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Psychology Sensation and Perception Work Together Term Paper

… Psychology

Sensation and perception work together to help us see the world. Most people use these terms as interchangeable concepts. However, they are separate functions and each compliments the other.

Sensation is the process that allows the body to take in the stimuli from outside of it. For example, when we smell cooking, it is our sense of smell that sends the information to our brain. Our five senses are smell, sight, touch, taste and sound. If all of our senses are working, we cannot possibly sense everything around us. We may taste some of the ingredients of a prepared dish, but not all of them. The same applies to all of the senses. We hear some of the sounds around us, but because of…. [read more]

Developmental History of Positive Psychology Research Paper

… Positive Psychology

The History and Development of Positive Psychology: An Overview of Perspectives and Theories

As the medical and even the human sciences go, psychology is still a relative newcomer to the real of academic scholarship and real-world practice. Surgeries and other investigations into the workings of the human body -- methods of determining the sources of illnesses and attempts at treating these illnesses, as well as simply understanding the functioning of a body and its organs in a state of health -- are older than civilization itself, and were in many ways quite refined before the concept of psychology had solidified. Other somewhat subjective "soft" or human sciences developed quite rapidly in the eighteenth and especially the nineteenth centuries, with sociology, economics, and political…. [read more]

Self and Social Psychology Research Paper

… The persuading Self desires to evoke harmony between the message and the audience Self. This is the basic concept behind the power of persuasion and all persuasive techniques: the establishment of harmony between message and audience.

Obedience and Conformity -- What factors lead us to be obedient and to conform?

Obedience and conformity are modes of behavior and belief which are influenced by the way the Self perceives both itself and Others. As the Self comes to identify itself with a particular group or creed or ideology, it may make an effort to conform to that group's behavioral norms and/or sense of identity. The Self is more likely to obey the tenets of a belief system or the laws of a State when it identifies…. [read more]

Clinical Focused the Humanistic Psychology Essay

… He demonstrated his hypothesis and techniques via lecturing, teaching workshops, audiovisual recordings and live demonstrations. He developed the client-centered approach in between 1940. In the course of development of Rogerian theory, Rogers demonstrated that social learning is paramount in establishment of a good therapeutic environment. Through development of the Rogerian theory, Rogers ascertained that social transmission must be faithful enough, and requires clients to weed out their maladaptive culture through assessing their own conducts (Magnus, Kimmo & Stefano, 2007). His theory is subjective in temperament and requires psychologists to comprehend clients, their worldviews and experiences. The Rogerian theory postulates that an individual realizes his/her final potential when not blocked by environmental aspects as well as personal experiences. The objective of the Rogerian therapy is to…. [read more]

Cognitive and Affective Psychology Essay

… Cognitive and Affective Psychology

According to Eysenck and Keane (2005, p. 1), cognitive psychology focuses upon how the human faculties make sense of th einvrionment, as well as the processes involved in making decisions regarding appropriate responses to the environment. The specific processes involved in cognitive psychology include attention, perception, learning, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning and thinking.

According to the authors, there are four major approaches to human cognition (Eysenck & Keane, 2005, p. 3): experimental cognitive psychology; cognitive neuropsychology; computational cognitive science; and cognitive neuroscience.

Affective psychology concerns human emotion and the effect of this upon behavior; in other words, the outward expression of inner feelings. According to Brett et al. (2003), many professionals regard the affective domain as including three subcomponents: feeling,…. [read more]

Abnormal Psychology: OCD Diagnosis and Treatment Term Paper

… Abnormal Psychology: OCD Diagnosis and Treatment

In this case, the reader is asked to evaluate the case of "Jake," who has an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) which has reemerged after the birth of his child. Jake grew up in a relatively sheltered environment, close to his mother and distant from his father. Always uncomfortable with outside stimuli, Jake pursued a cautious and, in his father's eyes, less than manly life.

Jake had been able to cope with his panic attacks and compulsive concern for cleanliness at various points in his life, including in college and when he met and married his wife, Ally. He was able to tune his environment to cater to his desire for low stimuli: this extended to his wife (who liked quiet,…. [read more]

Educational Psychology Essay

… 210)

One of the problems that Wolf cites in both the theory and praxis of applied behavioral analysis (and its close cousin cognitive behavioral therapy) that has remained an issue in the intervening decades is that because this technique is focused on the observable, there is no way for either a clinician or a researcher to make an accurate assessment of the internal state of a subject.

Behavioral researchers have reported many examples of a lack of correspondence between client-reported data and observer-obtained data. Patterson (personal communication, 1974) for example, described discrepancies between parental reports of improvements in the child's behavior, while objective data obtained by observers did not support these claims. Conrad and Wincze (1976) reported that clients undergoing orgasmic reconditioning verbally reported favorable…. [read more]

Personality Theories in Psychology Essay

… For Freud's patients, the goal of psychoanalysis was to help mitigate some of these feelings and reconcile some of the differences between the id and the superego. Of course, human beings were able to reconcile these competing differences before the advent of psychoanalysis. They did so in a number of ways, which Freud referred to as defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms are subconscious ways that a person deals with the tension between the id and the superego. These defense mechanisms include: compensation, denial, displacement, fantasy, intellectualization, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation (See generally Freud, 1989).

There are certainly numerous flaws in Freud's theory. First, he was working in a repressive time which did not allow him to focus more effort on uncovering the…. [read more]

Ego Psychology Theorists Term Paper

… When you are becoming older, you begin to acquire more and more principles. (Psychology of Behavior)

The distinctive mold of psychological and behavioral characteristics that differentiates each of us from everyone else is the Personality. The distinctiveness of the individual Personality is comparatively constant and lasting, frequently developed in childhood and influence the way we think, act, feel and behave. The study of personality involves five major methods with their own way of evaluating personality. These are Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Behavioral, Trait and Bio-psychological theories. Psychodynamic theories highlight the relationship of Unconscious mental processes in shaping human thinking, conduct and feelings. It is a Conflict approach that presumes that contrasting forces within an individual are continuously disagreeing. According to humanistic theorist Carl Rogers, the 'Self' is…. [read more]

Child Psychology Child Development Term Paper

… Child Psychology

Child development is a constantly changing psycho/social discipline with almost countless theories associated with it. The fundamental nature of children and how they develop to become either successful adults or unsuccessful adults to varying degrees is the essential question of the future and therefore the study of child development is a mass of information encompassing theories of all kinds regarding physical, cognitive, personality, moral, social-emotional, identity, and spiritual development of individuals at all points encompassing what we know as childhood. Additionally, this mass of ideas constitutes a collection of many structured theories about all kinds of development. This work will attempt to give an overview of the history of old and emerging child development theories in all their changing perspectives. This work will…. [read more]

Organizational Behavior (Psychology) Applied Comprehension Organizational Psychologists Term Paper

… Organizational Behavior (Psychology)

Applied Comprehension

Organizational Psychologists continually seek the creation of relevant approaches for the application of organizational psychological principles. Central to the application of Industrial Organizational psychological principles, as an emergent approach, has been the elevation of consultation psychology as a primary approach for the application of organizational psychology. Theoretically, the tension between business, clinical psychology and Industrial or Organizational Psychology has occasionally thwarted the effective application of psychological principles that could otherwise guide the successful resolution of issues between people and systems.

This paper will review the role that consultation psychological services can play in organizations, particularly as it may apply to facilitating organizational movement towards increased strategic success. As a case example, this paper will use a mental health organization to…. [read more]

Developmental Psychology Body Image Term Paper

… Several psychiatric disorders might lead to increasing risk of eating disorder, including neurotic and depressive symptoms, bipolar disorder, manic depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive personality characteristics, history of sexual abuse, severe family problems, extreme social pressures, insecurity, being controlled by others, distorted body image, etc. (NIMH, 2001). In addition, extreme negative dissatisfaction with their bodies may be a factor in its existence, even though not a predictor of eating disorders (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993).

According to Johnson, Cohen, Kotler, Kasen, & Brook (2002), teenagers diagnosed with depression might be at a higher risk for the onset of eating disorders during middle adolescence and early adulthood, because eating disorders and depression in children and adolescents are closely related. Nevertheless, disruptive disorders might also contribute to recurrent…. [read more]

Social Psychology Cognitive Dissonance Term Paper

… Social Psychology

Cognitive dissonance

This is the feeling that one has within them when they hold two conflicting feelings or thoughts within them at the same time. This usually highlights the importance of the subject within us. Dissonance is said to be strongest when we believe one thing within us and do directly the opposite. It is also said to be strongest when it concerns our self-image like feelings of immorality, foolishness, respect and so on (Rudolph F.M., 2013). The strategy that I will use to encourage people to buy into the idea of recycling will be more of a social campaign. This will be aimed at educating every member of the residence hall on the benefits of recycling, giving them the actual figures of…. [read more]

Evolution of Abnormal Psychology Essay

… Disciples of Ivan Pavlov included John B. Watson and BF Skinner. Watson was the first psychologist to condition an emotion in an experimental setting. His work led to the formulation of treatments for anxiety disorders and phobias. BF Skinner, another behaviorist, proposed that behavior could be predicted based on a series of observable events. He developed theories of behavior modification using operant conditioning and schedules of reinforcement. The results of his experiments proved that behavior could either be increased or diminished using theories of operant conditioning (Barlow and Durand 1-26).

The cognitive and humanistic psychology movements also influenced psychological theories and mental health treatment in the 20th century. Cognitive therapy was developed by Aaron T. Beck and Albert Ellis. Cognitive therapists believed the origins of…. [read more]

Deinstitutionalization: Community Psychology Essay

… d.). The rate has continued to decrease as well and the number of beds per 100,000 patients in 2010 was slightly over 14% with a large variance in this rate among individual states.

Consequences of Deinstitutionalization

There were 340 public psychiatric beds per 100,000 people in the population in 1955 but only 17 such public psychiatric beds per 100,000 population in 2005. Currently there are roughly fourteen beds per the same numbers. One estimate concluded that the bear minimum number of beds for any population should be in the area of 50 per 100,000 people. Therefore, it is likely that over two thirds of the seriously mentally ill people in the population will not receive the level of care that they need. This has vast…. [read more]

Forensic Psychology Review, V Fulero, S Term Paper

… Forensic Psychology Review, v

Fulero, S. And L. Wrightsman. (2008). Forensic Psychology. Cenage. Chapters 9-16.

Child Custody and Related Decisions -- Child custody issues are among the most difficult and challenging for the Forensic Psychologist. A child's mind is not fully developed, and it is often difficult to get at the heart of the matter; to understand what happened with events based on a child's memory. It is also necessary to be extra careful to ensure that the professional does not lead the child toward a conclusion. Thus, by the very nature, a Forensic Psychologist must play different, and sometimes difficult, roles with child custody hearings (mediator, expert, therapist, researcher).

The Court, however, is looking for a neutral professional to deal fairly with cogent explanations…. [read more]

Field of Positive Psychology Term Paper

… According to Csikszentmihalyi (2014), play activities enable an individual to experiment with repetitive behaviors in non-threatening situations and with minimal consequences for errors (p.134). Third, I will embark on character education based on my strengths through involvement in character development programs at school and/or work. These programs will help in development of my personal psychological strengths since they will provide insights regarding specific activities to carry out in everyday life (Park, 2009, p.46). The use of character development programs is because psychological strengths are developed through enhanced awareness and increased attention (Biswas-Diener, Kashdan & Minhas, 2011, p.106).

In conclusion, positive psychology is a new orientation in the field of psychology that provides a distinctive approach towards positive aspects of human life. To recap, this discipline…. [read more]

Person-Centered Counseling: The Culture Term Paper

… These extratherapeutic variables should be determined from the client's frame of reference, and will ultimately impact both the counselor's actions and the use of external resources.

The authors then note the application of these variables in person-centered multicultural counseling. They give several illuminating anecdotal examples of person-centered counseling in a multicultural setting. Ultimately, the Glauser and Bazarth warn of the danger of using cultural, gender or race-related stereotypes to guide counselling in a multicultural setting "Assumptions about people (clients) thwart their ability to seize chance experiences and discover and use personal, inner resources (extratherapeutic variables) in creative, productive ways."


Glauser and Bazarth are highly consistent in "Person-Centered counseling: The culture." They provide a wide variety of evidence, and cite an impressive number of studies…. [read more]

Art Therapy Entails Creative Procedures Research Paper

… Moreover, the methods section is reasonably sectioned an aspect that enhances the understanding of the reader.

Value of Article to Field of Psychology

The article is of exceptional value to the field of psychology given that it touches on the importance and the cost effectiveness of art therapy to people with schizophrenia. Particularly, through the article, psychologists can gain knowledge with respect to reduction of negative effects of schizophrenia as well as in enhancing the relationship between a therapist and a patient. More so, the articles form a strong basis for integration of psychosocial and social intervention in treatment of schizophrenia.

Value of Article to You, as a Consumer and Trainee

As a consumer and a trainee in the field of psychology, this article offers…. [read more]

Depression Disorder Term Paper

… Depression Disorder


This paper is about depression. It will cover the DSM diagnostic criteria, and discuss the development of depression from two viewpoints, CBT (cognitive-behavioral therapy) and the biochemical and environmental components which are linked causative factors. This paper will then cover the four key indicators of depression, including physical, cognitive, social and emotional symptoms.

Description of depression

DSM-IV criteria

Depression is typified by a number of key diagnostic factors. One can differentiate between generalized depression and major depressive episodes. In order to be diagnosed as a depressive episode, five of the following elements must be present, according to DSM-IV criteria:

Depressed mood most of the day, and every day.

Reduced sensory interest, including taste, visual, smell.

Significant change in body weight (up or…. [read more]

Crisis Intervention Practice Session Essay

… Crisis Intervention Practice Session

"When you can accurately hear and understand the core emotional feelings inside the client and accurately and caringly communicate that understanding to the client, you are demonstrating effective listening…" (Bracewell, et al., 2010)

Overview of the Session

The client in this case is unable to stop consuming alcohol and in fact she smelled of alcohol prior to arriving at the session. The positive part of this session, seen from the outset, is that she has decided to seek help for her addiction. A woman in her fifties may be going through or approaching menopause, and she is certainly going through changes as she moves into midlife. But given that she has a problem with alcohol, any other issues pertaining to her…. [read more]

Sexual Counseling Approach Theoretical Term Paper

… Sexual Counseling Approach

Theoretical Overview:

Depending on the therapist, and their prescribed philosophies, a number of counseling related therapies tend to alleviate symptoms. Standard cognitive therapy often shows positive results; talking with the therapist and sharing issues, attending group therapy to reduce isolation and social stigma, variations of exposure therapy and stress inoculation training. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) which is an approach that attempts to change the patterns of thinking or behavior that are responsible for an individual's negative emotions, thus changing the way they feel about themselves and present to the external world. Essentially, behavioral therapy is an approach to psychological interaction that reinforces desired and eliminates undesired, behaviors in the subject. This theory focuses on the behaviors, not the thoughts that produce them…. [read more]

Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence Essay

… Actually, there is an assumption that emotional intelligence is one of the main factors to a peaceful work environment since people work to simultaneously meet individual and group production goals. The peaceful work environment originates from positive work relationships and a generally higher work satisfaction ("Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace Article," n.d.).

The other strength of emotional intelligence in relation to modern organizations is that it enhances job performance based on the impact of regulating emotions on the quality of social relationships. As compared to employees who display fake emotions, employees who develop and demonstrate genuine emotions elicit more favorable reactions. Therefore, employees with genuine concerns regarding the problems of coworkers should develop stronger relationships than those with relatively less genuine concerns. A worker who…. [read more]

Cognitive Psychology, Learning Theories Term Paper

… Skinner also sought to understand the application of his theory in the broadest behavioral context as it applies to living organisms, namely natural selection.

Social Cognitive Theory, also known widely as Social Learning Theory, is based on the social learning theory research first proposed by Miller and Dollard (1941). Miller and Dollard first proposed a theory of social learning in 1941 that differed from prior behavior-based learning models. However, the Miller and Dollard theory of learning did not account for delayed processes or un-reinforced imitations of observed behaviors (Pajares, 2002).

Albert Bandura believes that we acquire many behaviors through conditioning (as behaviorists) but prefaces such learning on observation and emphasizes interactions between persons and their environment. In contrast to Skinner, Bandura argues that what we…. [read more]

High School Psychology Teachers. ) Article Review

… Coaching psychology is grounded in the theory of appreciative inquiry (AI), in which the psychologist asks probing questions of organizational members about what 'works' for the organization and explores how to expand upon and improve organizational processes. It is guided by positive, probing questions. This article would be considered scholarly because it was published in a peer-reviewed journal devoted to the discipline of coaching psychology. It was interesting to me because of the perspective it offered upon an emerging and still little-known approach in the field of organizational psychology which is more challenging and confrontational than some other methods.

Society for the History of Psychology news. (2012). History of Psychology, 15 (4): 385.

This article details recent awards given by the Society for the History…. [read more]

Facial Expression and Emotion Psychology Dissertation

… In any case, the situation is not ideal for good health -- psychologically, physically, or otherwise. People can express emotions with their voices, with their bodies, with their faces, with the use of space, with words, etc. Arguably, humans have a great many means of emotional expression in the world today. Not everyone is aware of them, uses them, or uses them effectively; nonetheless they exist and people have access to them. They must be taught.

While the paper focuses upon facial expressions and emotions, the paper is additionally concerned with emotional intelligence generally. Technology and changes in perceptions or cultures are prominent aspects of the 21st century world. With the proliferation of information technology, media technology, and social media, there is a distinct decrease…. [read more]

Pastoral Counseling Issues Research Paper

… Using scripture can be a springboard of discussion about the client's specific issue.

Balancing proper sensitivity to diverse populations and a theological perspective

Christian counseling is not incompatible with sensitivity to diversity. Christian counselors can learn from diverse spiritual traditions. Even if Christian teachings are used as the ultimate guide, a counselor can still acknowledge that "spirituality has much to do with the healing of the world's suffering and that incorporation of the sacred traditions of wisdom, equanimity, compassion and loving kindness are the threats that need to be repaired in our community web" of all religions (Nedumaruthumchalil 2009).

Differentiated core values from peripheral values in ethical decision making

The counselor must understand which values have priority. 'Pick your battles.' Rather than fighting for spiritual…. [read more]

Identifying Three Social Psychological Principles That Appear to Be Operating in the Movie Shrek 2001 Thesis

… Social Psychology Principles in Shrek

Social-Psychological Principles in Shrek (2001)

For most people, movies are made for entertainment. However, there are also movies that go beyond merely entertaining its audience. There are films that have been created making use of psychological principles, which enrich the movie-viewing experience of audiences. This paper will focus on the movie Shrek, which was released in 2001, directed by Andrew Adamson and Vicky Jenson.

Shrek tells the story of a green ogre named Shrek and a princess named Fiona. Shrek was feared by all the people in the town of Duloc. He lived alone in a swamp, which he one day found to be swamped with fairy tale creatures. The fairy tale creatures had no choice but to take refuge…. [read more]

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NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.