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Ottoman Empire in 1683 Essay

… Given its many domestic and international handicaps, the Ottoman Empire deserves credit for modernizing as much as it did. In 1800-1908, the powers of the centralized state increased greatly, and the number of civil officials grew from 2,000 to 50,000. Even Sultan Abdulhamid II, who lived in constant fear of assassination at his palace in Yildiz before being overthrown by the Young Turks in 1908-09, oversaw the construction of 10,000 modern schools during his 34-year reign (Quataert, p. 62). New ministries of health, education, commerce and public works came into being during the 19th Century, modeled after their European counterparts and staffed by bureaucrats trained in Western languages and methods.

For all his considerable flaws, Abdulhamid II was also skilled at playing the Western Powers…. [read more]


Ottoman Empire Term Paper

… " Unfortunately, the debt grew at an accelerating pace, and in 1881, the Empire had failed to pay the interest on a foreign debt of over 200 million pounds sterling, and as a result, "was forced to permit its creditors to take charge of certain imperial revenues."

The Janissary Corps

The military corps within the Ottomans was the Janissary Corps, which "dated back to the late fourteenth century when Ottoman power was shifting from Asia Minor to the Balkans" (Palmer, 1992). The corps was created by Sultan Murad I, "as a slave bodyguard." And fifty years later, the Devsirme corps was introduced, Palmer explains, and served "as the chief source from which the Janissary Corps was raised." Christian peasant fathers were required once in five…. [read more]


Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire Essay

… Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire

Founded by the Turkish House of Ottoman, the Ottoman Empire endured from roughly 1299 to the First World War. For 620 years, the Ottoman Empire was the dominant political, cultural, and military force in the Middle East. At its peak its territory stretched from the edge of Vienna to the Red Sea, from North Africa to the Balkans (Chau, 2007).

Originally the Turks were a nomadic horseman from Central Asia who embraced Islam in the ninth century. Under the Seljuk leader Tugrul they captured Baghdad. The first major victory of the Seljuk Turks over Christians followed in 1071 when a Byzantine army was defeated near Lake Van. Subsequently the Seljuk's established a Sultanate with the capital at Konya…. [read more]


Muslim Battles With European Countries Term Paper

… Constantinople was the last Christian stronghold in the Middle East, and its fall was the beginning of the Ottomans great expansion period. They infiltrated Spain after the fall of Constantinople, and gained a foothold to move throughout Europe, converting the people to Islam and gaining more territory. Today, there are still many areas of Europe that continue to be Islamic strongholds, such as Bosnia. There are still wars being fought over the Muslim, Christian dilemma, too, as the Bosnia-Serb war recently shows, and the war with Iraq continues.

In conclusion, each of these battles was highly significant in world history for a number of reasons. The Battle of Constantinople opened up the European continent to the Ottomans, giving them a foothold into new and vulnerable…. [read more]

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