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Behavior? Prejudice and Social Psychology Essay

… Thus, we all tend to fulfill our psychological need of belongingness and distinction that is reflected in the amount of influence that we absorb from societal factors such as peers, parents, figures of authority, and other factors that shape behavior.


As quoted by renowned researcher Milgram, "Psychiatrists predicted that only a pathological fringe of about one in a thousand would administer the highest shock on the board" (Milgram, 1973; Pg. 62). With such popularly held notions and general perceptions regarding individual's behavior, Milgram refuted that we only act morally in given situations and held true that obedience to authority plays an important role in shaping behavior of individuals. The self-argued plausible explanation individuals such as Adolph Eichmann after committing crimes, provide is that they…. [read more]

Organizational Behavior Book Management Book Review

… ¶ … Organizational Behavior

Book review of a management topic of your choice

The book chosen for review in this paper is 'Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations' published in 2011 and written by Ricky W. Griffin, Gregory Moorhead. A number of definitions have been given for the term organizational behavior. The most important definition argues that organizational behavior deals with the effects and impacts that the groups and individuals within the organizations have on overall behaviors within an organization. Thereby, it can be argued here that organizational behavior is a multifactorial dimension of a workplace. The book deals with important aspects of organizational behavior, how overall environment of an organization affects behaviors in an organization and how interpersonal relationships affect the behaviors within the…. [read more]

Organizational Dynamics of Coffee Essay

… The structure of any organization gives the primary template that help secure the continuation of the norms, culture, values philosophies and informal activities that part and parcel of the organization.

Duncan (1979) in his Article," What is the Right Organization?," argues that all organizations are undergoing change. These changes move from matrix to horizontal and finally to virtual according to An and Daft (2006).

There exist two general theories that are used to design the structures of organizations. First is the universalistic approach commonly called the standard hierarchical design? This approach is based on the belief that that there is only one way that best suits all the organizations during the structuring process the situations and prevailing conditions notwithstanding. This approach is also base on…. [read more]

Theory Help Essay

… This is never a good argument because, since the media is strong, someone will hear the outcry of the wronged party (whether that be human or environmental). Organizations benefit from critical theory evaluation because it allows them to look past themselves and the drive to make money. Critical theory makes the management of the organization morally responsible for the decisions that they make.

Management and Critical Theory

Management is the actual focus of critical theory (Stanton, 1993) because issues with management made it necessary for someone else to have a voice. At the beginning of the industrial revolution, a new reality was created for the managers of the multitudes that peopled the new factories. That reality continues today. It is that "management was lionized, even…. [read more]

Theory Whether Formal, Every Group Research Paper

… ¶ … Theory

Whether formal, every group has a structure regardless of the nature of their activity or the length of time they have been together (Freeman, 1970). Whether the group is a large nonprofit organization, a multibillion dollar corporate empire, a community or grassroots organization, or a group of friends who get together on a regular basis to discuss politics and the weather, each is a structured entity whether formal or informal, with flexible or stringent rules and guidelines. What aids in the solidification of the group is the issuance of tasks and responsibilities, power and resources spread amongst the membership. The simple notion that a group of individuals with various talents have come together for a common cause makes it a group (Freeman,…. [read more]

Organization Behavior Contemporary Issues Essay

… Similarly, the second approach, "Participation and Involvement" discusses the importance of employees' role in the organizational development and innovation process. By following this approach, organizations can not only bring the required change effectively, but can also improve the level of motivation and commitment of their employees. Further, the managers can improve the skills and capabilities of their subordinates through facilitation and support in the change management process. These new skills can also help them in the long run in their day-to-day tasks. The fifth change approach, "Negotiation and Agreement" is also effective when organizations give equal importance to their change strategy as well as to their industrial relations.


Converse to these strengths of the model, there are certain weaknesses which resist organizations to follow…. [read more]

Organizational Behaviour This Report Focuses Essay

… These values determine to a great level how individual put their psychological energies into action. The outcomes of these can either be negative or positive (Dean, 2011). Further, they can advance beyond the group level and affect the relationship between different groups in organizations. The correlation between these values and those instituted at the corporate levels of the organization, to a large extent determine how operations are accomplished within the workplace and how goals are achieved within the same. In light of such group dynamics, managers within organizations are required to put into consideration certain factors in order to oversee and facilitate group performance. Different approaches can be used by management in achieving this end. These include actions like, the establishment of appropriate communication channels,…. [read more]

Organization Behavior Management and Organizational Essay

… Performance bonuses, promotion to a higher job position, a 'well-done' note, 'employee of the year' award, appreciation in front of superiors and coworkers, etc. are some most effective motivational techniques managers use to motivate their subordinates (DuBrin 2009).

At Europcar Sydney International, Sohun motivates his team members through both monetary and non-monetary motivational techniques. He uses reward systems, bonuses, and lunch offers on regular basis for high performers while gives special attention to those who are unable to show desired results. For these low performers, Sohun arranges discussion sessions in which they are asked to present their views and feedback to their manager. He listens to their issues in a friendly manner and provides further guidance on their job tasks. This leadership persuades them to…. [read more]

Organization Behavior Competitive Advantage Essay

… b. Control Costs in the Long Run:

Although organizations have to expend a significant amount of budget on the training and skills development of their existing and newly recruited staff, these expenditures can eventually control the heavy costs which they have to incur in the long run. That is, if organizations continue to provide training to their employees on periodical basis, these employees are basically trained to fill the higher management positions in the future. In this way, organizations can save the money which is expended on the training of new employees at the Top Management positions by promoting their existing employees to those positions. The huge expenditures which organizations incur on the training of their higher level officials put heavy financial burden on their…. [read more]

Group Develoment Theory Term Paper

… Therefore, Cognitive Behavior Therapy has a greater influence in perceiving and developing the possible attributes of change within every scale of performance in a group (Forsyth, 2010).

Techniques and application to specific populations

According to the Cognitive Behavior Therapy of group development, change management within a group is thought to take several steps in the society. These changes are a reflection of the encampment members and connotations of management within that group. These stages of change management in group development include unfreezing, change, and freezing.


This is one of the developmental stages of growth and development that issued by the author in exemplifying his Cognitive Behavior Therapy in the organization. According to the theory, this conditional aspect of group development involves overcoming of the…. [read more]

Organizational Change "Change Implementation Research Paper

… Too frequently the senior executives in an organization overlook what the authors call "the 'softer' skills their leaders will need" to implement changes in the company (Smet, 2012). What are "softer skills"? Smet explains that these skills include: a) the ability to keep the managers and the employees "…inspired when they feel overwhelmed"; b) being able to promote "collaboration across organizational boundaries"; and c) showing the skills needed to help managers "…embrace change programs through dialogue, not dictation" (Smet, p. 1).

The bottom line in this article is that before a company launches a campaign for major changes -- either in the company's culture or in the manufacturing / production process -- the right kind of leadership must be in place.

The World Bank --…. [read more]

Formation Organizations Factors Influencing Essay

… All the cases and procedures are studied, measured, and quantified according to the confirmations of the technique used. Besides, the usability of the design item, and the longevity of the system in order to have a genuine organization formation process are also tested. Moreover, quantification responded to the nature and effectiveness of the methods and procedures involved in designing the organization formation and system matter. Quantified scales are established and recorded for future organization formation processes (Information resources management association & Khosrowpour 2006, p. 89). This was done so that succinct measures would have been developed to cater for possible risk occurrences.

Features of the employment contract I would advise my next employer to include in my next contract

Conception: the organization formation activities are…. [read more]

Organizational Psychology Definition of Organizational Psychology Industrial Essay

… Organizational Psychology

Definition of Organizational Psychology

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, also sometimes referred as industrial-organizational psychology, or I-O psychology, is defined as "the scientific study of the relationship between man and the world of work.... In the process of making a living" (Guion, 1965, p. 817). Another more pertinent definition is, "…the application or extension of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry" (Blum and Naylor, 1968, p 4).

Taking both these definitions into account, we can say that in essence organizational psychology is the utilization of scientifically verified psychological principles and research methods in order to understand behavior in various organizations. An important aspect of this discipline is that it is the application…. [read more]

Organizational Change and the Consequences of Ambiguity Essay

… Organizational Change and the Consequences of Ambiguity

Organizational change can carry a wide range of implications for the personnel both at the leadership and membership level. As a firm endures a transition toward the adoption of new technologies, the assumption of new procedural terms or even the alignment with new ownership, it is important to help redefine roles, expectations and cultural characteristics in order to achieve consistency. A failure to do so can produce the types of ambiguities in job functions, in employee expectations, in ways of advancing with the company and even in ways of behaving within the company's offices that can lead to reduced efficiency, diminished competency and eroding company-wide morale. Therefore, it is incumbent upon the leadership core to pursue a high…. [read more]

HRM Organizational Behavior, Theories Essay

… " (2007) In the rest of this section, I consider how the various high-performance work practices are logically consistent with the ideas from an organizational behavior perspective."(Pfeffer, 2007) Jangla (nd) states:" An organizational goal is the desired state of affairs." (nd) The framework of organizational behavior forms a construct upon which the entire organizational culture, mind-think, principles, mission, vision, goals and outcomes rests upon and this dictates the behavioral characteristics of the organization in such a manner that is spread throughout the various and diverse layers of the organization. For example, Wal-Mart has become a price leader by concentrating on the bottom line for the customer and the organization which is quite simply getting the most for the money or the biggest bang for the…. [read more]

Theory Essay

… ¶ … Theory

There have been several attempts to understand the infant self and the formation of behaviors as the infants grow, right from birth through their childhood and adolescence. Of particular interest has been the study on how the infants relate to others and how they experience themselves in relation to other. There have been a lot of concentrations on the sense of self that are essential to daily social interactions with others. This is in the form of psychoanalysis which has its foundation on the works of people like Freud, Erickson, Klein and Mahler among other psychoanalysis professionals.

Attachment is ranked among the most studied aspects of psychology today and in particular the works of Bowlby as well as Stern's works (Stern D.…. [read more]

Group Addiction TX Theory Selection Term Paper

… For strict behaviorists addiction or compulsion are simply a terms for an operantly conditioned behavior. Other compulsive behaviors follow the same line of reasoning. The inability to refrain from using a drug or engaging in a compulsion merely indicates that a sufficient history of reinforcement has been acquired to drive a high rate of the behavior. Therefore, physical dependence, as in the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, is neither sufficient nor necessary to result in a diagnosis of an addiction (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). Physical dependence is just a result of the overuse of certain drugs according to this view (McAuliffe & Gordon, 1980).

Behaviorists offer many different techniques that can applied to group counseling. Typically contingency management (CM) techniques are applicable behavioral for group counseling…. [read more]

Radical Humanist Approach to Organizational Assessment

… Simply put, it is very difficult to be an ethnographer in one's own society.

Critical theory is, to my thinking, superior to naturalistic inquiry with regard to the study of organizational culture due to the advantage it presents through perspective. (Freire, 1970). The difference is akin to the difference between two approaches to anthropology: Case study and participant observation. An ethnographer who studies a culture as a participant observer has a much deeper, richer understanding of the culture than an anthropologist who constructs a case study. Case study perspective that permits the carry-over of all the assumptions that form the basis of his experience as an inhabitant of a different culture. Contrary to what the frameworks might imply with their inside-outside duality, ethnography is akin…. [read more]

Postmodern Bereavement Theory Chapter

… In particular, it has been revealed that a number of bereaved individuals come out of grief when their emotions were suppressed or methods of distraction were employed (Bonanno, Keltner, Holen, & Horowitz, 1995). A majority of people use both sentimental and cognitive behavioral strategies for loss management. For that reason, a conventional emphasis on emotionally cathartic grief work may possibly make the matters worse for individuals who use other cognitive/behavioral strategies. An emotional catharsis strategy, as introduced by Freud, can complicate the natural grieving process of a bereaved individual rather than helping him/her out (Doughty & Hoskins, 2011).

Freudian theories regarding grief have been often criticized by several scholars especially those who support the postmodernist views on bereavement. However, despite the criticism, the Freud's theories…. [read more]

Organizational Behavior: Past Present Essay

… The contingency approach likewise stresses the situational nature of human behavior, and believes that managerial approaches must be tailored to the emotional makeup of the employees, the needs of a specific objective, and the character of the organization as a whole. POB stresses the need for creating a positive workplace culture as well, to enable workers to flourish.

Q4. Organizational culture

An organizational culture can give members of an organization an identity, facilitate the honing of a collective commitment to excellence, promote the social system's stability, and shape behaviour by helping workers make sense of their surroundings (Kreitner & Kinicki 2007). Organizational cultures are often divided into different overall categories: collaborate, control, create, and compete cultures. Different organizational cultures are generated by the needs of…. [read more]

Organizational Behavior Q's Classical Theory Is Concerned Thesis

… Organizational Behavior Q's

Classical theory is concerned primarily -- perhaps even solely -- with the organization of work, employees, and resources in a way that maximizes efficiency and thus profitability. Max Weber was one of the progenitors of this theory; he saw society as a whole as an organized structure with constituent parts in constant communication and adjustment with each other; this is primarily how this theory views business organizations as well. Behavioral theory, in contrast, asserts that certain learnable behavioral traits, especially in leaders, determine motivation and productivity. This theory places the burden of profitability on individual behaviors rather than on overall organizational structure (though neither individual behavior nor organizational structure are necessarily excluded from consideration by either theory; it is more a matter…. [read more]

Theory Therapy Levy, Meehan, Kelly, Reynoso, Weber Research Proposal

… ¶ … Theory Therapy

Levy, Meehan, Kelly, Reynoso, Weber, Clarkin, & Kernberg have developed an empirical research work that begins with a comprehensive explanation of the various aspects of the work. Change in Attachment Patterns and Reflective Function in a Randomized Control Trial of Transference-Focused Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder the work defines the psychological disorder, borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD is a highly prevalent, chronic, and debilitating psychiatric problem characterized by a pattern of chaotic and self-defeating interpersonal relationships, emotional lability, poor impulse control, angry outbursts, frequent suicidality, and self-mutilation (Skodol et al., 2002). (2006, p. 1028) the work also states that the prevalence of BPD is significant in the general population (@1-2%) and the psychiatric population (@11%) with a higher percentage in inpatient,…. [read more]

Psychology Theories of Personality Focus Essay

… Erikson presented eight different stages of personality growth and development. These included the infancy stage, where a person develops trust. The second stage is between ages one and three. At this stage, the individual develops autonomy, and if not, shame and doubt. Therefore, these early stages roughly correspond with Sigmund Freud's notions of how individuals develop shame and doubt feelings early in their psychosocial development. The way the person moves through these stages is shaped by the environmental factors, and then influences the personality.

Social learning theory was presented by Alfred Bandura. Alfred Bandura's social learning theory focuses on learning, just as the behaviorists did. However, unlike the behaviorists, Bandura's social learning theory suggests that people develop their personality as they watch others. For example,…. [read more]

Behavior Management in Education Term Paper

… As the child grows older and becomes more cognizant of the needs of others, he or she begins to realize that the behavior of sharing brings about positive emotional and physical responses of mutual sharing in others and results in the formation of lasting friendships. However, a child will only be willing to share his or her snack, for instance, if he or she is receiving enough food at home, and can be reliably sure that his or her own sense of security -- the snack given at snack time -- will not be arbitrarily snatched away for no reason, because of no behavior of his or her own.

Positive and reliable reinforcement ultimately results in the child or young adolescent reaching the highest principle…. [read more]

Theory and Context: Institutional Choice Essay

… However, the role that bureaucracies play as organizations is not well examined from that specific view which is one that is reported to "run counter to principal-agent relationships that must be predicated on a zone of acceptable behavior between such parties." (Meier, 2003) Meier states that what is needed are models that give consideration to the "utility functions of politicians and bureaucratic agencies without relegating the latter to a constraint on the optimization problem facing the former." (2003) Moe notes the fact that the "…norm of reciprocity within Congress are not products of explicit choice but have emerged informally over time through repeated interaction and adaptive adjustment among participants." (2011, p.215)


From the literature reviewed in this brief study it is clear that there…. [read more]

Organizational Diagnosis of Palm Computing Capstone Project

… These changes are thought to occur simultaneously within the dynamic organization." (Lewin, 1951) The weakness in this model is within the leadership that must execute in an environment based on uncertainty and essentially on the insight and vision of leadership. The quality of the environmental factor analysis is also critical, as this information must be as accurate as possible.

Tichy's Technical Political Cultural (TPC) Framework [8:]

Tichy's framework (Tichy, 1983) is essentially a change management process (Tichy, 1983) that organizes ordinal data including the "inputs, throughputs, and outputs" (Tichy, 1983). The categories where the input is drawn include the environment and the history, with a third category included as resources. Throughput variables are defined as the actuators or change drivers in the model. The…. [read more]

Organizational Theory and Behaviour Essay

… Organizational Theory & Behaviour

Organizational Theory and Behavior

Organizational Culture, Ideologies, Reform and Efficiency

The modern day business environment is under incremental pressure to satisfy the mutating needs of its many categories of stakeholders. This basically means that they have to offer high quality products and services at competitive prices, treat their employees in a fair and stimulating means; obey all legislations; ensure social and environmental responsibility and so on. Most of these new efforts are organized under concepts of organizational culture, ideologies, reform and efficiency. Yet, it is interesting to identify if these concepts have any link to the classic theories of economics and organizational behavior.

A first source to study in order to offer an answer is constituted by Brian R. Fry's Mastering…. [read more]

Organizational Behavior in the New Organizational Era Research Proposal

… ¶ … Organizational Behavior in the New Organizational Era, the author talks about changes that are being seen in contemporary firms today as well as the competitive environments that they operate in and how this can translate into a new focus for research into organizational behavior and other issues. Organizational behavior research is a very important area of study, especially as it reflects the shift away from corporatist organizations and toward a more comprehensive way of organizing companies (Rousseau, 1997). As the author looks at organizational behavior it is very clear that the hypothesis is that it is changing and evolving into something that deals much less with a corporation where one person is in charge and much more with an organization where people work…. [read more]

Organizational Personality Citizen's Hospital Essay

… The organization is in serious need of psychological and physical design change to enhance productivity and worker emotions. In the hiring process, the human resource management should consider aspect of mental and physical abilities of applicants. Personality, interpersonal skills, and emotional intelligence should also be considered to determine good fits between employees and the organization.

Where there will always be issues with satisfaction, performance, rewards, and motivation, the psychological aspect should consider how to best meet patient needs with a uniform team approach with safety for all in mind. Where the organization has high expectations on patient safety, employee safety should also contain high expectations. The safety first should consider all stakeholders, including employees and visitors, not just patients.

The organization should design a commitment…. [read more]

Understanding Organizations: Symbolic-Interpretive Perspectives Essay

… Using the ICT platform, people can create societies and worlds wherein every person is a contributor, and they can determine their own kind of reality, mainly that of a flat structure, an organization or society without any status roles or levels of superiority or inferiority.

V. Synthesis

The discussion and analysis on modern and symbolic-interpretive perspectives demonstrated how each perspective can help understand and analyze organizations based on their structure and culture. Characteristics and principles adhered to in the modernist worldview indicate that it is best applied when studying organizations that are hierarchical in structure and have specific role-statutes from within. Symbolic-interpretive perspective, meanwhile, will work best with organizations with flat structures -- organizations that have no structures, no status-roles to adhere to (that is,…. [read more]

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