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Philosophy Essay

… Philosophy is a broad science and it is normally used as an umbrella term for comprehensive body of studies. It is usually used for the study of inordinate concepts such as ethics, logic and aesthetics. But it also goes beyond these to study religion, social values, political theories etc. For many decades even psychology was considered a part of philosophy but not anymore. Every science involves philosophical problems, but the above-mentioned subjects all raise, in one form or another, the problem of values and thus start metaphysical questions of central import.

Thus metaphysics is the clearing house for all fundamental philosophical problems. It is the comprehensive discipline in which all philosophical issues and theories converge. Indeed, inasmuch as the special sciences, such as physics, biology,…. [read more]


Naturalists and Materialists Philosophy Essay

… For example, he argued that earthquakes were caused by waves within the water that the earth sets on (33). Without having seismographs and plate tectonics to counter this assumption, it was a perfectly logical conclusion for the man to reach and he used it as proof of the water on earth hypothesis. As he employed all of these in his theory, Thales has to be credited with perhaps the first established scientific theory about the workings of the universe.

Besides this "Grand Unified Theory," Thales was also involved in the burgeoning of several philosophical ideologies. He is credited with the first uses of monism in philosophical thought. At the core of all human existence, he argued was a sense of shared community. Even more, this…. [read more]


Chaos and Order How Philosophy Got Started Term Paper

… Chaos and Order: How Philosophy Got Started

Werner J. Krieglstein (2002) talks about chaos and order and how these two conditions have played on the thinking of mankind from his earliest days, as he realized he did not have the answers to the all things in the universe. Here, with the ancient contemplations of the universe around him, and the curiosity about man's own presence on earth as he gazes upward and sees the universe above him, the earth beneath him, and suddenly feels the need to explain his self in the presence of these more enormous aspects of heaven, earth, the moon and the sun. This is when philosophy began, although there is probably no way to say at exactly what moment and by…. [read more]


Buddhist Philosophy Man Term Paper

… Whatever one wants can be so easily taken away from him or her.

On the basis of understanding the way that desires are built up one can set him or self free. Of course, this is something that may prove difficult because detachment from worldly attachments is difficult once habits are built up through experience.

In order to really be free, Siddhartha Gautama emphasized that in order to set one's self free from the round of being born again and suffering people have to realize the changing nature of everything in the world. Through comprehending and accepting the changing nature of substances, one can be free of experiences of pleasure that do not last, attachment to one's self and to a false impression of permanence.…. [read more]


Philosophy Personal Worldview Out of the Hodgepodge Term Paper

… ¶ … Philosophy

Personal Worldview

Out of the hodgepodge of education and personal experiences I have gained in my lifetime, I have managed to develop a "mixed bag" kind of personal philosophy or worldview. How I imagine the world working at any given moment depends on the circumstances at hand. When it comes to love, I tend to imagine a romanticized world of surreal spirituality and fate. On the other hand, when speaking of disease, my mind turns to biology and scientific fact. And I imagine that the view I choose to take of the world on any particular subject has something to do with how much I know about the subject, and with how pleasing it is for me to think along those lines.…. [read more]


Plato and the Apology Essay

… Plato and the Apology

Philosophy is an intellectual discipline that exercises logic and reason in its quest to comprehend reality. Philosophy always seeks answers to the fundamental questions of life. It also tries to answer the question concerning human nature, morality and knowledge. Every dimension of life, from the composition of democratic governments to computer software, has its origin in philosophy. The value attached to philosophy arises from the impact it creates in the society. Its spotlight on problem solving and critical thinking reinforces the need for philosophy in the society. The objective of philosophy is to amass wisdom (Plato 28). The knowledge acquired through philosophical studies help in answering life's questions. Human beings need philosophy to reinforce their thinking. Philosophy reiterates that to think…. [read more]


Philosophy of Universe and Its Origins Term Paper

… ¶ … Universe

The debate on how the universe was formed has been ongoing for a long time as seen in historical records. The explanation rested on two schools of thoughts, namely the Jewish, Christian, and Islamic religions as well as early traditions. This can be seen from the example of Bishop Usher who calculated the beginning of the universe to be 404 BC through summing up the ages of the Old Testament people. Another recent argument is supported by the fact that human beings are continuously evolving in terms of culture and technology. The fact that we remember the person that performed the first specific deed proves that we cannot have been around that long since the progress should have been more than what…. [read more]


Three Major Scientific Theories Explaining the Origins of the Universe Research Proposal

… Origins

Discussion of three major scientific theories explaining the origins of the universe

ORIGINS of the UNIVERSE

Three major scientific theories on the origins of the universe

The question of the origins of the universe has concerned humanity for centuries. Understanding the origins of the universe also implies an understanding of creation and leads to insight into humanities place in the universe. Therefore, the various theories discussed in this paper can be seen are prime examples of this need to understand the origins of our universe. The central scientific theory on this subject, known as the Big Bang theory, will be compared to two modern theories that have become popular alternatives to the Big Bang theory.

The analysis of these theories is intended to illustrate…. [read more]


Augustine's Main Problem Term Paper

… But if nothing could harm you, that removes any ground for combat [between good and evil], and indeed combat under such conditions that some portion of you, one of your members, or an offspring of your very substance, is mingled with hostile powers and with natures not created by you, and is corrupted by them and so changed for the worse that it is altered from beatitude to misery and needs help to deliver or purify it (VII.ii.3).

3. What made Augustine give up on astrology? Compare what he says about astrology in book VII with what he says about it in book IV, Chapter 3.

Augustine gave up on astrology because of an argument that Firminus presented to him. Previous to this, he regularly…. [read more]


Scientific Explanation Essay

… Once philosophers started to see scientific knowledge as the only real knowledge, and Frege's new logic - which promised to become the new scientific language - became more widely known, there were few remaining philosophical tasks; foremost was to describe precisely what science is, what scientists do, and what the underlying logic of science is. The project went as follows: enumerate the various scientific tasks, and then ascertain that there is a clear "conceptual analysis" of each one. What are the tasks of science? Among the things that scientists, qua scientists, do are make predictions, discover laws of nature, formulate theories, assert probabilities, propose hypotheses, set taxonomies, and offer explanations.

Similar questions can be asked of the term "explanation." Offering a scientific explanation of a…. [read more]


Idealism With Its Historical Origins Term Paper

… Idealism

With its historical origins in the works of Plato as well as the Hindu Vedas, idealism is one of the fundamental and most pervasive metaphysical philosophies. Its only real challenge comes from materialism, a metaphysical perspective that took root relatively recently. In light of many worldly phenomena and subjective experiences, materialism makes far less rational sense than idealism. Materialism accounts for only a limited fragment of reality, one facet of a complex universe. Furthermore, idealism more accurately encompasses the aims of metaphysics, which studies reality from is literally "beyond" the physical world. The term "metaphysics" literally means "beyond physics." Metaphysical theories therefore extend toward the ultimate reality that underlies the physical universe. Any study of metaphysics must therefore extend beyond the world that is…. [read more]


Philosophy on Life Research Proposal

… Personal Beliefs -- Philosophy of Life

Origin and Nature of the Universe

To the best of our current ability to make meaningful assumptions about the origin and nature of the universe, it seems that the universe started out approximately 10 billion years ago as an explosion of energy. During the 20th century, astronomers and astrophysicists learned exactly what happened from a very small fraction of a second (10-47) after the "Big Bang" to the current epoch, but it is not known what happened earlier than that small fraction of a second. In fact, according to what we understand about quantum mechanics (the physics at the atomic and subatomic levels), it is fundamentally impossible for us ever to know what "caused" the universe to come into…. [read more]


Philosophy - Existence of God Many Philosophers Research Proposal

… Philosophy - Existence of God

Many philosophers over the centuries have addressed the question of the existence of God, with particular focus upon the Christian God. Indeed, some have even suggested the demise of God, even while churches continue to flourish. This issue has in fact taken a prominent position in philosophical argument as early as Plato's time. Today, with religious diversity increasingly tolerated and even celebrated, not only the existence of God, but also the exact nature of this existence, is heatedly debated among philosophers and believers alike. From the perspective of the Christian, there are several arguments that can be held forward for the existence of God, and also to counter arguments against this view. Religious philosophers such as John H. Hick have…. [read more]


Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophyy Research Paper



Another important aspect of the teachings of Wang is that they suggest that the best action pattern is characterized by the unity between knowledge and action. Knowing your own mind is the access to the truth and once the truth has been achieved the individual is free to apply that knowledge upon himself.

If one should compare Confucianism and neo- Confucianism it should be stated that for both currents of thought the family is a very important element. It is the starting point and the central point for the entire universe. In addition, the family is considered to be the source of all order ad harmony, therefore a good example regarding the organization of society. Filiality is probably the most important relationship…. [read more]


I Ching Classical Understand Research Paper

… The lines themselves are based on the principal of yin and yang, as has already been mentioned.

I Ching from the point-of-view of Aleister Crowley:

In the West there has been a limited interest towards the Oriental philosophy, and "there remain entrenched Eurocentric attitudes which tend to marginalize the influence of Eastern thought on the West." However, the exception has been Aleister Crowley, who created his own religion under the banner of A*A* or Argentum Astrum. The religion and the very figure of Aleister Crowley have been surrounded by undeserved controversy, which is often the result of a lack of understanding of this work. From an analytical point-of-view, it can be claimed the teachings and the religion which he preached was very human centric approach.…. [read more]


Philosophy and God Term Paper

… Philosophies of religion generally fall into one of two camps: theistic and atheistic views. The former provides proofs or arguments in favor of the existence of God, whereas the latter offers proofs or arguments denying the existence of God. Most of these philosophies are rooted in logical and rhetoric, but some are based more on subjectivity and personal experience than in logic or reason. Subcategories of main arguments define and distinguish each of these philosophical camps. For example, theistic philosophies include teleological arguments, cosmological arguments, ontological arguments, moral arguments, arguments related to self-interest such as Pascal's "wager," arguments rooted in the experience of miracles, and arguments rooted in religious experience. Each of these distinct philosophies approaches the nature and existence of God differently and offers…. [read more]


Philosophy Reason and Faith the Place Term Paper

… Philosophy

Reason and Faith

The place that the faculty of reason should hold in ministry has been a debatable question for a long time. It is generally believed that faith and reason are antagonists that cannot coexist in the human spirit. Man has always had a propensity for philosophical and scientific inquiry, and faith is said to oppose this natural inclination. The text of Fides et Ratio emphasizes that both reason and faith should coexist and be used together as a means of acceding to the ultimate truth. As the opening lines of the text punctuate, reason and faith are and should remain bound together as two wings that help man soar above his limited circumstance, to the truth.

First of all, the use of…. [read more]


Mind-Body Debate Is Central Term Paper

… The human body and mind are completely different, and both are different from God. On a metaphysical level, this suggests a fragmented view of reality, causality, and the universe. Sensations in the body are caused by movements in the mind, which are in turn stimulated by the will of God. While satisfying for the deist, the Malebranche argument of occasionalism is unsatisfying on several levels. For one, it requires belief in an absolute God, which has a mind of Its own. Second, occasionalism implies that human will and thought are entirely passive in nature.

Thus, Malebranche's duality can be reinterpreted to offer a second, related theory of mind-body interaction. That second theory may retain a belief in God but places a greater emphasis on human…. [read more]


Philosophers of Ancient Greece Research Paper

… He belonged to the Ephesians school of thought. He is responsible for hypothesizing the notion of flow. Heraclitus hailed from a noble family and hence was the first aristocrat to be inducted in the Greek Philosophers' hall of fame. Heraclitus went on to negate all of his acclaimed predecessors and interestingly propose that insipidity and impudence were inherent human natures. (Knierim 1999) He is as such often described as a cynic who had minimal faith in human attributes. His philosophical beliefs revolved around immovable morals and their inflexible pursuit. He has talked of ideas regarding self-mastery and staunch abstinence from sinfulness. He was in this regard the upholder of moralistic purification and the perfection of the human soul. His rebellious and rigid attitude has been…. [read more]


Mind and Body the Generational Outlook Research Paper

… Mind and Body in History

Mind-Body Dualism in History

Most philosophers in history from Plato to Descartes assumed the existence of dualism between the mind and body, and the physical and spiritual worlds. They made a distinction between the basically rational and logical faculties of the mind over and above instincts and emotions. Other philosophers and psychologists like Nietzsche and Freud and the Romantics put far more emphasis on the emotional and irrational side of the mind, but for Plato and Aristotle, only women, slaves, peasants and the lower orders in general were guided by passions, feelings and desires (Lehrer, 2009, p. xiv). In contrast, the materialistic and atomistic view existed from the very beginnings of Western philosophy, but not as the majority position even…. [read more]


Atlantis or Any Lost Worlds Term Paper

… ¶ … catalog of earthly wonders, only a few exist in that realm of unsubstantiated rumor upheld by the broadest variety of source. The Lost Continent is, truly, one of these wonders - a city made of both earth and sea, created by Triton, Poseidon, Atlas, or whatever other ancient God created it as a point of union between the earthly and the divine, the surface and the underneath. What is striking, is that within Western culture, Plato is one of the first known mentions of Atlantis in a theoretical discourse - completely fictional account - used to explain the nature of the physical universe. but, the concept of the Lost Continent, whatever the name assigned, is one that has been shared by scientific exploration,…. [read more]


Aquinas and Descartes the Discourse Term Paper

… The classical argument for dualism is made by Rene Descartes ... In his Meditations (first published in 1641). Descartes was writing during the very first stirrings of what was later to become the Enlightenment. Natural (experimental) science was beginning to emerge and was differentiating itself from magical and religious ideas. Descartes (though a religious man) wanted to contribute to this. He was aware that his thought, and that of his contemporaries, was hindered by prejudice. He wanted to eliminate this prejudice and establish certain foundations for knowledge. (The Argument for Mind/Body Dualism)

He embarked on his method of radical doubt and denied everything that was not without absolute certainty. This also included perceptions about the world and body. The method of doubt also extended to…. [read more]


Tao in Chapter 29 Term Paper

… Thus, the modern American can readily understand the Tao de Ching and even difficult concepts like those outlined in Chapter 29. It is unnecessary and unhealthy to try and control everything. The master "understands that the universe / is forever out of control, / and that trying to dominate events / goes against the current of the Tao," (Chapter 30). Many Americans, however, will not agree that weapons are "tools of fear," (Chapter 31). Lao-tze would understand this sentiment and only advise that the individual who loves his or her weapons use them judiciously and at the right moment.

The nature of the universe is a void or nothing, which necessitates a complete letting go of the mind and relaxing of the will. In Chapter…. [read more]


Science and Religion One of the Responses Term Paper

… Science and Religion

One of the responses was given by Johannes Praetorius. His model noted a series of planets considered to be inferior revolving around the Sun, while the Sun itself revolved around a stationary Earth. The idea of this model was that the Earth was still the most important element of the Universe and that, eventually, all bodies actually revolved around it, including the Sun. However, this was already a way forward from the Ptolemaic model used by the Church.

Brahe's model posed two fundamental conclusions from his research, in reply to the Copernican model. The conclusions were mutually rejecting one another, so Brahe believed, through his calculations, either that the earth was motionless at the center of the Universe or that the stars…. [read more]


Paley's Argument From Design William Term Paper

… Consider, for instance, the organs in a human being that are designed to fulfill a specific function, and work together in enabling a human to function.

The Darwinian theory, taken at face value, would seem to falsify Paley's argument, stating as it does that the design of Nature has gone through an evolutionary process, through genetic modifications and mutations of previously existing organisms not all of which are adapted to survive. According to the Darwinians, therefore, Paley's theory is invalid given the apparently random selection of the structure of organisms. However, the evolution hypothesis is equally open to questioning using Paley's logic itself. Gould argues that the panda's strange thumb is an accident of nature but closer correlation to, for example, bears with a similar…. [read more]


Locke v. Berkeley the Philosophers Essay

… It is our senses that provide man with the ability to distinguish between the two. In Book II of his essay, Existence of Real Things, Locke articulates the distinction between knowledge and opinion and he explains the importance of evidence in the formation of beliefs and knowledge. He strongly argues that it is not enough to want something to be true one must search for reasons to make sure that something is indeed true. Again, Locke would point out that everyone's experience in this search would be different and relative to what their individual senses revealed to them.

Berkeley's philosophy can be best understood by examining his famous quotation, "If a tree falls in the forest and no one is around to hear it, does…. [read more]


Review Africa and the Anthropologist Essay

… " (Bernal, 1996, p. 87) Bernal goes on to claim that the use of images of ancient Greek in the work of Lefkowitz is used "for their own political agenda." (1996, p. 87) Bernal states that while Lefkowitz claimed that Diodoros lacked specific information, if Lefkowitz had been more thorough in her research she would have known that Diodoros "specified that Solon had adopted an Egyptian law according to which everybody had to declare the source of their income." (Bernal, 1996, p. 87-8) According to Bernal, Diodoros in 1.79.3. made the specification of "yet another Solonic law supposed to be derived from Egypt, his famous 'seisachatheia' or 'shaking off of debts' according to which a man could not be imprisoned or enslaved for debt." (Bernal,…. [read more]


General Systems Theory and Modern Research Paper

… System Theory

The origin and foundation of system theory

System theory as a general frame of inquiry

System and environment

Living System Theory

Boundaries of Living System theory

General system theory

Social Entropy Theory (SET)

16A comparison of the theories

In this paper, we analyze Bertalanffy's General Systems Theory by comparing and contrasting the analysis of Bertalanffy's General Systems Theory and its influence on social networking and modern social systems. Other than comparing and contrasting the theories, we synthesize and integrate Bertalanffy's system theory with those of Bailey, Miller and Weick to gain a greater understanding of social systems and the environments in which they interact and exist and a greater appreciation of modern social systems structure.

Introduction

The trend of change evidence in the…. [read more]


Human Beings Make Sense Essay

… Such alienation from the world and from nature is universal in modern society (May, p 54). May thought that the schizoid personality best typified the modern age of being "detached, unrelated, lacking in affect, tending toward depersonalization, and covering up…problems by means of intellectualization and technical formulations" (May, p. 56).

Individuals are not merely abnormal but isolated and alienated from society, with a sense of disconnectedness of the type portrayed in film noir. Ever since the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, the Western world has had a "passion to gain power over nature" rather than be part of it (May, p. 57). For the existentialist psychotherapist, "the problem is not at all that these patents have endured impoverished pasts, it is rather that cannot or do…. [read more]


Organizing in Critical Thinking Term Paper

… ¶ … Role of Organization in Critical Thinking

Organizing in Critical Thinking

Critical thinking skills are a vital requisite in problem solving as well as in the development of new understanding and knowledge. The honing of good critical thinking skills, however, is contingent on an individual's ability to organize and connect up jumbled bits of data till a clear picture emerges (Kirby & Goodpaster, 1999, p. 119). Indeed, it can be said that organization is key to the art of reasoning since it brings method and order to an individual's thinking, irrespective of the field of her or his enquiry. Further, such method and order in thinking is important if critical thinking is to result in using only relevant, verifiable facts, and a strong overall…. [read more]

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