]

Music on Brain and Emotions Thesis

… , 2006).

Music Therapy in Relation to Neuroscience

Physiological, as well as psychological human health can be one's improvement subject to the effects music has on them. There are mainly five factors that contribute to the music therapy effects. Such modulating factors include emotion, attention, behavior, cognition, and communication.

The attention modulation explains that music automatically captures attention one is seeking thus distracting attention emanating from stimuli evoking negative experiences (e.g. anxiety, pain and sadness). This aspect accounts for pain and anxiety-reducing effects of listening to music during certain medical procedures. It is also beneficial in treatment of attention deficit disorders during music therapy. Under emotion modulation, the explanation is that music modulates activity of all the vital limbic and Para-limbic structures of the brain.…. [read more]

Social Network and Its Effects Research Paper

… The greatest proof analyzing how personal computer use influences kids' constructs on the researches of TV revolves around physical results and violent or aggressive material. The proof on physical impacts connects the inactive nature of computer use to an enhanced threat of weight problems and medical concerns caused due to the reactions in the brain. Kids need to restrict their time with media and need to be instructed to utilize computer systems securely to stay clear of the kinds of eye, back, and wrist injuries that have actually afflicted grownup users. In addition, the proof on violent or aggressive material links exposure to violent or aggressive video game to the development of enhanced aggressive habits. More powerful actions are required by policymakers and software application…. [read more]

Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Research Paper

… Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research

Since their discovery in the early 1990's, Stem Cells have brought with them the promise of evolutionary and significant scientific and medical research and opportunities that possessed the possibility of radically improving treatments for a host of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, various cancers and other diseases that currently render patients and scientists helpless to combat. Stem Cells have been at the center of the scientific research paradigm in terms of developing innovative treatments that could revolutionize the current course of medical care (Bellomo, 2006)

With the advent of medical and scientific research comes the inevitable emergence of the controversy that has accompanied every major scientific and medical advancement. The use of Stem Cells is no different. Those…. [read more]

Language Learning One of the Major Debates Thesis

… Language Learning

One of the major debates in psychology today concerns the human ability to develop and utilize language skills, the feature of humanity that has long been thought to separate us from the rest of the animal kingdom. On one side of the argument are the neurobiologists and other scientists and researchers who study the brain, many of whom believe that language is a skill we are innately born to; that is, they believe that human beings are hard-wired for language, and that it is something that would develop in an individual regardless of their cognitive or learning circumstances. The other side of te argument s, as might be expected, that language is a learned trait just like most other aspects pf human behavior…. [read more]

Bioecological Theory and the Family Case Study

… In this case, therefore, the counselor who attempts to help the twins will consider both Bronfenbrenner's bioecological approach of the different systems, as well as the community resource conceptual framework where community and networks conjoin to operate within a stricture of narratives that impact the twins' lives. Both theories area actually integrated in that the community is the larger macrosystem and the network is the micorsystem. The two together act as one holistic whole with aspects of macrosystem rubbing off on microsystem with exosystemitic effects. Outside this whole hub are the socio-historical events and/or experiential incidents that impact the twins due, again,, to the internal behavior that occurs as a result of the narratives of the larger community and internal network.

A plan for an…. [read more]

Cognition and Personality Development Essay

… Parenting skills are also influenced by "socio-economic resources, parental health, [and] the child's characteristics" (Waylen et. al, 2010). While parenting does account for as much as 20-50% of a child's developed personality (Waylen et. al, 2010), there is no denying the fact that the parent's family and medical history, as well as economic and environmental standing are also indicative of the child's development. In fact, a child living in a destitute environment might be less developed in his or her personality than someone in more nurturing, livable conditions. Economic problems are also associated with "deteriorating parent-child relationships" (Waylen et. al, 2010). An understandable explanation here is the fact that in an economic hardship, parents tend to work extra shifts to make ends meet; therefore children…. [read more]

Infant Sleep Patterns People Research Paper

… There are several things to consider regarding the sleeping patterns of infants that can go a long way in reducing the probability or risk of SIDS in infants:

1. Children that sleep with their parents may sleep less than those that sleep alone and may be at an increased risk of SIDS (Carpenter et al., 2013). Sharing a room rather than a bed is the better option in order to allow the child to get sufficient sleep and to ensure that this risk is decreased. The baby should sleep alone. The infant can suffocate via a number of mechanisms when sleeping in an adult bed with adults such as becoming trapped between the headboard slats, the space between the wall and mattress, or the space…. [read more]

Human Evolution Term Paper

… Anthropology

Behavioral Implications of Developmental Changes in Human Past

Just as humans have developed from a biological and physiological perspective over thousands of years, so too has human behavior. Much of human behavior in fact is influenced by developmental changes that have occurred among homosapiens in the last two millennia.

Human beings have transformed into more complex, interactive and social creatures largely a result of developmental changes including bipedalism, brain growth and improved language capacity. These developments have not only changed human behavior but have also improved humankind's survival rate. For one to understand the impact physiological developments have on human behavior, one must first understand the nature of human behavior. Human behavior as a function of development is discussed in greater detail below, with…. [read more]

Aggression From a Heritability Perspective Term Paper

… "We must distinguish between two facets of emotion, the functional and the experiential" (Kosslyn & Koening, 1992). While it is well understood that there may be genes that make it more likely to people to act on aggressive feelings, it is far less certain whether there are genes that make people more likely to feel those aggressive feelings. Instead, much of the focus has been on impulse control, and the general trend suggests that those who have difficulties controlling their aggressive impulses are also impulsive in other areas of their lives.

The one real exception to this is in the area of gender. Studies suggest that men, generally, feel more aggressive than women and gender-based traits may be a product of genetics, though they can…. [read more]

Psychology in Order to Develop Term Paper

… This team claims that when nausea is used as an unconditional response, aversions develop to undesired activity after a relatively small number of trials.

The physiology of neurological appetites and aversion has been studied at length. These studies included stimulating animals electronically with implanted electrodes. Scientists confirmed that overt behaviors such as flight, threat, or defensive areas were directly correlated to chemical imperatives in the brain. These effected the periventricular-periaquenductal gray matter and parts of the amygdala. Stutied found that electrical stimuli were an example of how to abate cravings thought of as undesirable, such as heavy drug abuse.

Thompson, Dews and Barrett 129) According to Oriental scientists.

Moreover, a correspondence between the aversive behavior of laboratory animals and subjective discomfort was established when patients…. [read more]

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