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Psychology Essay

… Both positive and cognitive psychology uses the scientific technique to clarify the association that is among reasoning and behavior. Meanwhile positive psychology could couple with any other methods, cognitive psychology has lived without argument for practically four periods (Sweetland, 2009). In the 21st century, progress and technology go hand-in-hand; as a result, the formation of artificial intelligence will probable outcome in new theories concerning thought.

Theories of Psychology

There are a lot of theories in psychology that are examined for instance the theories of Gestalt psychology where he says "Humans are psychologically troubled and frequently intensely distressed by inequity, disorder, disorder, tension and battles…We are contented merely when we feel in symmetry, that is, control and in balanced." (Barnes, 2008) These two statements label the…. [read more]

Philosophical, and Empirical Foundations of Psychology Argument Term Paper

… ¶ … Philosophical, and Empirical Foundations of Psychology


Pre-Modern Period (to 1650's)

Classical Period

Western Civilization, its intellectual and social aspects, was still dominated by Christianity, as it had been throughout the dark ages. Christianity was chiefly concerned with the "why," the question of why we exist. It held that we exist in order to do God's willing, follow God's law, and eventually be judged by God for how we have lived. Christian theology, which held that God created the universe and was responsible for all things and occurrences within it, inhibited reason and free inquiry during the dark ages and middle ages. Ideas that contradicted Christian theology in any way were suppressed and their hosts persecuted.

Aristotle the Good Life and Habitsand Habits…. [read more]

Counseling Master Questionnaire Questionnaire

… Additionally, the importance of theory is apparent because research does not place itself in a theoretical approach. Theory also offers substantial interpretive map of the territory it aims to explain. Into the bargain, theory also makes it possible to make various observations from productive links (McLeod, 2003, p. 179).

11) What are the conclusions of McLeod in relation to the critical issues of counseling research?

McLeod (2003) recognizes there are significant issues that may challenge counselors who conduct counseling research. However, he suggests that counseling research occupies an important role in the service of practice. Additionally, it is hard to predict how perfect counseling research may look like. Owing to the fact that counseling and psychotherapy are disciplinary processes that borrow from diverse disciplines, each…. [read more]

Dream Content as Therapy: Ego vs. Repression Dissertation

… For example: a parent has repeating nightmares, and the child "dreams his dreams " because the child is in a psychic resonance with the parent. The child's dreams end when the parent's does. Four, it might be a repetition of a past traumatic event in current lifetime. For example: a person might dream of a recent rape, a childhood assault or a wartime battle. This type of nightmare is so deeply etched in the psyche that it can require heavy use of behavioral dream-work techniques to modify the content and emotional intensity.

A fifth factor could be that the dream is a depiction of a past or probable life. For example: a client might dream the last events prior to a violent…. [read more]

Mindful vs. Traditional Martial Arts Thesis

… , 2001). As the existing research is largely limited to teenagers who are beyond the prime window of opportunity for prevention or early intervention efforts, this study will focus on children age 8-12, where early connections may inoculate at-risk students and set them on a more favorable trajectory. Terrence Webster-Doyle (personal communication, July 1, 2011) illuminates that by effectively challenging the self-imposed limits of each child, students will quickly realize that they can accomplish much more than they ever thought possible. Essentially, this parallels the old adage that we are each our own worst enemy -- the biggest fight for each of us, regardless of age, is within.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

Mindfulness psychotherapies are considered the third wave of behavior therapy, preceded by cognitive…. [read more]

Hypnosis Compared to Eastern Meditation Chi Kung and Nei Thesis

… ¶ … globalization and innovations in telecommunications are bringing healthcare practitioners together from all over the world in ways that have never before been possible. As these collaborative efforts and mature communities of practice continue to emerge, it is important to help Western practitioners understand the fundamental tenets of Eastern medicine and representative practices, just as it is important to help practitioners in China and elsewhere in the East understand the allopathic approaches that are most widely practiced in the West. To this end, this study compared the clinical use of hypnosis with the use of Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung. To achieve this comparison, a review of the relevant literature was combined with a qualitative meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature…. [read more]

Spiritual Intelligence and the Intuitive Thought Processes Research Proposal

… Spiritual Intelligence and the Intuitive Thought Processes

The terms 'spiritual intelligence 'is one that has raised a certain amount of debate not only in metaphysics and theology but also in the educational and didactics arena. While this term has been referred to in contemporary literature as an extension of Gardner's theory of intelligence, it has also been referred to in other research dealing with more mystical and esoteric notions of the meaning of spirituality.

Intuition and the intuitive process have an equally broad range of reference and source data. The meaning of intuition is closely linked to the idea of spiritual intelligence. Both spiritual and intuition are terms that are used to describe essentially non-rational experience or experiences that cannot be empirically verified. The intuitive…. [read more]

Gay Marriage Term Paper

… Brooks, Devon and Goldberg, Sheryl. "Gay and Lesbian Adoptive and Foster Care

Placements: Can They Meet the Needs of Waiting Children?" Social Work, Vol.

46, No. 2 (April 2001). Retrieved July 11, 2012 from:

This source was an empirical analysis published in a peer-reviewed social work journal. It examined the issues associated with the advisability of increasing the access of same-sex couple applicants to children in need of foster homes in the U.S. The main contribution of this source to my thinking was to reinforce my impression that same-sex couples are as capable as their traditionally married counterparts of providing safe, loving homes for children in need.

Gates, Gary J. (2011). "How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender?"

The Williams Institute --…. [read more]

Philosophers of Ancient Greece Research Paper

… He belonged to the Ephesians school of thought. He is responsible for hypothesizing the notion of flow. Heraclitus hailed from a noble family and hence was the first aristocrat to be inducted in the Greek Philosophers' hall of fame. Heraclitus went on to negate all of his acclaimed predecessors and interestingly propose that insipidity and impudence were inherent human natures. (Knierim 1999) He is as such often described as a cynic who had minimal faith in human attributes. His philosophical beliefs revolved around immovable morals and their inflexible pursuit. He has talked of ideas regarding self-mastery and staunch abstinence from sinfulness. He was in this regard the upholder of moralistic purification and the perfection of the human soul. His rebellious and rigid attitude has been…. [read more]

coaching and counseling differences Research Proposal

… Counseling represents an ethical and competent application of relationships for facilitating emotional development and acceptance, self- knowledge, and optimum improvement of individual resources. The general goal is offering a chance to endeavor towards leading a more resourceful and satisfying life. Counselor-client relationships differ in accordance with need; however, they might deal with developmental problems, tackling and solving particular issues, decision-making, crisis management, dealing with internal conflict, knowledge and personal insight enhancement, and relationship skill improvement (Gladding 2004). Although some of these objectives are also shared with coaching techniques, the counseling approach works to address these items from its own internal perspective.

The task of counseling addresses wellness, professional development, personal development, and pathological issues. That is, a counselor addresses relationship-related areas (Casey 1996), including inter-…. [read more]

Ontology, 1-3 Epistemology and Methodology Definition Assessment

… ¶ … Ontology, 1-3

Epistemology and Methodology

Definition of Positivist Paradigm, 4-6

Interpretive Paradigm and Feminist Paradigm

For the study of tourism to work best and to succeed, it proceeds as all other fields must, namely by research. Research, however, is never homogeneous. It is comprised of various methodologies, ranging from the hard, empirical quantitative type of study, t o the soft, more subjective, qualitative interpretations.

Not only are there different methodologies, but research often, or, rather, invariably, operates against a specific theory and this theory depends on the author's inclinations. Some for instance may be inclined to use a positive theory, whilst other a feminist or grounded theory, or phenomenological approach amongst many others. These are all different perspective -- or ways of looking…. [read more]

Compare and Contrast the Differing Definitions of Critical Term Paper

… ¶ … integrating critical as well as thinking. But several earlier conceptualizations try to concentrate primarily on the process of thinking and avoid its important qualifier, i.e of critical. Hence they tend to give over importance to the process of thinking and reduce the importance of critical aspects. Encouraging and facilitating the process of critical thinking of students is now being considered as an increasingly significant objective for higher education. Analyzing the element of critical thinking of students is important for estimating its progress. (Cheung; Kwan; Yue, 2002) Those whose education have not trained them to deal critically with issues as well as conflicts are in fact not being enabled to interact efficiently with other people, whether be it be the same or varied from…. [read more]

Scientific Study Term Paper

… ¶ … scientific study, but one which is much different that the statistical operations and calculations seen traditionally in quantitative research. It is primarily concerned with exploring and understanding the unique tendencies of human behavior, both in terms of individuals and of social groups. Due to the nature of the variables being so abstract, it is difficult to apply traditional quantitative methods for study. It is hard to understand how emotions drive human behavior through quantitative observations. Qualitative research allows researchers to dive deeper into more abstract phenomena. In this, qualitative research aims to explore the influences that drive human decisions and behaviors, primarily focusing on the questions of why and how phenomena occur, not simply noting its occurrence. Still, quantitative measures do use empirical…. [read more]

Overarching Goal Essay

… ¶ … overarching goal of this study was to develop an improved understanding concerning assessing and developing the survey research methodology within an educational setting in general and the use of the survey research method to determine attitudes and behavioral intentions of the students in a university setting regarding their acceptance of e-learning in particular. The first part of the study presents the breadth component which is used to identify the differences between three important research paradigms which are defined, compared, and contrasted with various types of research methodologies with a particular emphasis on survey research methodology, using a selected bibliography to evaluate the methods.

Identifying Constraints to e-Learning for Rural Nigerian Students

The Breadth Component


This study is organized into three parts. The…. [read more]

Experimental Research Methods in Business Literature Review

… 123). The research approaches to which the authors refer in their definition include, for example, data collection and analysis, inference techniques, qualitative perspectives, and quantitative perspectives. When placing a mixed methods approach in the research -- as a type of research -- the authors suggest research employing mixed methods "would involve mixing within a single study; a mixed method program would involve mixing within a program of research and the mixing might occur across a closely related set of studies" (Johnson, 2007, p. 123).

As we have said, research methods can be described as fitting within any one of three research paradigms: The qualitative research paradigm, the quantitative research paradigm, or the mixed methods research paradigm. Greene (2006) further parsed research methodologies into four domains:…. [read more]

Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete Dissertation

… ¶ … Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete High School

Richard Wieringo

This case study explores the experiences of students with disabilities who have dropped out of high school, so as to identify related factors that led to their decisions. Participants will include both males and females who were designated as students with disabilities at Ridgeville High School (pseudonym for a Virginia high school) and who dropped out between their third and fourth years of high school, during the 2009 to 2012 academic school years. All participants will be between the ages of 18 and 21. The proposed research design is a phenomenological study to be conducted through the use of semi-structured interviews, journaling, and observation of the sample population, with the aim of…. [read more]

Empiricism Is a Theory of Knowledge Essay

… Empiricism is a theory of knowledge that posits that what we know arises from a series of sensual experiences that are evidentiary and part of observable phenomena. Of course, the philosophical views of consciousness date back to the very foundations of human societies -- most especially the views of the Ancient Greeks on human morality and ethics and the manner in which human thought translated into action. Within the modern era, that is after the Renaissance, for instance, Francis Bacon proposed not a specific philosophy of knowing, but a methodology of verifying truth. Bacon, for instance, believed humans should use inductive reasoning from fact to axiom to law- from induction to deduction as a process of finding truth.

According to the empirical view, for any…. [read more]

Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations Assessment

… Adam Smith Wealth of Nations

In his classic text on political economy, an Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, eighteenth-century Scottish philosopher-economist Adam Smith deftly lays the foundation for contemporary discourse concerning ethical issues in business; modern scholars characterize the scholarly work as one "which [argues] that a nation's wealth is maximized by permitting individuals to pursue their own interests, rather than through political intervention to secure some notion of the common good" (Oakley, 1997, p. 383). Smith largely focuses on topics such as the division of labor, self-interest as the main principle of economics, national wealth as represented by production capacity rather than by stocks of gold (introducing in a rough form the concept of gross national product), free…. [read more]

Levinson's Stage Theory Research Paper

… ¶ … Clinical Implications of Levinson's Stage Theory

What is the underlying philosophical paradigm of the practice theory? Why do you think this is the philosophical paradigm underlying this theory? Link the major assumptions of the theory to the ontological, axiological, and methodological assumptions of the epistemological paradigm.

Identify and describe what research studies have been used to test this theory. In other words, what research studies have been conducted using this theory?

What research methods did these research studies use to test the theory. (Hint: The epistemological paradigm that guides the theory should be aligned with the methodological assumption of the epistemological paradigm.)

Discuss the scope of practice theory and its appropriateness for theory building and validation. How accurate is the theory in explaining…. [read more]

Teacher Motivation Research Proposal

… Teaching is one of the professions that many and indeed probably even most people enter with a large measure of idealism. They seek out education as a profession not for the salary or the benefits (despite the belief of many non-teachers that teachers are primarily motivated by the long vacations) but because they feel that teaching is their vocation, their calling. And yet despite this initial strong motivation to teach, many teachers leave the profession after a short time, often after only a year in the classroom. For example, about twenty percent of new Vancouver teachers leave the profession after their first year (Richmond, 2005), which is about middling, with some regions losing up to fifty percent of their novice teachers after their first year…. [read more]

Role of Personality and Emotions in Healthcare Thesis

… Emotional Management and Personality as Formalized Instruments of Medical Treatment

In Western medicine, treatment is typically defined according to surgical, chemical or mechanistic attention toward symptoms and ailment origins. This is an appropriate professional orientation for contending with the wide array of conditions which might afflict the human body. However, there is yet another level of medical attention which is considered in this discussion and which, when properly implemented, may offer compelling results. The emotional condition of the patient will play a significant role in the process of treatment, recovery or persistence. This, in turn, is a condition which often hinges on the personalities extend by healthcare providers such as nurses and physicians. There is a compelling body of research to suggest that these qualities…. [read more]

Leadership Skills Impact International Education Term Paper

… However, many people do not understand what leadership is and how it applies to the school environment. In their 1997 study of visionary companies, James Collins and Jerry Porras define leaders as people who "displayed high levels of persistence, overcame significant obstacles, attracted dedicated people, influenced groups of people toward the achievement of goals, and played key roles in guiding their companies through crucial episodes in their history."

This definition is very much in line with the definitions currently used for school leaders, although this definition has changed in recent years (Education Week, 2004). Until recent years, most research assumed that leadership did not have to come from the school principal (Riordan, 2003). The realization that improving instruction requires shifts in the behavior of school…. [read more]

Theorists of Public Administration Influencers Literature Review

… His studies of trade unions and welfare policies led Lindblom to conclude that policy change is evolutionary and not revolutionary. In his early work in the 1950s and 1960s, Lindblom was an advocate of the pluralistic view of governance and politics. A pluralistic view is optimistic in that it considers the natural state of a democracy and a free market to be a sort of amicable competition between elite bodies and elite individuals in politics and the marketplace. Because the specialized elites engaged in compromise and bargaining, it was not possible -- according to Lindblom's theory -- for a monolithic elite to gain control over society or government. Lindblom became disenchanted with his theory, however, because it soon became evident that certain elites could attain…. [read more]

Art Philosophy Tragedy Term Paper

… The empirical properties of the physical sciences may be used to infer the empirical existence of consciousness. Mental properties cannot be identical to physical properties; however, psychology can be reduced to natural science in terms of causal efficacy. For Hume, impressions are those things that are experienced through the senses, while ideas are 'copies' of impressions.

Picasso takes his ideas from experience and instills the same type of passion he has felt into the work of art. Hume would say that Picasso's use of familiar symbols or iconography, such as images from the bullring, are both narrative and imitative. The story being told is historical - the massacre at Guernica, while the emotive response is brought about through the associations one may make with the…. [read more]

Human Resources Managing Organisational Culture Dissertation

… d).

Understanding of organisational culture and cultural types also helps the understanding of why managerial reforms may impact differently within and between organisations. An organisation with a predominantly internal process culture, for example, may be more resistant to reforms aimed at promoting innovation. It is expected that staff in high uncertainty avoidance cultures to be more concerned with rule-following and more reluctant to risk changing jobs - both factors of some importance for those reformers who want to deregulate bureaucracies and encourage more rapid job change in the public service'. Businesses in both the private and public sectors have come to understand that organisational change frequently requires changing the organisation's culture and learning (O'Donnell & Boyle, 2008).

Whatever the purpose and performance results of culture…. [read more]

Woolf / Women in Violence Thesis

… His thoughts' wave-like connections with one another are broken by break-waters or dikes of wartime trauma. He cannot create an ocean of thought. He cannot sustain waves.

Next, Septimus has a quite different view of "time" than the other characters do because of his inability to be mentally present in the moment.

In stead, most times Septimus imagines himself being involved in the War:

"The word "time" split its husk; poured its riches over him; and from his lips fell like shells, like shavings from a plane, without his making them, hard, white, imperishable words, and flew to attach themselves to their places in an ode to Time; an immortal ode to Time. He sang. Evans answered from behind the tree. (69-70).

Figure 1-Big Ben…. [read more]

Descartes and Skepticism Is the Definition Term Paper

… Descartes and Skepticism

Skepticism is the definition where each and every aspect of one's knowledge -- including belief of one's reality is questioned. Determined to investigate the source and truth of his knowledge, Descartes determined to start by doubting all that he knew and then to work through each and every element of his presupposition -- both cultural and sensual and even the fundamental basics of reasoning itself -- in order to arrive at some sort of infrastructure of knowledge that he could accept as certain. This became known as the Cartesian framework or endeavor towards certain knowledge.

His book the Meditaitons describes this search. His First Meditation is the elaboration of his exercise on three levels. Firstly, Descartes notes that all of existence may…. [read more]

Philosophy of Science Scientific Theories Term Paper

… Science also challenges these convictions.

Some might also argue that scientific perspectives govern how we experience reality and thus make science without social acceptance impossible to be realistic. Science could not develop if new paradigms of the world that challenge existing social beliefs and acceptance were not proposed (Strauss, 2003). If paradigms did not question the realities as defined by society, "science would stagnate" (Strauss, 2003). Each member of the community is informed by tradition, and standards of ideas are typically handed down from generation to generation (Polyani, 1964, 52). Yet these very traditions need be challenged.


The Philosophy of Science according to Curd traditionally seeks to find rational conclusion and justification for activity, and allow for reconstruction of scientific theory logically (Curd, 1998).…. [read more]

Ethical Theory and Moral Practice Thesis

… Their work shouldn't be interpreted as a move to jettison the pursuit of objectivity, however. Rather, it is an effort to identify how "to triangulate across multiple fallible perspectives" (Trocham, 2006) in order to achieve objectivity. According to Trocham (2006), objectivity can be obtained through the efforts of many individuals -- through the conscientious critique of science by truth-seekers in their respective fields -- and not by any one individual. Trocham reminds the reader that "[w]e never achieve objectivity perfectly, but we can approach it" (2006).

Empiricism -- as a methodological assumption of the epistemological paradigm -- is a limited means of acquiring truth and knowledge. Therefore, an exploratory review of literature is an apt choice. Gastmans (1998) and Beauchamp (2007) reveal ethical theory and…. [read more]

Ethical Dilemmas and Marketing Essay

… Other theorists agree that stakeholder theory embraces Rawls' (1971) second principle of justice despite efforts by Freeman (Phillips,. 2003) to argue otherwise. Rawls (1971) argued that inequalities that exist in society between those who have and those who have not are only acceptable when such a difference results in the overall good of society. Rawls continues to call for the redistribution of wealth. James Stieb (2008) contends that Freeman's (2003) stakeholder theory aligns with such redistribution efforts despite Freeman's own insistence that stakeholder theory is rooted in libertarian principles (2002). Stieb (2008) argues that Freeman presents stakeholder theory as primarily an attempt to "redistribute benefits to stakeholders and redistribute important decision-making power to stakeholders" (p. 405). However, Stieb's charge is unsubstantiated by an examination of…. [read more]

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