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Occupational Exposure of Police Officers Term Paper

… The largest study of the traffic radar unit exposures has been conducted by Fisher (17) who measured almost 5000 radar units.

Occupational Exposure of Police Officers to Microwave Radiation from Traffic

Radar Devices: (

There has been a study of Police Officers' exposures to microwave emitted by the traffic radar units, which states that the measurements were taken at approximately ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in their patrol vehicles. Comparisons have been made of the radar manufacturers, which has been published in the maximum power density specifications. The study stipulates that the four speed enforcement agencies and one transportation research institute provided 54 radar units for speculation, almost 17 different models comprising of frequency brands, including 3 antenna configurations. The four high measurements…. [read more]

PTSD the Nature of Police Work Increases Thesis


The nature of police work increases the probability of developing Posttraumatic Stress disorder

Police Work

The nature of police work increases the probability of developing Posttraumatic Stress disorder (PTSD)

There is a general consensus that there are a very high number of police officers that suffer from PTSD, which has a decidedly negative impact on the individual and the functioning of the police force. As one study notes; "All too many police officers are victims of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder" (Police and PTSD, 2005, para.1). Post traumatic stress disorder is understood as a response to traumatic stress, such as having to kill someone in the line of duty.

Another area of concern that emerges from the literature is that there is a relative paucity…. [read more]

Substance Abuse Among Police Officers Thesis

… Substance Abuse Among Police Officers

One group of people getting help for drug addiction is that of public safety officers, including police officers, firefighters, and EMT workers. These workers typically sacrifice much for others while performing their jobs, and many are seen as heroes to those they help. So when the pressure of a stressful job leaves these public safety officers turning to drugs or alcohol to ease their mind, it becomes hard for them to admit they have an addiction.

These professionals need help for their addictions just like everyone else does. It is important for more of these public officers who have struggled with drug addiction to come forward and tell their story, and encourage others to get help. Statistics on substance abuse…. [read more]

Police Culture and the Perpetuation Article Review

… Different professions do not have the same danger of a potential loss of business when accused of domestic violence (Chambliss, 2011).

The study has displayed a common theme of occupational stress associated with police work. In addition, a number of the studies performed incorporated studies analyzing large police sections vs. rural or smaller police divisions. These studies uncovered that bigger police divisions had more exposure to critical events like shootings and more negative stressors at work as potential for continuing work identified stretch into the officers family life, bringing about domestic violence (Shockey-Eckles, 2010). Then again, different studies uncovered a much distinctive perspective of the issue to incorporate individual personality qualities of the officer, substance misuse, police training and strategies as variables answerable for violence…. [read more]

Stress Police Signs Essay

… Stress Police

Signs of Stress in Police Officers

Police work is one of the most stressful jobs that can be found. Officers are required to continually face physical risks and often are putting their very lives on the line on a daily basis. This can lead to a variety of conditions that are related to stress such as alcoholism, suicide, marital problems, performance issues, and many other related issues. Being a police officer requires a significant amount of restraint and self-discipline. Stress is one of the phenomenon that can impact a police officer's ability to maintain their self-discipline. As a result, not only can stress be dangerous to the individual officers, but it can also be dangerous for the community at large.

Most of the…. [read more]

Dealing With Indiscipline in the Police Force Term Paper

… Officer Joe

Being a police officer comes with the responsibilities of maintaining order, crime control or even offering social services such as emergency assistance and finding missing persons. The police force should deter and mitigate the crime while operating under the rule of law (Stevens, 2011). Police officers are not superhuman. They are exposed to long-time environmental threats which when left unaddressed may result to diseases such as ulcers and heart diseases or even addiction to drugs. Constant exposure of officers to a sense of mistrust from the public, and the feeling that their respective oversight authorities are watching creates a sense of job insecurity. Court sermons and appearances affect officer's schedules and often interfere with personal life making the work of the police hard.…. [read more]

American Policing Essay

… With the passage of time, such risks are increasing due to a number of factors including increased demands, prevalent shift work and trauma, elevated occurrence of infectious diseases, extensive illegal drug production and utilization and enthusiasm amongst criminals to assault or molest the policemen (Mayhew, 2001).

Policing is a difficult job. Therefore, various technological advancements have been included in the department to ease the working and task performance of the daring, brave and daunting individuals who put up their lives for the sake of common citizens.


Grant, H.B., & Terry, K.J. (2008). Law Enforcement in the 21st Century. (2 ed.). Allyn & Bacon. Print.

Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-Than-Lethal Weapons. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from

Johnson, C.P. (2000). Crime Mapping and…. [read more]

Occupational Health and Safety Workplace and Employee Term Paper

… Occupational Health and Safety

Workplace and Employee Health:

There is a widespread relationship between work and our health which is seemingly not perceptible to many. The duties we perform the settings in which we work and the different aspects of the labor market experience, and health services delivery, have major impact on the work and health relationship of individuals. This is a crucial issue as work constitutes a major portion of our lives. Majority among us will devote almost 40 years or more in individual work atmosphere for five days a week, eight hours daily which translates to nearly a third of our lives spent on the job. Although the nature of work has undergone changes remarkably in last half a century, the present day…. [read more]

Police Stress Christianity-Based Stress Therapy in Law Research Paper

… Police Stress

Christianity-Based Stress Therapy in Law Enforcement

The archetypal law-enforcement agent is a stolid figure with an unshakeable volition to uphold legal standards against odds of physical danger, political implication and personal temptation. However, a more realistic perspective on the modern police officer illustrates that in fact, to proscribe an idealized image of the perfect law-enforcement candidate as being impermeable to the extraordinary pressures of such work is to do a fundamental disservice to the occupational and psychological needs of this social group. The notion that a police officer should be capable of functioning in spite of the unique perils of his occupation is being supplanted today by the expectation that proper psychological evaluation and support of officers is a crucial aspect of contending…. [read more]

Constitutional, Legal and Ethical Issues Term Paper

… According to Ida Tarbell, who makes a very broad observation of the police behaviour, "deviance (i.e. behavior inconsistent with norms, values, or ethics) also implies corruption (i.e. forbidden acts involving misuse of office for gain), misconduct (i.e. wrongdoing violations of departmental procedures) and favoritism (i.e. unfair "breaks" to friends or relatives (nepotism))."

Corruption is criminal conduct that can involve underusing one's authority, overusing one's authority, or profiteering via one's authority. The key element is misuse of official authority; the gain can be personal or for the common good. Corruption is bad because it undermines integrity, the state of policing being whole or undivided and it has been the target of numerous efforts at creating typologies.

Police misconduct is impropriety of office, not misuse of authority.…. [read more]

Stress and Its Effects Thesis

… Unresolved Stress/Corrections

Unmitigated and unresolved stress is one of the most significant social problems in the world today. Many people demonstrate significant aspects of stress-related illness and in many cases such stress is associated with work or a combination of life and work. The body, is brilliantly designed to help resolve stress through processes that are rarely required in today's world, i.e. The fight or flight physiological phenomena, yet most stress today requires much a more subtle physical and mental response to stress and most stress is not life threatening. It is for this reason and many others that the body is not completely prepared to deal with the more subtle forms of stress and strain associated with the norms of today's work and life.…. [read more]

Criminal Justice/Forensics Undercover Thesis

… Criminal Justice/Forensics

Undercover" is a term that has made its way into the public vernacular, thanks in large part to movies and television programs. Undercover, at its fundamental level, means pretending to be someone else- the construction and portrayal of a false identity for an ulterior purpose. In the case of undercover police investigations, this ulterior purpose is to enforce the law. This is done by using a false identity to infiltrate a criminal group in order to gather evidence and build a case. This can be a long-term project- some cases have had an undercover operative on assignments that lasted for years. The purpose of this research paper is to show that undercover police officers are more likely to commit criminal acts than police…. [read more]

White Collar Corporate Crime Research Paper

… White Collar/Corporate Crime

White Collar crime is a quickly arising topic in the field of criminal justice. Recently, it has just been dubbed very popular with cases that are high-profile like the companies of Enron and Martha Stewart. In the book, Controversies in White Collar Crime by Gary W. Potter, author of the book thinking about Crime Professor James Q. Wilson, "discharges the significance of white collar crime." He makes the point that four different views of why white collar crime is not considered "real" corruption or should be taken as life-threatening as the so called conventional crime that goes on nowadays. The primary concentrate of real crime is, "the stimulation of terror and the incidence of grievance ," the second, "a tearing apart of…. [read more]

Health Consequences of Air Pollution Term Paper

… Definition of Terms

We have already touched on some of the important concepts that will be explored in this project including a general definition of air and of air pollution. However, a few more specific definitions need to be given to help us understand the specific types of pollution most commonly involved in these two instances as well as their possible health effects.

Scientists have determined that hundreds of specific substances are hazardous to the health of humans and other mammals even when they present in trace amounts in the air. Many of these substances were released into the air during the Gulf War thus exposing both civilians and members of the armed services to them.

The toxins that existed in the air at relatively…. [read more]

Prison System. This Discussion Essay

… References

Agnew, R. & Cullen, F.T. (2003). Criminological Theory, Past to Present. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Company.

Aziz, D., Levine, A.J., Sieber, K., Schulte, P., & Steenland, K. (1997). Incidence of Tuberculosis infection among New York State prisons employees. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 2012-2014

Briggs, C.S., Sundt, J.L., & Castellano, T.C. (2003). The effect of supermaximum security prisons on aggregate levels of institutional violence. Criminology, 41, 1341 -- 1376

Cheek, F. (1984). Stress management for correctional officers and their families. College Park, MD: American Correctional Association. 38

Cheek, F.E., & Miller, M. (1982). Prisoners of life: A study of occupational stress among state corrections officers. American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees. Washington D.C.

del Carmen, A. (2004). Corrections, 2e. Cincinnati:…. [read more]

Burnout and Technical College Counselors Research Proposal

… Burnout and Technical College Counselors

This research proposal outlines the background, theoretical and research foundations, as well as the methodological framework, of a study that will investigate the prevalence of burnout in counselors within the sixteen (16) colleges in the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS). The construct of burnout for the purposes of this study is defined as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization or cynicism and inefficacy of a counselor. While all professions have some level of stress involved, the research quickly emphasizes that school counselors in general and those at 2-year institutions tend to experience inordinately high levels of work-related stress that may contribute to a higher incidence of burnout. This research suggests that there is a distinct difference between counselor burnout as a function of…. [read more]

Aviation Industry Flu Pandemic Outbreak Risk Thesis

… In case of the SARS outbreak in China the public transportation wasn't shut down but the amount of passengers decreased a lot as, people stopped using the public transportation to avoid getting infected. Similarly, trends of decrease in the number of employees was noted in the air transportation such as, the flights in Pacific Asia decreased by 45% as compared to the year before and there was a decrease of 69% in the flights between U.S. And Hong Kong (Brigantic et al., 2009).

However, it can easily be estimated from these above given scenarios that if an influenza pandemic did occur and stay for 12 to 36 months what would be the amount of damage that it would cause in the world…. [read more]

Development of Crisis Intervention Essay

… The supportive environment helps in ensuring that the affected individuals enhance their coping skills and mechanisms in dealing with the critical incident. During the 9/11 attacks, this unit provided opportunities for people to team up and achieve group cohesion that helped in establishing a supportive environment while promoting individual resiliency. As a result, many volunteers and crisis counselors from various parts in the country showed up and were willing to engage in dialogue with the victims and responders regarding their experiences.

Interactive communication phase is the fourth stage of Psychological First Aid that seeks to promote normalization i.e. return to normal functioning and restoration. Notably, crisis responders enable victims to return to normal functioning as soon as possible based on the experiences of the respective…. [read more]

Future Applications of Forensic DNA Essay

… More importantly, it would also help exonerate wrongly accused individuals (Dononue 2007). In this regard, one DNA scientist emphasizes that, "Any type of organism can be identified by examination of DNA sequences unique to that species. Identifying individuals within a species is less precise at this time, although when DNA sequencing technologies progress farther, direct comparison of very large DNA segments, and possibly even whole genomes, will become feasible and practical and will allow precise individual identification" (Drell 2009, p. 2).


The research showed that the past half century has witnessed the introduction of increasingly sophisticated DNA sequencing techniques that provide forensic scientists with the ability to verify the identify of people based on various types of biological specimens, including hair, blood, semen. The…. [read more]

Attacks on the World Trade Center Term Paper

… ¶ … 11th of September 2001 two planes crashed into the World Trade Center. The event was termed as 'day of reckoning' (CNN World News online news, Sept 2001). Never did the people of America realize that they'll be subjected to such barbaric attacks.

Pentagon was the second location that was jolted by another plane crash.

The fourth plane that was headed towards Washington DC, analyst suspect that the plane was hijacked and was targeted towards White House, was successively diverted by fighter planes towards the forest of Pennsylvania and where it crashed into the trees.



According to intelligence agencies Al Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden were responsible for this barbaric act, which killed thousand and affected millions.

The 'National Commission on Terrorist…. [read more]

Gang Violence Research Proposal

… ¶ … Gang Violence on the United States

The occurrence of community crime is very rarely isolated or phenomenological. The involvement of individuals, communities and demographics in drug-dealing, substance abuse, gang violence and legal maladjustment of all variety does not occur in a vacuum, but is likely to be the product of patterned conditioning and sociological stimuli. A set of circumstances contextualizing a person, a family and a neighborhood will not just have a formative impact on the way the individual is able to integrate into mainstream society, but will likewise influence the decisions, behaviors and consequences shaping his future. This is the underlying reality which persists in the self-perpetuating cycle of violence and bloodletting that is America's ongoing and encompassing gang war. A core…. [read more]

Scheduling at Red, White Essay

… work on Monday. Each group consists of five people. To ensure all needs of production are met each day, with the ever-changing employee roster, production needs to be broken down into five components, and each employee schedule group must have one person from each type of employee in that group. As an example, production may be broken down into line workers, supervisors, quality assurance, shipping, and material handling. Group A would have one of each of these employees, group B. would have one of each as well, etc.. In this way, each day there would be adequate staffing in each of these areas.

If there is a need for more of one type of employee, cross-training should be undertaken to meet this increased demand on…. [read more]

Organizational Development Plan Term Paper

… Some other strategies to consider include coworkers and management being more understanding of their colleagues charged with administering euthanasia. They should be asked how they are coping and support given in case there is need to. When they are having problems around performing euthanasia, they should be given the support they need. There should be an open door policy to encourage sharing of issues that affect staff members. Counselors can be brought in more frequently, monthly, for instance, to talk to members of staff and to give stress counseling. Staff rotation can also help a big deal in lightening the work load and reducing the levels of stress suffered by staff members. Sessions should also be arranged where staff just come together and just let…. [read more]

Union Membership Paradox Term Paper

… Union Membership Paradox

Union is an organization of a number of employees that was actually formed with the purpose of having a platform from which they could better argue or bargain with the employer of the organization. (Definition of Union) the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that today, that is, in the year 2004, about 12.5% of the entire population of wage as well as salaried workers belonged to the Union, and this was a fall from the rate of 12.9% in the year 2003, and from 20.1% in 1983. More than 36% of government workers were members of the Union in 2004, and this was a substantially higher figure than that of the number of members who belonged to the…. [read more]

Risk Minimization and Loss Prevention in Small Term Paper

… Risk Minimization and Loss Prevention in Small Business in the Post-9/11 ERA

Chapter 1, Introduction,

Chapter 2, Literature Review,

Chapter 3, Methodology,

Chapter 4, Data Analysis,

Chapter 5, Summary, Recommendations and Conclusions,

Small businesses face the same risks, in many instances, as do major corporations. For instance, both small businesses and major corporations face turnover, competition, fluctuating market demands, a volatile economy, bad business decisions and many other risks associated with entering the market place with a particular product, whether it be goods or services,

However, because of their size, small businesses are particularly vulnerable to certain types of losses and risks -- and also because of their smaller size and stature, the loss in revenue or profits is much more deeply felt in small…. [read more]

Corporate Manslaughter in the UK Term Paper

… Corporate Manslaughter Bill

Research Organisation

Critical Analysis

The Evolutionary Process

The Legal Context

The Debate: Law or Social Ethics?




Quantitative vs. Qualitative

Deductive vs. Inductive

Data Sources and Data Collection Methods

Credibility of Research Findings

Prevalence of Corporate Manslaughter

Understanding Corporate Criminal Liability

Legal Response to Corporate Manslaughter in the U.K

Current Law on Corporate Manslaughter: A Review of Cases

Recommendations for Reform and Conclusion

Recommendations and Proposals for Reform

Proposed Law and Legal Reforms on Corporate Manslaughter - a Review

Conclusion and Direction for Further Research




This study proposes to examine the subject of "corporate manslaughter." For purposes of moving the discussion forward in a way that remains unchallenged as to the definition of…. [read more]

Redefining Health and Safety in Educational Institutions in the Republic of Mauritius Research Proposal

… ¶ … Republic of Mauritius has progressed rapidly in some areas of economic and social development over recent years, there are still areas that have been failed to be addressed sufficiently as this study will demonstrate. This study is qualitative in nature having been conducted through an extension review of literature. Findings in this study include the fact that The Republic of Maritius has implemented health and safety regulations in schools and that this includes an operational food control system for ensuring health protection of consumers and that the food control system has four primary components and specifically those of: (1) food legislation; (2) the administration; (3) the enforcement; and (4) the supporting bodies. (Subratty, Chan, and Kassean, 2008) It is related in the work…. [read more]

Legal Ethical Issue Relating to Human Resources Management Research Paper

… Legal/Ethical Issue Relating to Human Resources Management

The communication by way of emails and phone calls within an organization should be observed in order to help stop workplace violence. If employees are using company issued equipment in order to threaten people or make derogatory comments this should be considered unethical and employees should be terminated for threating other employee's lives. This was the central issue that was looked at in the case of Michael A. Smyth v. The Pillsbury Company, 914 F. Supp. 97; 1996 U.S. Dist.

Plaintiff was an at-will worker who filed a wrongful discharge action against his employer. He claimed that his company violated his right to privacy by intercepting e-mail messages that he transmitted using the company's e-mail structure and in…. [read more]

Parenting Program for Women in Drug Treatment Thesis

… Parenting Program for Women and Children in Residential Treatment

Addiction is something that has been around for many years, and there have been increasingly new ways of treating it that have been created over the course of much research and study. There are many different forms that addiction takes, and there are many different drugs and substances that someone can become addicted to, even if they are not of the age that most people would think of when they picture people that would start down that particular road. Most individuals think of addicts as primarily young, minority men in their 20s and 30s that rob, steal, and cause other problems in order to get their drugs or alcohol. However, there are also…. [read more]

Dream Content as Therapy: Ego vs. Repression Dissertation

… For example: a parent has repeating nightmares, and the child "dreams his dreams " because the child is in a psychic resonance with the parent. The child's dreams end when the parent's does. Four, it might be a repetition of a past traumatic event in current lifetime. For example: a person might dream of a recent rape, a childhood assault or a wartime battle. This type of nightmare is so deeply etched in the psyche that it can require heavy use of behavioral dream-work techniques to modify the content and emotional intensity.

A fifth factor could be that the dream is a depiction of a past or probable life. For example: a client might dream the last events prior to a violent…. [read more]

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