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United States,1776-1786 Previous Term Paper

… In the year to follow the British minister decided to send an army in every colony to defeat the revolt. Generals Carleton and Burgoyne commanded the northern army which arrived in St. Lawrence. Their objective was to chase all the colonists in Canada. In the South, the British army was commanded by Generals Clinton and Cornwallis. Their army was defeated in the Charleston, but their commanders managed to escape and joined the main British army. The main army in New York had was commanded by General William Howe. It tried to negotiate with the colonists, but by that time the Americans decided that they want to be independent. "Howe defeated Washington's army on Long Island in August, and captured New York City in September, and…. [read more]


US Patriot Act Term Paper

… USA Patriot Act

The purpose of this paper is to research the "USA Patriot Act" and examine exactly what the implications are in the implementation of this act should another terrorist event such as 911 occur.

Restrictive laws have been passed at crucial times in the history of the United States before the passing of the U.S.A. Patriot Act. Although the laws within this Act are intrusive upon the privacy of United States Citizens, there are those who do not mind the restrictiveness of the Act in exchange for safety. This is understandable to a certain extent however one must keep in mind that the Constitutional rights vested in each individual in the United States has been tread upon to a great extent by the…. [read more]


Patriot ACT v. Fourth Amendment Essay

… For example, the relaxing of certification and justification criteria for NSLs has effectively reduced probable cause justification to merely 'relevant', shifted the authority for issuing search and seizure warrants from the judiciary to FBI field agents, and undermined the spirit of privacy protection encoded in the Fourth Amendment because private matters are increasingly conducted online. Although the information that we provide to a third party is not protected under the Fourth Amendment, the action of doing so should be according to Katz. The FBI should thus be required to obtain a warrant before learning what a private citizen is doing online, because personal computers inside homes, or a public library, are equivalent to the phone booth in Katz.

The expectation of privacy is modified by…. [read more]


Patriot Act the USA Term Paper

… ¶ … PATRIOT Act

The USA Patriot Act was passed in a hurry by the House of Representatives and the Senate in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001. The Act was immediately attacked by the civil libertarians as unnecessary and violative of the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. administration and the Justice Department defend the law vehemently, considering it necessary for security reasons. This paper focuses on the criticism of the Patriot Act and the problems faced in its application. It also reviews the current public opinion about the Act.

Criticism of the Act

The leading critic of the PATRIOT Act has been the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) which has campaigned…. [read more]


Patriot Act the USA Term Paper

… Patriot Act

The USA Patriot Act, commonly referred to as the Patriot Act, was signed into law on October 26, 2001 just 45 days after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City (USA Patriot Act). The Act expanded the authority of U.S. law enforcement agencies to investigate and prosecute terrorism (USA Patriot Act). Many of the act's provisions were set to sunset on December 31, 2005 (USA Patriot Act). Given the horrific shock and fear following September 11th, the need for an immediate reponse to terrorism and perhaps the feeling that the Act could be fixed a short-time later because of the sunset clause, the Patriot Act received overwhelming endoresement even though it greatly weakened civil liberties…. [read more]


Uniting and Strengthening America Research Paper

… S. upon whom no existing evidence of terrorist ties is available. The controversial elements surrounding the three sections have sprung due to explicit beliefs that the Patriot Act inhibits most peoples' constitutional liberties in regards to privacy. Whereas in the past, intercept orders were required to establish surveillance, the three expiring sections lead to the evident conclusion that the U.S. government has enforced law agencies with legal rights over any individuals' data storage. Furthermore, law agencies are not required to present evidence in supporting allegations but can establish electronic surveillance more freely than ever before. Indeed, criticism has arisen because the Patriot Act ?makes it easier for the government to skirt what are supposed to be limitations on permissible domestic surveillance. (Henderson, 2002, p. 195)…. [read more]


US Patriot Act Term Paper

… U.S. Patriot Act

How the U.S. Patriot Act facilitates foreign intelligence operations

Patriot Act has been helping the FBI with efforts of sharing information. The Act has made significant contributions through its information sharing provisions. The provision of information sharing has formalized the directorate of FBI intelligence. According to the consolidate appropriations of this Act, the FBI has been given the mandate to implement a new intelligence directorate. The necessity for capabilities of intelligence has cut across various programs of the FBI. This has done away with stove piping of information while enabling the FBI to adapt quickly to the changing threats. Experts have projected that this will work on improving the capability of FBI to share intelligence. This is not only between the intelligence…. [read more]


USA Patriot Act Thesis

… USA Patriot Act

The United States we know today is the result of endless processes of change. The modifications that led to the creation of the contemporary American society emerged from diverse backgrounds, including society, economy, politics, arts or technology. The common feature of all these is that they have to be united and unified through a legislation that protects all parties to a process. The laws developed and implemented by the U.S. Federal Government are extremely complex and it takes a politics specialist to truly comprehend all of their facets. An interesting specification to be made about the American legislation is that each state has the liberty to guide itself by the principles and laws they find most suitable. "Each state has its own…. [read more]


USA Patriot Act United States Term Paper

… However Justice Brandies' disagreed with this interpretation and gave us a better and clearer view of rights granted by this law. In his dissent, he stated:

The makers of our Constitution... sought to protect Americans in their beliefs, their thoughts, their emotions and their sensations. They conferred, as against the Government, the right to be let alone.... To protect that right, every unjustifiable intrusion by the Government upon the privacy of the individual, whatever the means employed, must be deemed a violation of the Fourth Amendment. (5)

In another case, Justice Harlan explained that for violation of privacy to exist, "there is a twofold requirement, first that a person have exhibited an actual (subjective) expectation of privacy and, second, that the expectation be one that…. [read more]


USA Patriot Act: Discussion Questions Essay

… S. PATRIOT Act has many implications for technology -- and hence users and vendors of the same. It is important to note that thanks to technology, the world is increasingly becoming a global village. Technology has also made our lives easier, meaning that we can now conduct business and undertake various duties in a more efficient manner. However, technology has also been seen as an aid to crime, particularly terrorism. This is particularly the case given that modern information communication technologies are vital and could be used as vital tools for the exchange of information leading to attacks and other criminal acts. As per the provisions of the Act, federal law enforcement agencies are permitted to not only "conduct roving wiretaps without probable cause" but…. [read more]


Patriot Act After the attacks Term Paper

… During a time of extreme emotional distress by the American public, the government declared that the only way to prevent the possibility of more attacksx was to given back ultimate authority to the government. Since the start of the War on Terror, the American people have turned against the legislation, but the government has not amended the Patriot Act to reflect this attitude. On the contrary, in 2011 President Barack Obama signed an extension to the act, which permits wire-tapping and observation of terrorism suspects. The NSA scandal of 2013 illustrated the ease with which these surveillance measures can be abused.

One of the most worrisome aspects of the act has to do with the First Amendment rights of citizens. News reporters and other members…. [read more]


Political Science the USA Patriot Term Paper

… Civil liberties groups attack the extent of this section, which permits investigators to get any tangible thing, including books, records, papers, documents and other items, as long as the records are wanted in association with a terror investigation. Library groups say that the law could be utilized to require the reading records of customers. But the government points out that the First Amendment actions of Americans are expressly protected by the law (Abramson & Godoy, 2066).

In May of 2011, Congress passed a four-year extension of three provisions of the Patriot Act that were expiring. No of the changes thought to be needed by some were made at this time. The extended provisions are set now set to expire on June 1, 2015. In spite…. [read more]


Patriot Act Why Americans Embrace Essay

… Patriot Act

Why Americans Embrace the Patriot Act

Many Americans were convinced to embrace the Patriot Act in spite of its violations of the Constitution because at their core Americans had already embraced the philosophy of Rousseau and Adam Smith, which go hand in American society. The Constitution had been written in order to protect individuals from the tyranny of a central power, a tyranny which might inhibit their desire to pursue "life, liberty and happiness." But in the 21st century, "life, liberty and happiness" are virtually guaranteed by an automated, consumerist, self-centered, "self-fulfilling" culture in which opiates, entertainment and education are "freely" administered to an increasingly dependent welfare, or "nanny," state. In this respect, the Constitution is a relic that means nothing and the…. [read more]


USA Patriot Act Term Paper

… S.A. Patriot Act) It is clear that the support from a party which was involved with passing the law in the first place. If there is a complaint about a robbery, is the thief expected to be the main witness in the court when the case comes up? Earlier the process needed the minimum of a warrant and a probable cause for the agencies to seek private record of the individual being accused of theft.

Under Fourth amendment, Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, and relevant case laws show that if a state wanted to search an organization, the agency had to show the reasons for believing that a crime had been committed and also to get a…. [read more]


Patriot Act: The USA Term Paper

… Patriot Act:

The USA Patriot Act, which is an acronym for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism, was enacted, by the United States Congress, following the terrorist attacks of September 11th.

The Patriot Act focuses on terrorism, defining it as activity that:

Intimidates or coerces the government or civil population

Breaks criminal laws

And, endangers human life ("The Patriot Act")

Since its enactment, according to John Ashcroft's 2004 report entitled the Department of Justice: Working to Keep America Safer, there have been 368 individuals criminally charged in terrorism investigations. Of these charges, 195 resulted in convictions or guilty pleas. President Bush confirmed these statistics in June of 2005, stating that terrorism investigations had accounted for more than…. [read more]


Patriot Act the Uniting Term Paper

… Proponents defend the legislation by noting that its provisions only apply to those suspected of terrorist acts; and that the act has already led to a significant number of meaningful arrests. Recently, President Bush announced that the Patriot Act "yielded more than 400 charges, more than half of which resulted in convictions or guilty pleas," ("USA Patriot Act").

In addition to its judicial and legalistic uniqueness, the Patriot Act is also important because of its prime objective: to "Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism." The implications of the Act on American culture are far-reaching. Since September11, American citizens have been on constant alert to the possibility of more attacks in the form of chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons. The Patriot Act offers a sense of security that…. [read more]


Patriot Act and Constitutional Freedom Term Paper

… Ultimately, the responsibility of a free people who wish to remain free is to create the security they seek, by remaining vigilant, engaged, and committed to the well-being of the nation. When this commitment emanates only from the federal government, the nation and the people trade their freedom for the comfort of being controlled.

Organizing the Opposition, and Creating a Measured Response

The first and thus far the most significant domestic opposition to government policy in the war on terror has come from those who identify themselves as civil libertarians. The American Civil Liberties Union and other civil liberties interest groups have mounted widely publicized challenges to a number of measures enacted in the wake of September 11, including the Act. The National Lawyer's Guild…. [read more]


Patriot Act Term Paper

… Similar resolutions have been passed across the nation, from Hawaii to Vermont. Some of these resolutions contain strong legal language directing local law enforcement to avoid racial profiling or enforcing federal immigration laws. Several nation-wide organizations have also adopted similar resolutions including the American Library Association, the Japanese-American Citizens League, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the National League of Cities, the Organization of Chinese-Americans and Veterans for Peace. The Atlanta Resolution specifically suggests that local law enforcement refrain from enforcing federal immigration laws; refrain from collecting or maintaining information about the political, religious or social views, associations or activities of individuals or groups, and from engaging in racial profiling (ACLU - First City). Public libraries in the area are encouraged to…. [read more]


Patriot Act the U.S Term Paper

… The reason given was that some of his charity work was tied to charities with terrorist connections. Many people have found this hard to believe, but the U.S. government has few requirements on it to justify such decisions.

People who solidly back the Patriot Act do so because they believe that the actions are necessary and that we have to give up some freedoms at wartime. Those who oppose it argue that limiting freedoms in order to protect freedom isn't logical, and that we should be able to find ways to protect ourselves that don't infringe on civil liberties.

There is no doubt that we need to take effective steps to prevent terrorists from entering the country. However, it seems likely that some of these…. [read more]


USA Patriot Act Essay

… USA Patriot Act

The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (also known as USA PATRIOT ACT), is a Congressional Bill passed into law by president George W. Bush as a reaction to the September 11 bombings and other acts of terrorism against New York City and the Pentagon. It purportedly enhances the powers of domestic law enforcement agencies in searching phone, internet, medical, financial, credit records of U.S. citizens (and visitors), it allows foreign intelligence investigations within the U.S.A., it increases the powers of the Treasury in regulating financial transactions of foreigners, widens the discretion of authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants, and enhances definition of terrorism to further include domestic terrorism. It has…. [read more]


Civil Rights Does the Patriot Research Paper

… Civil Rights

Does the Patriot Act Violate our Civil Rights?

When viewed through the lens of Constitutional Civil Rights, The Patriot Act is a monster. Conceived and enacted in post-9/11 hysteria, the Act systematically decimates Civil Liberties. Furthermore, despite later legislation that supposedly tempered the Act's more egregious violations, the Patriot Act remains a monument to governmental oppression in a supposedly free society. The list of repugnant Act sections and Civil Rights violations is so extensive that they cannot be adequately addressed in this paper; however, even a confined discussion of Sections 213, 214 and 215 vs. The Fourth Amendment reveals legislation that is devastating to Civil Liberties.

Body

Background

The "Patriot Act" as we currently know it is actually an amalgam of Congressional measures…. [read more]


Patriot Act and the Rule Capstone Project

… Since not all law enforcement officers are clear on how to do this or clear on any changes that may have been made in the rule of law and the regulations stemming from it at all times, mistakes and misunderstandings can and do occur. While most law enforcement personnel do their very best to follow proper procedure, the changing nature of the law can affect them and cause them to overstep boundaries or have other issues at times.

The Effect on Homeland Security

Homeland Security was created as a department of the government (United, 2008). It is designed to make sure that terrorism does not take place on American soil. While there have been some baubles since it was created and implemented, it has generally…. [read more]


Patriot Act: Protection or Provocation? The Entire Essay

… Patriot Act: Protection or Provocation?

The entire nation was in terror after the attacks of 9/11. Many called for their leaders to step in and once again secure the nation so that daily life could continue unscathed by terror. The government's response -- the Patriot Act of 2001. This act strengthened the powers of the federal government and in the eyes of many placed many civil liberties in jeopardy. It is this controversial act which best represents the policies and practices of the Bush administration post 9/11.

This powerful and controversial act came into play within the scope of American politics directly after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. After the nation as stunned and mortified by the acts of terrorism conducted by Bin Laden's Al…. [read more]


Multiculturalism the United States of America Term Paper

… Multiculturalism

The United States of America has been home to an increasingly multitude of cultures since the first immigrants came to its shores during the 1600's. The pursuit of the "American Dream" concept has furthermore made the country attractive for immigrants from many diverse countries. The result is that many different languages are spoken within the country's borders. This often makes communication and hence understanding between these cultures difficult. Phenomena such as racism and hate crimes are often blamed upon this lack of understanding. It is true that racism often arises in criminal and other cases heard in American courts. Two very prominent such trials include those of O.J. Simpson and Rodney King. The events surrounding both these trials include clearly racial overtones. More recently,…. [read more]


Big Brother Among Us? George Orwell Conceived Research Paper

… ¶ … Big Brother Among Us?

George Orwell conceived a world that was much different from the one that the world fought to protect in 1948. In 1984, Orwell portrays a totalitarian society where individual freedoms were completely subjugated to the state. Control of the individual went as far as policing and controlling the very thoughts that we think. The world that Orwell painted was in continual war and individuals were under continual surveillance. This world seemed horrific and impossible on the tail of World War II. The idea of Big Brother and the totalitarian state were so far fetched that they were passed off as ridiculous. Today, the idea of a totalitarian state of that extreme seem ridiculous, but as one begins to examine…. [read more]


Patriot Act This Study Seeks to Investigate Term Paper

… Patriot Act

This study seeks to investigate whether the Patriot Act has lived up to its goals of identifying and stopping terrorist attacks. The Patriot Act was put in place after the September 11th terrorist attacks by the former president George Bush and his government. The Act was designed to regulate all financial transactions dealing with anyone who had a connection with foreign government known for terrorist activities. This Act also applies to American citizens aiding and abetting suspected terrorists and domestic terrorism. At times, the Act can cause infringement of the constitution. The Patriot Act is connected to criminal justice in a variety of ways that it appears to be unconstitutional. This Act enables law enforcement agencies to detain suspected terrorists for long periods,…. [read more]


Patriot Act vs. Constitutionally Guaranteed Rights Term Paper

… Patriot Act vs. Constitutionally Guaranteed Rights

Patriot Act was passed in haste following the terrorist attacks on the U.S. In 2001. It was reauthorized and amended in 2006. But in its urgency - fueled by extremely fearful times and the mushrooming nationalism spawned by those fears - to provide the legal clout needed to avoid another attack it appears the United States Congress launched its own attack on the Constitution. Specifically, to use a graphic analogy, the U.S. Patriot Act (PA) has slammed into the 4th and 6th Amendments like an airliner into a tall building.

This paper will review the literature surrounding the Patriot Act's intrusion into the Constitution. A review of the issues, the amendments, and how the Patriot Act conflicts with those…. [read more]


Patriot Act: Advantages and Disadvantages Term Paper

… S. An unattractive destination for talented immigrants.

3. Compromises Privacy

Parts of the Act such as Section 215 extend the FBI's power to conduct warrant-less record searches, with little or no judicial oversight, severely compromise individual privacy of U.S. citizens -- one of the cornerstones of the Bill of Rights. Such provisions that allow "government in secret" are of particular concern to all those who value freedom. (Stravelli, 2004)

My Opinion of the Act

Despite appreciating the need for preventing terrorist attacks, I am deeply concerned at the way in which the Civil Rights of our citizens have been compromised by parts of the PATRIOT Act. I firmly believe that the Bill of Rights and the checks and balances were introduced in the U.S. constitution…. [read more]


Patriot Act and Current Developments Term Paper

… References

Bier, William C.S.J. Privacy: A Vanishing Value? New York: Fordham University Press, 1980.

Electronic Communications Privacy Act. Cornell University Law School. N.d. 2008 http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00002516-000-.html

Kim Zetter, "Few Companies Fight Patriot Act Gag Orders, FBI Admits" Wired Online, 2012, http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2012/05/nsl-challenges/

Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Fact sheet no18: online privacy. 2007. http://www.privacyrights.org/fs/fs18-cyb.htm#Email

Slater, Derek. FBI's abuse of Patriot Act even worse than we thought. Electronic Frontier Foundation. 2007.

Bier, William C.S.J. Privacy: A Vanishing Value? New York: Fordham University Press, 1980

Idem

Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Fact sheet no18: online privacy. 2008 ?

http://www.privacyrights.org/fs/fs18-cyb.htm

Electronic Communications Privacy Act. Cornell University Law School. N.d. 2008 http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00002516-000-.html

Slater, Derek. "FBI's abuse of Patriot Act even worse than we thought." Electronic Frontier Foundation. 2007.

Kim Zetter, "Few Companies Fight…. [read more]


Patriot Privacy vs. Patriotism: Ethical Research Paper

… It is unquestionably true that the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act includes some rather broad language that without judicial constraint would result in a very broad and extensive ability for the government to collect clandestine information on its own citizens, but it is also unquestionably true that the federal government has a primary duty to protect its citizens from potential attacks (FinCEN, 2012). While there must be a balance struck between the ability for the government to conduct investigations in the name of national security and certain civil liberties as enumerated in the Constitution and its amendments (as well as in other legislation and in many judicial interpretations of all of these pieces of law), this balance must ever err on the side of national security for…. [read more]

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NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.