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Ti) in Info Tech (IT) Essay

… The appeal behind the force of the imperative could be something measurable or it could be, as some leading experts believe, more of a case of instinct -- the gut reaction of those who have a good handle on changes that are beginning to occur even if the professional or logical justification cannot easily been seen. The true pull of the imperative is the fact that it makes a strong case that it is a smart tool whose value cannot be denied. When this happens during a technology revolution, there are usually some significant skeptics, but even they may still try to use the new tools & #8230; just in case. It could well be that this is the true secret behind the motivation that…. [read more]

Ontology, 1-3 Epistemology and Methodology Definition Assessment

… ¶ … Ontology, 1-3

Epistemology and Methodology

Definition of Positivist Paradigm, 4-6

Interpretive Paradigm and Feminist Paradigm

For the study of tourism to work best and to succeed, it proceeds as all other fields must, namely by research. Research, however, is never homogeneous. It is comprised of various methodologies, ranging from the hard, empirical quantitative type of study, t o the soft, more subjective, qualitative interpretations.

Not only are there different methodologies, but research often, or, rather, invariably, operates against a specific theory and this theory depends on the author's inclinations. Some for instance may be inclined to use a positive theory, whilst other a feminist or grounded theory, or phenomenological approach amongst many others. These are all different perspective -- or ways of looking…. [read more]

Sublime From the Greeks to the Romantics Term Paper

… Sublime From the Greeks to the Romantics

The sublime has been understood in various ways throughout history -- but most simply thus: as greatness beyond all measure. Longinus gave the Western world the first treatise on the sublime, which was essentially a kind of echo of Plato and Aristotle. Yet for the entirety of the middle ages, from Augustine to Aquinas to Dante, it stayed buried and did not really resurface until the late Renaissance. With the dawn of the age of Romantic/Enlightenment doctrine, the subject of Longinus' treatise became a staple of Western thought, influencing humanist artists, poets and philosophers from Burke to Hume to Kant to Shelley to Keats. The 20th century again saw the subject taken up by C.S. Lewis who expressed…. [read more]

Kant and Rousseau Term Paper

… Rousseau and Kant

The Enlightenment refers to the period in European history when writing and thought were characterized by an emphasis on experience and reason. This showed that there was a mistrust of religion and traditional authority, and one result was the gradual emergence of the ideals of liberal, secular, democratic societies. The Enlightenment is associated with a materialist view of human beings, an optimism about human progress through education, and a general utilitarian approach to society and ethics. The emphasis on learning in the Enlightenment would contribute to the development of various systems of learning, the founding of universities and colleges, and the development of philosophical systems such as the one offered by Kant. Freedom is all that is required, says Kant, and he…. [read more]

Nietzsche and Plato Term Paper

… Nietzsche & Plato


Do you see connections to our time, our lives (your life?) in the Nietzsche or Plato writings?

I think that Plato's "Allegory of the Cave" demonstrates how people are always filled with a sense that what they are living isn't really what they want to be doing -- that real happiness, truth, or fulfillment is just around the corner, but one's current existence is a 'lie.' I do not think that most people are searching for Truth with a capital T, though, but for personal truth. An example of this permanent sense of dissatisfaction might be of someone who goes to the right schools, goes into the profession his parents have selected for him, and feels at age twenty-five as if…. [read more]

Cross-Currents of Philosophy Research Paper

… However he reserves the highest level possible for his own philosophical teachings and their practice. This stage has been called as the Paramam Padam and is only reached though the practice of Tantric Saivism.

One major difference that is found between the teachings of Abhinavagupta and Patanjali is in the way a person was initiated into the practice of that particular school of thought, and this difference is enough to make the teachings and practice of Abhinavagupta seem like elitist in their nature.

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali direct towards no agent to attain the ultimate reality; in a fact, what has been found in these writings is simply a way for one to clear their mind and following a certain path. It almost makes…. [read more]

Daoism Philosophy Essay

… Asian Philosophy: Daoism

Daoism, is the first religion of China. Religion, as is generally understood the world over, in practicing certain tenets, following rituals, belief in a particular philosophy and all that constitutes a religion. However, in its narrative as in practice, Daoism is a vastly different tradition of the Chinese people. It is a way of life, or better still, it is a way of looking at life. Daoism is wholly rooted in China. In the western world, Daoism is known as Taoism, which is the equivalent translation of the original Chinese word. The most appropriate way of explaining Daoism is to understand the meaning of Dao- it is the 'way' (the right way) or the 'path'. The meaning imbibed in it is that…. [read more]

Judaism's Origin, God, Scriptures, Worldview, Problem Term Paper

… ¶ … Judaism's origin, God, scriptures, worldview, problem and solution for man, and the view of the afterlife and what it takes to attain it. The paper then gives an evaluation of Judaism and lists four philosophical combinations of agreements and disagreements that would encourage or prevent one from following the religion.

Judaism is thought to have begun as Samaritanism although Samaritans today do not consider themselves as Jews. Religious historians think that around the first cetury CE there were original Jewish sects called Pharisees, Sadducces, Zealots, Essenes and Christians. It is believed that upon the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. The sects vanished. Christianity survived by breaking away from Judaism and thus becoming its own religion. The Pharisees survived and became…. [read more]

Metaphysics Versus Psychology Dissertation


Metaphysics and Psychology have historically been at odds with one another in what is an unnatural although real separation from a somewhat new science and its mother science. Although many believe that psychology and metaphysics are actually joined together the view of many in these two areas of study are adamant that the two are opposed to one another. Indeed it is just this debate which will be examined during the course of this study reported herein.

Metaphysics is the mother science of psychology and was first established as such in ancient times by such as Aristotle, Plato and others. Metaphysics is of the nature that conducts an examination of reality and the relationship that exists between the physical world and other…. [read more]

Secular Humanism Research Proposal

… Secular Humanism

The rise and influence of Secular Humanism in the 20th century


Brief Overview of the Antecedents of Secular Humanism

The Enlightenment and Renaissance

Political and Economic Factors

The Modern Era

Historical aspects; The Formalism of Secular Humanism

The Role of Science

Secularization in the West

Influential Thinkers

Secular Humanism in the Twentieth Century and its Crisis

The Influence of Secular Humanism

The phenomenon of secular humanism is a central facet of the constitution and character of contemporary Western culture and society. The modern development of this ideology or worldview has progressed from the humanism of the Enlightenment to the particle style of secular humanism that we find in the twentieth century. This cultural phenomenon became a dominant social and cultural force during…. [read more]

Confucianism Describe the Unique Characteristics Term Paper

… Confucius tells that not many people are able to keep jen constantly in mind; he also tells that jen is very close to us. As 'humanism' deals with ren or humanness, 'humanism' is the core of Confucianism. This is specifically emphasized by Mencian wing of the Confucian tradition and elevated to metaphysical level by one of the later thinkers, Neo-Confucian schools of Song-Ming times. Confucianism appears to be an open counter part with Chinese communism as 20th-century Confucian scholars credits the word 'humanism' to Confucianism; and hence this new understanding must itself be "historicized" as a metacommentary. (Huang, p.32)

The distinctive characteristics of Confucian humanism can be known from the teachings of Confucius. Confucius says the person cannot bear difficulties for a longer time and…. [read more]

Descartes Rene Descartes: Historical and Philosophical Context Term Paper

… Descartes

Rene Descartes: Historical and Philosophical Context

Rene Descartes is widely considered to be one of the founders of modern philosophy. But geniuses are not born out of thin air - rather they are products of the era that they are born into. With this in mind, this paper will examine Descartes's life and thought from the perspective of the historical context in which he lived as well as the philosophical context that gave rise to his unique method. In doing so, I hope to shed some light on how Descartes came to form some of his most important contributions to rational thought in our time.

Like a lot of philosophers both before him and after him, Descartes lived in relative isolation from the pressures…. [read more]

Nature of Truth We Exist Term Paper

… The variation between the Eastern and Western thinking are currently exceedingly prominent. Western mindset stands on a reasonable, structured scheme of groups, designated and differentiated between, characterized by a complete Knowledge of Truth. Eastern thinking greatly differs with this form, even though not very diverse from the Sophists' style of thought. I would prefer to portray briefly the method of Eastern thinking, as it is to an extent a 'method' as it is a 'means'.

Fundamental statements of Eastern philosophy reveal that there exists an Ultimate Reality. Hindus will describe this as Brahman; Buddhist as Buddha. Taoist will christen it Tao and Star War supporters will visualize it as the Force. Whatsoever might be its name, everything flow and finally has its origins from this…. [read more]

Evil What Is the Nature of Evil? Essay


What is the nature of Evil?

The question of the existence and nature of evil has concerned philosophers, theologians and thinkers for centuries. The very existence of evil is the central impetus for many major religious worldviews and the nature and origins of evil are factors which often determine the trajectory of religious thinking and faith.

The central thesis that will be suggested in this study is that understanding the nature of evil requires a perspective that includes both external and internal views of the origins and nature of evil. In other words, evil can be understood as being an entity or a force that exists outside of human nature as well as a propensity that is internal or innate in human beings. This…. [read more]

Metaphysics and Its Relevancy to Ethics Term Paper

… Metaphysics and Its Relevancy to Ethics in the 21st Century

The first step toward knowing anything is always finding out. -- Louise Ropes Loomis, 1943

Throughout history, mankind has been searching for the secrets of the universe and what part we play in it. Early philosophers used metaphysical analyses to help them discern these mysteries, with varying degrees of success. Today, many people simply disregard metaphysics as being an esoteric blend of black magic and superstition, while others point to the fundamental knowledge that has emerged as a result of people delving further into the unknowns that have always characterized the human condition. In addition, even its proponents do not seem to be able to agree on a single definition for the term, but almost…. [read more]

Man Did Evolve Term Paper

… Man Did Evolve

Man is a creature who lives in what is known as the Universe. The Universe is made up of a large number of varied materials that interact with each other at all times and thus make up the shape and the size of the Universe as such. The human being, in his need to establish his position in this universe, undergoes biological as well as evolutionary changes at all times. The process known as Evolution helps the Human understand him and the ongoing process in the nature of things that has been responsible for his creation and his evolution through the ages. (the Evolution of the Human)

Charles Darwin was one of the foremost theorists of the process of Evolution and there…. [read more]

Scientific Revolution Is a Change in Intellectual Term Paper

… Scientific Revolution is a change in intellectual thought attributed to the 16th and 17th centuries. However, scientific thought had been around for some time before this time with notable contributions by Aristotle (384-322 BC) and Ptolemy (90-168 AD). Both made significant contributions to science, with Aristotle's book, The Physics, appearing about 350 B.C., describing the principles of change, movement and the elements such as earth, wind, and fire, to name a few of the subjects covered.

Ptolemy orderly arranged the geocentric view of the universe so that they were understandable and rationalized the motions of the planets as they were known in his time. Ptolemy's book Almagest was the basis of pre-modern astronomy, posing that the whole universe revolves around the earth and developing eighty…. [read more]

Philosophical Naturalism a Critique Essay

… Christian Response to Philosophical Naturalism

Generally, philosophical naturalism is a worldview that suggests that the universe is a completely closed system that is strictly governed by physical laws and by mathematical constants that are definitively identifiable, in principle, through the human process of empirical analysis. As such, there can never be any possible explanation for anything in the universe that does not fit within empirical knowledge or within the objectively provable laws of science in general and that, in particular, physical concepts cannot ever be explained or understood except through the laws of physics.

The first major philosophical assumption made by philosophical naturalists is that there is no such thing as any a priori knowledge that lies outside of objectively provable fact. Therefore, philosophical naturalism…. [read more]

Existence and Nature of Matter Thesis

… ¶ … Existence and Nature of Matter

Stating that matter is whatever entity which has a mass and occupies space is an oversimplification. The philosophical issue of matter is a complicated one, giving rise to numerous questions, from the nature of its existence to its characteristics and the consequences of these aspects upon the conception of the universe, god and ourselves. People have tried to explain the existence of matter ever since the Antiquity through various perspectives and the debate has not yet finished.

Taking for granted the fact that matter exists in itself and outside our mechanisms of perception and conception still leaves several important issues to be discussed. For example, what is the origin of matter or in other words, what made it…. [read more]

Tradition Related to East Asian Political Thought Research Paper

… ¶ … tradition of East Asian political thought

Introduction to Confucianism

Confucius, one of the tallest cultural and religious figures of ancient China is credited with originating a way of life that soon took cultural hue of what is since known as Confucianism. The origins of this soci-cultural-legal-religious body of thought can be traced back to the Spring-autumn of a year that lied somewhere in the 770 BC-476 BC period. This philosophy found wide acceptance throughout ancient China through the efforts and support of eminent Philosophers like Mengzhi and Han emperor Wu (Yang, 2014).

This thought that was originally only a social requirement of the times was soon embraced by the masses and was accepted as a legal code of conduct, too. The philosophy reached…. [read more]

Aristotle's Category Theory: Briefly Describe Aristotle's Substance-Accident Research Proposal

… Aristotle's category theory: Briefly describe Aristotle's substance-accident ontology and subject-predicate analysis of entities.

In understanding the universe, Aristotle aims to break everything down into its smallest basic components. Doing so, however, creates a seemingly unlimited number of parts; Aristotle compensates for this in his theory by creating various categories to describe those basic parts and their relation to the rest of the universe. He first begins to do this in Categories, where he actually creates ten categories of beings. These ten categories include substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, position, having, doing, and affection.

Within these more specific definitions and representations of substances, Aristotle uses his substance-accident ontology to clarify the concept that substances can exist independent of other substances. In the existence of an…. [read more]

Francis Bacon's Advancement of Learning Research Paper

… (Aquinas 4).

Aquinas indeed illustrates, with what later theologians and philosophers would call far too much complexity (or certainty), the relationship between faith and reason -- a relationship that intensely shaped medieval scholastic thought -- and a relationship that by the twentieth century would find fewer and fewer followers -- as a result of the new system of thinking devised by the Baconian method.

Moreover, the philosophers that followed Bacon's Advancement give a key to the kind of world that Bacon was envisioning when he penned his treatise to the King of England: the next century would see the rise of Rousseau -- and the demise of old world values: for example, there is no hint in Rousseau of the filial duty such as Shakespeare…. [read more]

I Ching Is a Form of Divination Term Paper

… I Ching is a form of divination used in China for the prediction of many affairs, both personal and affairs of the state. "I" or yi means change. "Ching" or ying means book. Therefore it is known in English as the Book of Changes. It is based on the philosophy that everything in the universe is constantly changing. The I Ching reflects this process of changes and gives a way to interpret the way that energy is flowing at any particular moment.

When an answer is needed for a decision, the questioner poses a question to the oracle.

Simply put, the tossing of coins helps you form a group of lines (trigrams and hexagrams) that lead to a better understanding of one's present and future…. [read more]

Socrates and Pythagoras Term Paper

… (Socrates:

In the pursuit of this he neglected his personal affairs and spent a lot of time in discussions on the subjects of virtue, justice and piety wherever the Athenian citizens collected. There is an accusation that Socrates did not fulfill his public duty with all the knowledge and talents that he possessed as he never sought public office. He was however known for his courage, which he displayed in the many military campaigns that he took part in. In this pursuit of bringing about a moral cleansing among the Athenians he collected a number of enemies among the citizens of Athens. Thus in the year of 399 BC he was brought on trial with the charge of corrupting the youth of Athens and…. [read more]

Socrates Theory of Knowledge Essay

… Phaedo, Plato relates Socrates' final teachings before he goes to his death, including Socrates' arguments for the existence of an eternal, immortal human soul. While all of Socrates' arguments for the existence of an eternal soul are faulty, Socrates so-called recollection theory, which looks to the supposedly prenatal knowledge all humans have, is the most interesting because it is actually tied to a genuine phenomenon, rather than existing strictly in the realm of religious fantasy. While the rest of Socrates' arguments rest on one already buying into his faulty notion of eternal Forms, his recollection theory instead takes something actually observable in nature and simply draws the wrong conclusion from it by looking to what would be the most convenient, rather than the most accurate.…. [read more]

Emmanuel Levinas Phenomenology Ethical Constructivism Thesis

… Emmanuel Levinas Phenomenology

Ethical Constructivism

Emmanuel Levinas was a French philosopher and an intellectual scholar whose propositions and influence expounded on the study of phenomenology. While drawing ideas on his philosophies, Emmanuel met a German philosopher, Martin Heidegger who was fully affiliated to the Nazis. This affiliation-based Emmanuel's phenomenological philosophy under enthusiastic criticism of Heidegger. His influential study of western philosophy led to the comprehension of existential phenomenology in France and led to the development of ethical and morality, based on the eventual activities of the World War II. In addition, the philosophy developed included an inter-subjective relation to ethics through deontology, utilitarianism, self-legislation and virtue ethics. This greatly assisted in developing a conceptual sense and affectivity to Emmanuel's propositions. In this context, Emmanuel Levinas…. [read more]

Conception of the Good Term Paper

… The differences originate from the fact that both Plato and Augustine had different perspectives in their analyses though Augustine used some of Plato's ideas.

The first difference is that Augustine rejected Socrates'and Plato's view that to know the good is to do the good. He stated that individuals who understand the distinction between what is good and what is not may voluntarily choose to do what is not good. This is mainly because Augustine considered the source of evil or lesser good to be in the free will of individuals, which was a perversion of the good and turning aside from God. In one of his meditations Augustine stated that:

"All of nature, therefore, is good, since the Creator of all nature is supremely good.…. [read more]

Philosophers and the Development of the Age OS Reason Term Paper

… Age of Reason / Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Reason & the Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Reason is generally considered a separate movement in 17th and early 18th Century Europe, which preceded - and led into - the Age of Enlightenment; it is also commonplace to approach both eras as having overlapping boundaries - and hence, they are more often than not joined as one extended period of intellectual, scientific and philosophical advancement.

But aside from the issue of the co-mingling of the eras, the Age of Reason did indeed come first, and led into the Age of Enlightenment. Among the most prominent philosophers associated with the Age of Reason and the Age of Enlightenment are Voltaire, Jean Jacques Rousseau, and Immanuel…. [read more]

Star Wars Term Paper

… Star Wars

The Failures of Anakin Skywalker

There are many cases of fictional situations actually embodying the theoretical and philosophical elements of real religious beliefs. This is the case within the "Star Wars" series, directed by George Lucas. Within this fictional world of far away, there are elements of both Classical and Eastern philosophical beliefs. "The Force," is the underlying force governing all things both good and bad resembles the Eastern tradition of the Tao, which literally translates into "the way," (Tzu, 1993). However, one of the major characters within the epic tale fails to uphold the traditions of Tao, and at the same time goes against traditional Hindu and Socratic teachings. Through Anakin's rejection of "The Force," he rejects traditional philosophical values of humility…. [read more]

Compare and Contrast the Differing Definitions of Critical Term Paper

… ¶ … integrating critical as well as thinking. But several earlier conceptualizations try to concentrate primarily on the process of thinking and avoid its important qualifier, i.e of critical. Hence they tend to give over importance to the process of thinking and reduce the importance of critical aspects. Encouraging and facilitating the process of critical thinking of students is now being considered as an increasingly significant objective for higher education. Analyzing the element of critical thinking of students is important for estimating its progress. (Cheung; Kwan; Yue, 2002) Those whose education have not trained them to deal critically with issues as well as conflicts are in fact not being enabled to interact efficiently with other people, whether be it be the same or varied from…. [read more]

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