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Judgment at Nuremberg Is a 1961 Film Term Paper

… Judgment at Nuremberg is a 1961 film, which gives a fictionalized account of the post-World War II Nuremberg Trials. It stars Spencer Tracy, Burt Lancaster, Richard Widmark, Marlene Dietrich, Maximilian Schell, Judy Garland, Montgomery Clift, Werner Klemperer and William Shatner. The movie was written by Abby Mann and directed by Stanley Kramer. The film does not depict the trial of the military and political leaders of Nazi Germany who were held responsible for the crimes against humanity committed during World War II or the Holocaust as a whole; rather, the film depicts the trial of certain judges who carried out the laws promulgated by the Nazi state. Such a trial did actually take place.

The film was inspired by the Judges' Trial before the United…. [read more]

Judgment in Managerial Decision Making: Challenger Disaster Essay

… This, at first sight, appears quite unrealistic. One would argue that a reputable institution such as NASA ought to have more coordinated systems, and more centralized decision-making systems. The subsequent subsections reveal some of the factors that made NASA's systems vulnerable.

The constraints associated with launch were retired, thus compromising the shuttle's safety. However, the system was quite shallow and provided no imperative that constraints gain the authorization of all levels of management (SHU, n.d.). This made it relatively easy for the officers at levels II and IV of the decision making structure to disregard the safety concerns raised by their Thiokol counterparts, and get away with it.

Some sort of managerial propensity is evident at NASA, whereby members make attempts to resolve issues, even…. [read more]

Intuition in Judgment and Decision-Making Article Review

… The authors describe a study where participants were supposed to assess values of shares while paying attention to strategic ads. "Across a number of studies, the astounding finding was that evaluative judgments consistently reflected the sum of return values… The results indicate that the mere encoding of value laden information (monetary outcomes) was a sufficient condition for instigating the integration of this input information" (Betsch & Glockner, 2010). Another issue that the authors examine is the use of the Mouselab when examining things like mental processes and cognition and how this method is flawed in gauging these things because it requires motor behavior to uncover hidden information and places constraints on information acquisition (Betsch & Glockner, 2010). However, when the authors used things like the…. [read more]

Judgment, a Masterpiece by Michelangelo Essay

… This is the reason many Christians believe that they need a guide to understand Bible. This is not how it should have been or at least that couldn't possibly be God's intention. He wanted people to be clearer about their affairs and wouldn't want to confuse them further. However it is the man who had adulterated the original version and hence it is lost its original integrity and purpose.

Christian Music on the other hand evolved as a response to man's sudden loss of faith in God. There were still some people who believed in God and wanted to return to Him when everything else lost focus and direction. Rock in those days was associated with everything rather antithetical to the teachings of God. It…. [read more]

On Judgement Term Paper

… ¶ … Judgment

Stereotypes and Judgments

Stereotypes are limited views of a group or type of people that is based on information that is not correct because it is oversimplified, incomplete, or distorted. No one is immune to the effects of stereotypes, and every person will inevitably experience the holding and receiving end of this harmful social phenomenon. Stereotypes may be based on race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, age, physical appearance, level of education, socioeconomic class, and many other factors. Stereotypes are a major contributing factor to the judgments each person will make about another person or group of people. In order to make the most accurate judgments in every situation, the presence of stereotypes must be addressed, discussed, and dispelled.

The kinds of stereotypes…. [read more]

Judgment Under Uncertainty Heuristics and Biases Term Paper

… Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases

Tversky and Kahneman's article Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, was published in 1974 and it occupies a pivotal place in the literature of decision making, judgment process. The core premise of this article revolves around the argument that people are not influenced as much by factual probability data as they are by cognitive heuristics when making a decision or judgment. "In general, these heuristics are quite useful, but sometimes they lead to severe and systematic errors"

The authors maintain that when a person is making a decision about something, he is likely to assign them probabilities. In the process, he will eliminate those possibilities, which have a zero probability. Once they are removed, the rest of the possibilities…. [read more]

Availability, Representativeness, and Affect Heuristics Essay

… In business, the faulty use of this heuristic might be seen in assuming that because a particular product was successful amongst female consumers last year, it will continue to be successful this year or using the same type of sales pitch to promote a product year after year.

The affect heuristic refers to the phenomenon of when a word or a phrase summons up an extremely strong emotion with little provocation. "Researchers have found that if we have pleasant feelings about something, we see the benefits as high and the risks as low, and vice versa" (Giesler 2013). For example, when selling food it is very common for advertisers to emphasize its decadent qualities, showing pictures of overstuffed burgers and creamy ice cream. But when…. [read more]

Expected Value Decision Rule Essay

… Judgment in Managerial Decision Making:

In the process of making decisions or choices under risk or uncertainty, managers must usually include the risk into their decision-making process. Notably, the process of making decisions under situations of risk and uncertainty incorporate the use of some basic rules by managers. The situations of risks or uncertainty take place when a manager must make a decision for which the result is not known in a clear or certain manner (Thomas & Maurice, 2008). In this case, the manager can outline all probable outcomes and allocate probabilities to the different outcomes. In situations where a decision maker cannot outline all probable outcomes or allocate probabilities to different outcomes, uncertainty occurs.

One of the most commonly used rules by managers…. [read more]

Bay of Pigs Invasion: Failures Book Report

… Judgment in Managerial Decision Making

Causes of the poor decision

"The Bay of Pigs Invasion" called for the most vital decisions in the U.S. The consequences were widespread. Even today, they are still felt particularly in American-Cuban communities. The highest government officials made decisions that show us that U.S. is also far from perfect. They created a plan, which was not fully thought through and cost them dearly: global embarrassment. They led to the destruction of the communist threat, which was close to the shores, eventually making the government and CIA look incompetent (Craughwell & Phelps, 2008).

After prolonged considerations between Kennedy and his top advisors, he approved a covert invasion. Castro learnt of the threat. The invaders were extremely outnumbered. Lacking ammunition, air support…. [read more]

Ayer on the Nature Term Paper

… These examples show the inherent sense of subjectivity apparent in moral judgments.

However, some of the most fundamental objections lay in the fact that critics of this theory argue that one simply can't equate an idea like "murder is wrong" to a sentiment like "chocolate ice cream is delicious." These critics argue that these two subjective statements are light-years apart and demonstrate Ayer's problem with the way in which he views the world. As one critic explains, expressing things like "Metallica is the best band" and "Julia Roberts is the best actress" are merely opinions which vary throughout the world. "Murder is wrong" is too an opinion, but this opinion is viewed as almost universal throughout the world and reflects a certain cultural temperature and…. [read more]

Romanesque the Last Judgement Research Proposal

… Romanesque/The Last Judgement

Romanesque art developed in Western Europe from approximately 1000 AD through to the 13th century or later. The term "Romanesque" was coined much later, in the 19th century by art historians, and referred to a style which can be found mostly in architecture, but also in other areas of art, such as carvings, paintings and murals. Romanesque art resembled Roman art in many ways, especially in the case of architectural style, with round-headed arches, barrel vaults, and apses. However, there are is also a considerable amount of differences between the two styles which cannot be overlooked when discussing Romanesque art. As with any other period in art history, one cannot strive to acquire a complex understanding of Romanesque art without reflecting on…. [read more]

Forming Judgments, and the Development Term Paper

… Such distinctions are vital in order to ensure that the judgment expressed contains a balanced view, deals with probability, includes appropriate qualifications, and helps make the predicate exact. The forming of good judgments or conclusions will also help in persuading others of the view taken in an argument. However, sound arguments alone are not sufficient in persuading others. For persuasion also requires the ability to: understand the audience viewpoint; begin from a common position; concede where the opposing side has a point; and take a positive approach. But the real key lies in sound arguments.

Thus, the goal of a critical thinker is to develop sound arguments that are valid and based on true premises and conclusions. This requires the solving of problems of logic,…. [read more]

Instantly Forming Judgment of Others Chapter

… ¶ … instantly forming judgment of others. Some of these judgments likely come as a result of socialization, but I think that socialization theories are incorrect in affirming that all mental schemas, namely decisions, judgment, conclusions, beliefs and so forth are as result of enculturation, for I find that many proceed too from personal experience. In fact, most of my negative instantaneous judgments are a result of experiences that have been accrued that go counter to my socialization.

Positive judgments that I consequently make involve color of the skin, dress, and action, as well as general personality characteristics. I am attracted to the Black race since I consider them diligent, hardworking and, generally, people who have overcome terrific odds just as I have. I know…. [read more]

Artwork Entitled "The Judgment Term Paper

… Interestingly, this is one of the most common mythological themes in art and literature, and Cranach painted several different versions of this tale.

Of all incidents in the Trojan War this has been the most continuously stressed in art and literature. It appears in the seventh century B.C., or perhaps a little earlier, on an ivory comb found in Sparta. Homer knew the story, though the Iliad mentions it only in passing as'... The delusion of Paris, who insulted the goddesses when they came to him' (Scherer 10).

The work is extremely typical of German Renaissance painting of the time, which intricately combined medieval detail with ancient tales. Cranach was a popular painter of the time, earning commissions from the Pope, the Duke of Saxony,…. [read more]

Beauty Beast Judgment and Superficiality Thesis

… In this text, Beauty (or the French "Belle," as she is called) is inherently more fragmented, sweet and yet not at all meek, but her own fragmented nature prevents her from acting with the decisive heroism expected from her earlier spunk, and thus both texts preserve the notion of misleading superficial realities (Hearn & Devries; Craven).

Beauty's sisters play a relatively minor role in the actual plot of Beaumont's "Beauty and the Beast," and thus their excision from many adaptations is not at all surprising, but they provide interesting insight into the particular issue at hand. Also beautiful and educated, these girls possess nothing of the heart or spirit of their younger sister, and are themselves shaken by several confrontations with reality's unexpected appearance through…. [read more]

Good Judgment Essay

… ¶ … Judgment

The case of the cement plant in Lake Springs shows that when a person or people use poor judgment, they must understand that they alone are responsible for the consequences. In this situation, the developers and civic authorities moved into the area with full understanding of the cement plant and its operations. They subsequently demanded that the cement plant accommodate their needs. They expect the cement plant to contribute to their community when they have only made accommodation to the cement plant after being subject to legal proceedings.

As this case demonstrates, if judgment is poor initially, then the consequences could flow for years. Better judgment in the first place would have allowed for better cooperation between the city and the cement…. [read more]

Good Judgment Essay

… ¶ … Judgment

Sophocles' Antigone illustrates the consequences of poor judgment. Creon is viewed unfavorably by the gods for his disrespect to Polyneices and Antigone. As the ruler (regent) of Thebes, he is expected to show good judgment in dealing with delicate matters involving both etiquette and the gods. Creon failed to properly recognize the ethical dilemma that he faced. What occurred then was that he made a poor decision regarding Polyneices' body and the treatment of his sisters, particularly Antigone. Thus, the play demonstrates that ethical dilemmas are not always obvious up front. In this situation, it was for Creon to recognize that he may anger the gods by showing this disrespect.

Indeed, the back story of the play should have given Creon the…. [read more]

Analysis of Kant S Critique of Judgment Essay

… Kant's Critique of Judgment, written in 1790, examines the faculty of judgment according to Immanuel Kant. This book summarizes Kant's ideas about philosophy on the beautiful and the sublime, otherwise known as aesthetics. Kant discovered the problem of aesthetic pleasure and contrasted it to the sensual value and the good in a moral sense. He reflects on such aesthetic judgment, as the "judgments of taste." This is based on an individual's subjective feelings, which much have a universal validity. Kant believes that all reliable judgments are disinterested. Disinterestedness means taking pleasure without any purpose, "purposive without purpose," "final without end." Kant defines interest as the delight in which we connect with the representation of the real existence of an object (Kant 132). For instance, people's…. [read more]

Kant's Critique of Judgement Term Paper

… Kant's Philosophy

We are bombarded with questions daily about different issue in our society like the justice of our foreign policy, the morality behind medical technologies that can prolong our lives, the rights of the homeless, the fairness of our children's teachers to the diverse students in their classrooms etc. Moral issues confront us each day, challenge us in routine life. Similarly, humans interact with each other and with different objects on the basis of their own judgments. Some people consider an issue moral while some others would consider it immoral. Similarly an object would be beautiful for one person while some other person may not consider it the same. Dealing with these varying issues often laves us baffled.

Kant & his Earlier Work

Philosophers…. [read more]

Kant S Philosophy of Aesthetics and Judgment Essay

… Immanuel Kant's 1790 Critique of Judgment summarizes Kant's philosophy of aesthetics. Kant contrasts what is merely sensual pleasure versus what is a moral good as well as explores the subjective nature of aesthetic judgments. Kant believes that all truly reliable aesthetic judgments are disinterested. Disinterestedness means taking pleasure in a manner which is "purposive without purpose" or "final without end" as we connect with the representation of the real existence of an object (Kant 132). People's feelings about beauty are disinterested because people seek to appreciate beauty without a willingness to use it for a certain purpose. A disinterested judgment truly gratifies and not only pleases the senses. This is the key ground for a true judgment of taste.

Disinterestedness is a space of freedom,…. [read more]

Morality and Disgust Research Paper

… Morality Disgust

Disgust and Moral Judgments

This research study examined levels of morality and disgust in a series of paired photographs. Pairs of individuals with different moral cues were presented to subjects via computerized surveys and rated for perceived morality; the five highest and lowest rated pictures were then paired with control pictures and second population of respondents were asked to assess whom they would prefer sharing a toothbrush with. The results indicate that perceptions of morality have a strong correlation with perceptions of physical cleanliness and reactions of physical disgust. Implications in light of contemporary research are examined.

Human judgments of each other are known to be highly subjective, nearly instantaneous, and largely involuntary. A variety of factors, including previous experience in combination with…. [read more]

Competence Professional Judgment and Greed Essay

… ¶ … Ethical Values

Competence, Professional Judgment, and Greed

Three ethical values: Competence, professional judgment, and greed

Three ethical values: Competence, professional judgment, and greed

Value 1: Competence

At first, competence may not seem to be an ethical value, merely a judgment of skill. However, the role of competence in ethics comes sharply into relief when a professional claims an area of expertise that is not in his or her field: for example, when a general physician attempts to treat a seriously ill patient without recommending he or she see a specialist or when a family lawyer is contacted by his or her client who really needs specialized help in criminal law. Another example of competence becoming an ethical concern is when a school hires…. [read more]

Kant, Hanslick and Music Term Paper

… Once it is determined what makes a specific work of art or piece of music beautiful, then it must determined what kind of pleasure is derived from experiencing the work of art. When the pleasure that is derived from music is identified, attention is shifted from the composer, who determined the structure of the piece, to the listener who is then tasked with identifying what pleasure is derived based upon personal (and possibly social) standards and to what extent the pleasure is derived (Graham, 78).

During the 19th century, music structures began to change and a new set of standards by which music was aesthetically judged had to be formed. Classic 19th century music built upon the style and the formal procedures that had been…. [read more]

Police Brutality and Monetary Judgements Term Paper

… Police Brutality and Monetary Judgments

This paper explores the relationship between that of police brutality, monetary judgments and the possibility that a municipality; city, town or county will be financially burdened or ruined by a large lawsuit. Despite the fact that Commissioners of Bryan County v. Brown, et. al., a ruling by the United States Supreme Court prohibits that municipalities could not be held liable for the hiring of law enforcement officers with histories of violent behavior, government agencies are becoming burdened with the financial responsibility when the family goes to court. This case requires that the victim must prove that the officer showed signs of such behavior but was hired regardless. There are loop holes in the nation's judicial system. This paper will offer…. [read more]

Ethical Judgments Persuasion and Television Essay

… Ethics and Television

How has television influenced persuasion? Be sure to provide examples to illustrate your discussion. Which effect has been most significant?

Television has influenced persuasion in a number of different ways, but the most powerful way is by creating an easy means of creating familiarity. First, television has made it possible to repeatedly present images to a passive audience, so that it can use the simple power of repetition to help in the persuasion context. The textbook discusses elections and the idea that candidates with greater financial resources can afford more advertising. This advertising puts the candidate's name into the mind of the voters. Simply by repeating the message that people should vote for the candidate, even without giving substantive reasons to do…. [read more]

Miss Brill Judgment and Otherness Essay

… From very brief glimpses of these people, Miss Brill comes to rather self-satisfied and quick judgments of them while truly remaining completely ignorant of others. It is only n the last line of the story that the third person perspective becomes truly obvious and extremely poignant, even distancing Miss Brill's thoughts from herself.

In order for Miss Brill to come to these judgments about the others around her, there must first of course be others around her, and thus the setting of the story is essential. The busyness of the park and the streets that Miss Brill occupies with the other unnamed individuals in the tale enable and in fact demand the superficiality that is apparent throughout the story. The familiarity of the surroundings to…. [read more]

Ethics the Terri Schiavo Case Term Paper

… " (Lazzaerini et al., 2006)

Related issues are those to do with physician assisted dying and with, generally, helping a willing patient to die. Torke et al. (2008) argue that guardian judgment is often used as decision-making when a patient lacks the cognitive abilities to decide treatment for herself. Surrogate decision-making, however, has its own flaws and should be replaced by something more rational. Tong et al. (20080 argue that the decision whether or not to prolong a patient's life should focus on the patient's dignity and individuality rather than on his or her autonomy. This is the crux of the Schiavo case.

Summarize your analysis and conclude by discussing what could have been done to avoid this ethical issue.

The Terri Schiavo case was…. [read more]

Personal vs. Professional Judgement Term Paper

… Accounting - Ethics


Accounting is a field rife with potential for ethical dilemmas addressed in great detail, both in the private sector and in public (government) sector by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) Code of Professional Responsibility and the generally accepted government auditing standards (GAGAS) defined by the U.S. Comptroller General in the U.S. Government Auditing Standards (GAS), AKA "the Yellow Book," published annually by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO).

According to the AICPA, the fundamental ethical obligation of the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) is expressed in the AIPCA Code of Responsibility, Section 55 - Article IV -- Objectivity and Independence, as follows:

member should maintain objectivity and be free of conflicts of interest in…. [read more]

Justice in Film the Aftermath Film Review

… ¶ … Justice in Film

The aftermath of World War II is the backdrop for a courtroom drama titled Judgment at Nuremberg which deals with the concept of how judges are responsible for the administration of justice. The film is based on a real-life military tribunal which took place in 1947 and brought to justice four former Nazi judges. But the main issue the film deals with is whether or not judges should seek justice in their courts or simply enforce the law, however immoral it may be. As the prosecution stated, the four judges in the film are being charged not with the violation of civil or constitutional rights, but for "murder, brutalities, torture, [and] atrocities…," which were the result of their failure to…. [read more]

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