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Persian Wars and Peloponnesian Term Paper

… Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War:

Impact on the Greek World

Within seven centuries, [the ancient Greeks] invented for itself, epic, elegy, lyric, tragedy, novel, democratic government, political and economic science, history, geography, philosophy, physics and biology; and made revolutionary advances in architecture, sculpture, painting, music, oratory, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, anatomy, engineering, law and war... A stupendous feat for whose most brilliant state Attica was the size of Hertfordshire, with a free population (including children) of perhaps 160,000.

F.J. Lucas

There is little question that the ancient Greek civilization impacted the political, social, and plysophical landscape of the planet in a way that rivals any other in history. Indeed, the history, as well as the legacy of ancient Greek life and thinking, are perhaps some…. [read more]

Persian Wars BCE Essay

… Miltiades led the initial Athenian strike against Darius' invasion, routing the enemy and decimating its ranks. When Darius died and his son Xerxes took the throne, another Persian attack was launched. Xerxes built a bridge at the Hellespont, and approached a pass through the mountain range called Thermopylae. Leonidas, who was the king of Sparta, took three hundred Spartans with him to defend the narrow pass. Other city-states lent Greeks, raising the number of defenders to four thousand. For two days they held the pass against the Persians. But a Greek traitor revealed an alternate route that allowed the Persians to bypass the defense and attack from behind. The three hundred Spartans and seven hundred Thespians refused to retreat, even though there was time. They…. [read more]

History of the Peloponnesian War Research Proposal

… "Thucydides stood on the edge of philosophy," Kagan explains (373). That said, Kagan also notes that while Thucydides had a "…passion for truth" he also "violates" the most important historical strategy -- to cite sources when there is "conflicting evidence," and to give reasons for preferring one source over another ( 374).

A Major reason for the Defeat of Athens

Although this section of the paper does not address who started the Peloponnesian War, it provides "a major reason" that the Athenians lost the war. In the Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine the author points to the "Plague of Athens" that struck Athens not long after the Peloponnesian War had begun in 430 B.C. (Littman, 2009, p. 458). Researchers today are not certain as to…. [read more]

Peloponnesian War Term Paper

… History Of the Peloponnesian War: Failure and Accomplishment

War, regardless political motivation, geographical expansion, euthanasia, national defense, or any of several other reasons, brings to both sides involved consequences that change history forever. Civil wars, global wars, or nation-to-nation wars are fraught with devastation that inflicts untold misery on the citizenry of all entities involved. Before discussing the events of the Peloponnesian war, a situation that has now been archived in history journals, it is extremely important to discuss the overall consequence of any war, regardless of nature or time. Upon reviewing, and digesting, that which is presented below, one will surely conclude that any act of war is a mark against civility followed by a legacy of emptiness.

In order to garner an understanding…. [read more]

Athens Lost the Peloponnesian War Essay

… [footnoteRef:55] The best expeditionary force the Hellenes had ever seen was dismantled when the remains of the army (over 7,000 men) was held in brutal captivity in old quarries for eight months before the Spartans sold the captives as slaves.[footnoteRef:56] The complete loss of the navy and army sent to conquer Syracuse was overwhelming to Athens. Morale broke completely, the treasury was empty, and all the fighting men were dead.[footnoteRef:57] [50: Bagnall, Nigel. The Peloponnesian War: Athens, Sparta, and the Struggle for Greece. New York: Thomas Dunne, 2006.] [51: Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, 6.105.] [52: Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, 7.50.4.] [53: Ibid., 7.75.1.] [54: Ibid., 7.81.3.] [55: Ibid., 7.85.5.] [56: Ibid., 7.87.] [57: Ibid., 8.1.2.]

During this awful period, Athens had a novel idea --…. [read more]

Athens and Sparta Essay

… ), but the educational system was designed to produce good soldiers. Training began for boys at age 7 and lasted 11 years. These youths underwent harsh treatment, very few clothes, no shoes, and to learn and take pride in enduring pain and hardship. They were trained to harden themselves to the elements (cold and heat) and all learning focused on weapons, boxing, wrestling, and fighting. At age of 20, Spartan men had to pass a series of daunting tests in order to become members of the military, at which time they were relegated to the barracks, regardless of their marital status. Provided these mean served a decade honorably, they could retire and become citizens by age 30, but were still attached peripherally to the military…. [read more]

Lysistrata Make Love, Not War -- Unless Term Paper

… Lysistrata

Make Love, not War -- Unless it is war against Barbarians! Sparta vs. Athens in Aristophanes" "Lysistrata"

On its surface, Aristophanes' "Lysistrata" seems to be a comedic send-up of the value and emphasis the male Greek populations of Sparta and Athens placed on war, in contrast to the women of both city-states. And structurally, and particularly in its first scenes, where the women of the play collude, debate and decide to withhold sexual favors until peace is restored, this does seem to be the case. The greater importance this Greek dramatist gives to the women of Greece, in contrast to the histories of war of Thucydides and Herodotus, highlights the particularly harsh effects of war upon women. Unlike men, women cannot fight and can…. [read more]

Earth and Its Peoples: Chapter 4 Political Questionnaire

… Earth and its peoples: Chapter 4

Political Theme

a) Who had political power?

The primary locus of political power was initially located in Persia, given the strength of leaders such as Darius and Xerxes. However, despite the fact they were relatively resource-poor, gradually the Greek city-states begin to grow in influence.

b) How did leaders get power to govern?

Political systems were relatively diverse at this time, in terms of comparing the Greek city-states and Persia. Iran was led by a dynasty of monarchical leaders. Many of the city-states were led by kings, by oligopolies (as in the case of Sparta), or democracies (in the case of Athens).

c) How did people or groups maintain or keep power?

Power was either maintained by force, as…. [read more]

Herodotus Is Called First Historian Term Paper

… Themistocles was sure, a great man and he was such kind of a person who is always necessary in all tragic and uneasy times. We was an embodiment of all Greeks' wish to live in their own country, free of foreign invaders and sure, no Greek wanted some barbarians (I have to admit that Persians were not that developed as Greeks were) to be masters of their country, their lives and lives of their wives and children. Themistocles was a usual man but he had talent and important features of own character to become a national leader in such complicated period of Greek history but I also have to mention that events helped him to gain what he gained. All historical events depends on strong…. [read more]

Greek History Ancient Term Paper

… "

(Barker 1977, 67) Many of their teachings made their way into Athenian political life.

Question #5:

Modern politicians can be considered to be mere schoolchildren when compared to the ancient Greek politician Alcibiades. Not only did he manage to fight his way to the top of Athenian political life, he did it twice. Most remarkable of all was the fact that in between he denounced Athens and pledged his loyalty to the enemy, Sparta. Alcibiades' trouble began shortly after he embarked on an major military expedition to Sicily, when he was recalled to Athens and put on trial by his political enemies. Fearing the wrath of his Athenian enemies, Alcibiades renounced his Athenian citizenship and "sent to the Spartans, demanding immunity…, and promising to…. [read more]

History of Western Civilization Term Paper

… Philip had taken advantage of the natural potential of various other city-states, such as Macedonia. But his very disciplined army was what helped his attempts at unity. He used strategic alliances to accomplish unification of a great deal of land. He rewarded nobles for loyalty and soon.

Alexander had been taught logic, and so, with that and the great army and lands his father left him, he saw it as the right thing to do to export learning to other lands. When he first invaded Asia Minor, he took not only soldiers but scientists and philosophers as well. He was convinced that Greek learning was the best in the world, and that Greek gods were also the best in the world. Great men of the…. [read more]

Athens Essay

… This, however, is not probable, and the reason no doubt was that it is impossible to attain ideal perfection when framing a law in general terms; for we must judge of his intentions, not from the actual results in the present day, but from the general tenor of the rest of his legislation." ("Athens Constitution," n.d.) This is illustrating how democracy will produce the best results through consensus decisions that are implemented. It is at this point that the interests of the general public can be taken into account. The differences between their points-of-view were based on the role of the aristocracy. According to Pericles, their influence in the process could destroy the underlying principles of democracy. (Elis, 1989, pp. 14 -- 23)

Alcibiades was…. [read more]

Pericles Funeral Oration Compared T. The Metaphysical Environment of Athens Term Paper

… Pericles

Athenian Democracy in Ancient Greece -- Pericles' Funeral Oration during the Peloponnesian War

One of the great symbols of Athens, a symbol that is popular even in the Greece of today, is the olive tree. The olive tree is a hardy plant, both useful and humble. The tree is also the source of bounty and richness, even in the midst of difficulties. Olive trees have been burned during wartime, chopped up for kindling, and even attacked by insects as Mother Nature turns against these plants. Still, the trees as a species have always been able to survive in the harsh environment of Attica, even if they lose some of their mighty numbers.

Likewise, the fragile democracy of Athens, rooted in a harsh climate and…. [read more]

Formation of Ancient Societies Essay

… Formation of Ancient Societies

The Ancient Near-East

The different religious beliefs of the Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Hebrews, and Assyrians tell us many things about the differences in these societies. However, since there was much cultural contact in the Fertile Crescent, similarities exist between the various religions and rules as well. The Mesopotamian cultures (Assyria and Babylon), for example, like the Egyptian culture had several gods: the deities influenced the way cultural perceptions were formed (for example when it came to burying the dead and preparing them for the afterlife): Egyptian beliefs featured Isis and Osiris, Amun and Ra; and Egyptian rulers were believed to possess a certain kind of divinity (Johnston 9).

The Hebrew religion, however, was strictly monotheistic -- and the Hebrew peoples were often…. [read more]

Athens and Sparta Essay

… As far as Athens and Sparta are concerned, the Athenian culture is renowned and revered for its philosophical revolution and infrastructural maturity. In the similar manner, the Spartan society is famous for its strong and ruthless military4.

However, when history is examined closely, it is evident enough that the urbane life of Greece was particularly centered at Athens and without it, "Greek history would lose three quarters of its significance, and modern life and thought would become infinitely the poorer"6. It is simply undeniable that such genius men were produced by Athens that it has won herself an unquestionable place in the history of civilization6.

To cut a long story short, though Sparta and Athens were in great deviation to each other as the two…. [read more]

Athenian Navy Essay

… Athenian Navy

How would you evaluate the use of naval and maritime power by the ancient Athenian navy?

Athens had an outstanding navy that was one of the most powerful in the ancient world. It was created largely, to protect the Greeks against sea attacks from the Persians at the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC. The combined fleet of the Greek city states deceived them into thinking that they were retreating. This caused the Persians to chase the Greeks into the Straight of Salamis. At which point, the Athenian navy played a role, in preventing their retreat and sinking the Persian ships. Their losses were very high with many sailors, who could not swim and their ships lacked any kind of maneuverability.

In this…. [read more]

Classical Greece Desire, Emotion Term Paper

… Women's role in the society is to accomplish household chores, attend to her husband and children's needs, and to produce male heirs for the family. Apparently, the freedom and privilege that Greeks achieved during the Classical period does not include the women of their society.

Critical assessment of the plight of women in Greek society becomes evident in Euripides' literary creation entitled, "Medea," which serves as a critique of the condition of Greek women during the 5th century B.C. In "Medea," he includes the character of the "foreign woman," a woman who enjoys the privileges of Greek males and does not illustrate the injustices of the females. In the literary work, Euripides describes Greek women as "unfortunate creatures," a sector wherein "...we are forced to…. [read more]

Ancient Historians Influential Term Paper

… " Indeed, the difference between "facts and impressions," often appears "indistinguishable."

Meantime, Grant (pp. 43-44) also discusses decisions historians had to make when faced with two contradictory sources. Herodotus, who offered "alternative versions of a story," was quoted as saying, "I don't necessarily believe it" while admitting, in Grant's words, that he "suspends his own belief" and "feels no firm obligation to tell the truth."

The recording of social history - in particular by Roman historian Tacitus - sometimes came down to his own preferences as to what he liked to write about, and what he didn't (p. 59). For example, Tacitus sometimes omitted "social details" simply because, Grant explains, "he supposed that his readers were already aware of them." That, in anyone's estimation, is…. [read more]

Historiography on Sallust the Concern Thesis

… Historiography on Sallust

The concern of all serious historians has been to collect and record facts about the human past and often to discover new facts"

Historiography Introduction section).

Instead of qualifying as an accurate account of what happened in the past, history may more accurately relate what the historian records about the known past; about the past as he/she knows it to be. "Historiography is the written record of what is known of human lives and societies in the past and how historians have attempted to understand them" (Historiography Introduction section). In line with this understanding, along with relating a synopsis of the historian Sallust, this paper also relates perceptions other historians recorded about this Roman historian.

Sallust: The Historian

Sallust reportedly lived from…. [read more]

Odyssey and Ancient Greeks Term Paper




By the later part of the Greek "Dark Age," circa 800 B.C.E., ideas and traditions linked to the social/cultural arena of ancient Greece concerning the organization of their communities and the proper behavior expected from all Greek men and women, i.e., their shared codes of value, represented the basic components of Greece's emerging new political forms and institutions. These shared codes of social and cultural value at the end of the "Dark Age" serve as the foundation for Homer's epic poem the Odyssey which was first written down via the oral tradition around the middle of the 8th century B.C.E. This type of epic poetry so closely associated with Homer grew out of centuries of…. [read more]

Classical Periods Greek and Roman Thesis

… ¶ … Classical periods, Greek and Roman

The classical period in ancient Greece starts with the fifth century BC and it lasts until 323, the year Alexander the Great died. The period is considered as the pick of the Greek civilization in every form of life. The most notable event at the beginning at the classical period in Greece was Persian War. The War was described in detail by Herodotus, the so called "father of history." Thucydides wrote extensively on the Peloponnesian War, Plutarch's historic account were mainly based on the lives of personalities in the public life. Most of the historic writings of those who lived during this period of extensive development of Greek culture and civilization are accounts on military events and leaders,…. [read more]

Ritualistic, Religious, and Practical Uses Term Paper

… The Greeks loved entertainment and went to music performances, singing, sports events, and plays. Everyone was allowed to go, except people on jail, and slaves. For plays, the actors were Greek men who liked acting. In addition, the actors wore large masks so the people in the back rows could see them. The masks showed what type of character that actor was playing. For sports, the athletes wore no clothes and engaged in activities such as chariot racing, long jump, javelin, discus, wrestling, and running.


Although the Acropolis was laid waste by the Persians in 480 B.C., remains of the Parthenon, Erechtheum, and Propylaea still stand. The Acropolis was gradually restored after Greece gained its independence from Ottoman rule in 1829. Early restoration…. [read more]

Hoplite Warfare and Its Development Term Paper

… Hoplite Warfare and Its Development

The Hoplite Warfare

The Hoplite and Armaments

Bringing glory to the history of ancient warfare, the Hoplites are considered to be the primary core of the Greek Infantry. The hoplites, derived from the word hoplon, considered to be a part of the complete equipment of the Greek soldier. These equipments were later on referred to as the entire hoplon which consists of the hoplite's panoplies, structural armor and shield. The circular shield in other historical references is referred to as the aspis, used to protect the Greek soldier from the spheres and arrows from the warring opponent. The hoplites during the 8th Century BC were not regular soldiers and infantry men. They were commonly recruited from the citizens of ancient…. [read more]

Dark Age and the Archaic Term Paper

… Spartan males were raised to be warriors and Spartan females were raised to be subservient and serve Spartan males. Examining the system, it is clear that Spartan women suffered from systemic political gender discrimination, but it is equally clear that the rigid gender roles deprived Spartan males of many of the aspects of life generally considered critical for happiness and good mental health. In fact, the Spartan ideal for manliness was one of physical perfection, so that imperfect male infants were left to die or placed into slavery. This is one way where Spartan males were placed to a much higher standard than Spartan females. Males were also deprived of significant maternal contact and comfort; they were raised by wet-nurses and they were not shown…. [read more]

Greek Historiography Term Paper

… Greek Historiography

History as a discipline begins with the Greeks, notably with Horodotus and Thucydides. Herodotus is known as the father of history, changing what had previously been largely an interest in myths and legends into an interest in the causes and consequences of actual events. Herodotus wrote the first history that could be analyzed as history and not as merely writing down what others had said.

What passed for history before Herodotus was myth as embodied in accounts such as the Iliad, a record of the Trojan War. Ernst Breisach finds that there was a historical foundation for the Iliad, but still the poem cannot be considered a history. For one thing, there were no dates in the poem, no clear sense of when…. [read more]

Aristophanes Acharnians, Knights, and Clouds Research Paper

… [footnoteRef:13] The reason why Aristophanes chose this sort of metamorphosis presents some clear political and social nuances. As it relates to politics this morphing reflects the common man (the farmer) coming to the realization that he does have political power that ought to be exercised. The Athenians may have believed at the time that the enemies of the state were all they had to be concerned about, however, the framer demonstrates that the polis must also be concerned with the interest of their citizens. Failure to do so may force citizens to make agreements with enemies of the state. The plot simply brings to fruition the adage the enemy of my enemy is my friend. In this case the farmer and Sparta shared a common…. [read more]

Spartan Army by Nick Sekunda Term Paper

… He cites the battle of Thermopylae, as surely Sparta's "finest hour," fighting side by side their fellow Greeks for independence although many thought the Greeks were sure to fall. (51)

Sekunda also states that although the more intellectual Athenians and other Greeks occasionally mocked the Spartan intellect, the Spartans were not necessarily anti-intellectual, but placed a different value upon learning. For example, the Spartans were famous for short, witty aphorisms about bravery and state mottos about fighting, such as "finally, a Spartan woman, when her son complained that his sword was too small, advised him to add a step forward to it" (that is, to move into the front of the battle. (29) This reflected the values of Spartan society in a clear and effective…. [read more]

How Policies of Pericles Contributed to the Expanding Power and Influence of the Athenian Empire Essay

… With Thucydides' viewpoint, though he did not describe what an end to the war, other than a stalemate, Pericles desired or predicted. There were some signs that Periclean policies involved competitive components like the restoration of Megara. This would have significantly enhanced Athens' position (Aird, 2009).

Weakness of Pericles' policies

His policies, however, had noticeable political weak points. The Athenian inhabitants had strong origins in the countryside, and excellent firmness was needed to carry them to give up their land to Spartan Warriors without a war. The middle-class military suffered in morale, and the living conditions of the lower classes, though they were permitted activity in the navy, worsened in the congested town. The overcrowding had an unforeseen impact in a plague, which in the…. [read more]

Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Term Paper

… This is the first documented example of imperialistic rule and expansion in history. Aristotle noted: "After the Athenians had gained their empire, they treated their allies rather dictatorially, except for Chios, Lesbos and Samos. These they regarded as guardians of the empire, allowing them to keep their own constitution and rule over any subjects they happened to have."

(Constitution of Athens XXIV)

The allies were mostly treated as subjects in the massive Athenian Empire. Athens made all the rules and others were expected to comply. One controversial order was the use of Athenian coins: "If anyone in the cities strikes silver coins and does not use the currency, weights and measures of the Athenians, but foreign currency, weights and measures ... exact penal retribution"

(Klearkhos…. [read more]

Western Civ Athens and Sparta Helped Term Paper

… Western Civ

Athens and Sparta helped define the geopolitical landscape of the ancient Greek world. Located on the Peloponnesian peninsula, Sparta rested on a relatively isolated geographic position that fostered its insular foreign policies. Throughout Spartan history, the city-state remained largely self-contained except for its appropriation of the Messenian agricultural region and the enslavement of its people (Hooker, 1996, "Sparta"). The Spartans did not enjoy as fertile an agricultural region as the Athenians. Spartan governments were decidedly more autocratic than those n Athens. Although both were monarchies at some point, the Athenians practiced democratic forms of government and its major lawmakers were elected officials. Spartan leadership was oligarchic, including two kings who ruled for life. Sparta also cultivated what can be called a military rule,…. [read more]

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