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Aristotle: The Relationship Between Slavery Term Paper

… It should also be remembered that without slaves Greek society would not have been able to manage as effectively as it did both economically and intellectually, " ... slaves provide the leisure needed for the highest human activity" (Bullen P.); ... The economies of the Greek city-states rested on slavery and without slaves (and women) to do the productive labor, there could be no leisure for men to engage in more intellectual lifestyles. The greatness of Athenian plays, architecture, sculpture, and philosophy could not have been achieved without the institution of slavery. (Aristotle: Politics)

Aristotle justifies slavery in terms of reason. In order to justify slavery he places the slave in a rational position within the ordered structure of the society. His view is based…. [read more]

William James' Defense of Belief Essay

… While he does not downplay these types of questions as meaningless, rather he used these types of discussion to introduce morality into his argument.

Section 10

This section essentially summed up all of James verbose premises and gives a final concluding understanding of the previous material he introduced. James announced that "In truths dependent on our personal action, then, faith based on desire is certainly a lawful and possibly an indispensable thing." This reconciliation of the abstract and concrete revealed James ultimately balanced approach to faith, skepticism and belief.

James proposed balance by using abstract reasoning in concert with concrete intellectual reasoning. This balance between the subjective and the objective is nuanced and requires more of a reliance on faith and belief. This is perhaps…. [read more]

Nietzche's Promotion of Eternal Recurrence Term Paper

… His philosophy also had an influence on German Nazis and Italian Fascists who selected and appropriated sections of texts to justify and lend credence to their theories of racial and nationalistic supremacy. Nietzsche also had a profound affect on the thought of modern philosophers like Martin Heidegger.

Criticism of Nietzsche depends very much on how his thought is interpreted. Within the aspirant nihilism of this thought is a very positive mode of life affirmation; his enduring popularity is due to his rejection of false ideologies and concepts that many perceive as obstacles to the development of human nature beyond its present confines.

On the other hand, some critics insist that in fact his concept of the "Superman" and other aspects of his philosophy amount to…. [read more]

Hypostases in Plotinus Essay

… ¶ … Hypostases in Plotinus

Plotinus was attempting to find harmony between the writings of Plato and Aristotle when he wrote the three hypostases, according to the available literature on Plotinus' work. It is known that Aristotle focused on the causes and the facts of the natural world, the physical world, and that Plato dealt with "…the divine world" (Gerson, 1999). What Plotinus did in the process of his writing was to basically place "Plato's metaphysical system" higher on his ladder of importance that Aristotle's natural world narratives. This paper reviews the three hypostases that Plotinus wrote about, and some of what both Plato and Aristotle described had a positive effect on the thinking and writing of Plotinus. The three are: The One; the Intellect;…. [read more]

Philosophy of St. Augustine Term Paper

… This is Augustine's strategy. If evil is not a thing, then the case against Christianity stated in the original syllogism is unsound because one of its premises is false. The critical question is: What is evil?

There is no single cause of evil; rather, everyone who does evil is the cause of his own evildoing."

Central to Augustine's idea of goodness and, evil was the notion of being. To Augustine, anything that had being was good. God as the ground of being was perfectly good, along with everything he brought into being. This goodness was a property that came in varying degrees.

Doing evil is nothing but turning away from learning."

Augustine observed that evil always injures, and such injury is a deficiency of good.…. [read more]

Rene Descartes Term Paper

… "Why was he in isolation, mom?"

Oh, I remember your grandpa telling me that Descartes was in isolation so he could conceive a far-reaching plan for applying his mathematical methods in order to achieve 'perfect certainty' in human knowledge. During those twenty years he produced the body of work that put his name up there with the greatest. I try to get you to sit quietly and read for twenty minutes, no computer, no CD, no phone. We're talking twenty years here!"

After a hug, the daughter returns to her room. Mom pulls out a scrapbook she and her father put together about philosophy. One page has a photo of Descartes, and under it a Descartes' passage (#22) from Meditation III, about God. "By the…. [read more]

Metaphysics Let Us First Start With Understanding Research Paper

… Metaphysics

Let us first start with understanding metaphysics. We can define metaphysics as the philosophical formulations of answers to questions like 'what is there'? In other words it can be a speculative analysis of reality and its nature. Science is a form of investigation of reality and metaphysics is further contemplation of what is known and established to finding that unknown from the evidence. (Cahn, 287)

Philosophers have tried to describe both the material world and the phenomena around it and the speculative existence of things that cannot be seen or perceived. Basically the answer sought knowledge about existence and human perceptions. In modern times the scientific discoveries and experiments have negated most of the earlier thoughts but have brought in new speculation. The earlier…. [read more]

Compare and Contrast the Idea of Abstract Idea's From John Locke and David Hume Term Paper

… ¶ … John Locke and David Hume

John Locke, 1632-1704 was a British Philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher, whose involvement with Anthony Ashley Cooper directed him to turn into consecutively a government officer charged with gathering information regarding trade and colony, economic author, opposition political campaigner and also a radical whose cause eventually accomplished in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Most of Locke's job is differentiated by opposition to totalitarianism. This opposition is together on the stage of the entity and on the height of foundations such as administration and church. On the other hand, David Hume 1711-1776 was an eighteenth century Scottish philosopher, economist and a historian. He was well thought-out among the most significant figures in the history of Western philosophy and…. [read more]

Sociology Obedience, Authority, and Responsibility Essay

… (Akerloff 1991) People in societies should seek to understand and achieve a balance between obedience and leadership. It is important for each person to be a good follower neither following blindly, nor over-questioning authority, and how to be a good leader.

The quote that truly sways me to this position is the one mentioned earlier. I think that quote truly captures the state of mind and behavior regarding obedience and responsibility for atrocities. The statement is akin to Marx's theory of alienation of labor as a result of a capitalist system. People are alienated from their products and from their labor living detached, disconnected lives. In this case, people are alienated from their actions and their responsibilities, leaving a world in a mess: there are…. [read more]

Shifting Definitions of Power From Modern to Postmodern Thought Term Paper

… Sociology

The Shifting Definitions of Power from Modern to Postmodern Thought

There are certain things that we all know, but cannot describe: Love is one of these things, as is Power. Power, like Love, exercises a mysterious control over all human relationships, over all human endeavors. Every individual occupies a specific place relative to all other individuals. One is either equal to another, above another, or below another. These relations change with time. An interpersonal condition might be long-standing, or it might shift with every moment. We go up, and we go down. Power is ever in flux, and yet, the rules that govern its application appear so strangely inexorable. It is as if we are all subject to the same mysterious force, one that…. [read more]

Chemistry and Biology on Christian Essay

… [footnoteRef:12] [12: Forsyth, Robert. "Then a miracle occurs': the blessing and limitations of science A bishop looks at science from the viewpoint of the Christian faith." (accessed March 20, 2013). ]

Science is a field that provides as knowledge about the simplest things but it also tells us secrets about the depths, structure and composition of the universe. It reveals the complex of human organs. Through the advancements in medical field science has been the savior of many of the lives. Previously, precious human life was being wasted due to petty diseases but now due the advancements in the field of medicine people can now fight dangerous diseases such as cancer and can get back to their life. Science gave rise to various phenomena…. [read more]

Scientific Knowledge There Lies Question Research Paper

… Biology is an area that has proved science knowledge because the bigger portion of our knowledge bases on investigations and observations of the environment around us. A good example is the knowledge that living things have organs. This proves through dissecting different organisms and identifying the different organs.

This brings about the issue of generalization through reasoning. This is true because it shows at any moment in time. The biologists are able to do experiments and confirm why the leaves on an oak tree grow bigger next to the stem. They will use a random field study to confirm their allegations. However, despite the different methods of experimenting, they cannot confirm the best. Again, weakness reflects when the scientist cannot collect enough evidence. Personal bias…. [read more]

Does God Exist? Essay

… Existence of God

The debate about the existence of God is probably one of the most ancient ones. However, the supporters of either side have not been able to convince each other since the ones who believe that God exists have a lot of faith in this claim and those who believe that God does not exist are very firm about it. It will not be wrong to say that the belief that whether or not God exists is a matter of religion and also a matter of personal choice. In every religion including Islam, Christianity and Hinduism, to name a few, the followers believe that there is a God who they worship and who takes care of them. They always ask their God for…. [read more]

Descartes' Believe in God Essay

… 43). Above all, the understanding of good and bad (conscious) formed the background factor that was considered during the processing of a given believe. For philosophers such as Descartes, it was apparently that moral right or wrong was to be shifted from the church to one's heart. Descartes tried to apply scientific knowledge to develop partners, which managed human being morality. In his experiments, Descartes attempted to prove that mediating gland H (Pineal gland) aided the interaction between body and the rational soul. In encapsulation, God made Man with a complete system to process vital choices regarding personal decisions when it came to believing or not believing in God -- so God applied science and not superstition.


Modern philosophers will often question the validity…. [read more]

Existence of God for Years Essay

… Existence of God for years has been the most debated topic. Many philosophers, scientists and theologians have presented their views about the existence of God and provided proofs to validate their theories and beliefs in this regard (Existence of God, 2004). Without the evidences all arguments and theories shall be rendered useless due to lack of generalization. It would be more of a subjective argument, pertaining to one's own concepts and beliefs, rather than an objective one. Knowledge about the God's existence according to epistemology differs from a mere belief about it, by justifications and verifiable evidences that help in the identification of truth and reality. However, if no conclusions can be derived from scientific or non-scientific approaches and no proofs or evidences are found…. [read more]

Moral and Not Belief Thesis

… In a more moral society, it is easy to have a solid foundation of morals in existence of God. On the vice versa, the existence of God marks a solid foundation for the existence of morals (Mosser, 2010.

My position

With and without love for God, one can be moral in the face of humanity. Existence of morals is a facet that can be attributed to the existence of man and God. God can be termed as the source of morals in the society. Nonetheless, the origin of morals is also a supposed origin of immorality in the human phase. The two facets are concurrent and cannot be differentiated. Likewise, human beings can exist in a moral society without having a single attribute of the…. [read more]

Temporal Factors of Communism and Evolution Essay

… ¶ … Temporal Factors of Communism and Evolution

Upon initial examination, there appears to be a multitude of similarities existent between the notions propounded by Karl Marx in the Communist Manifesto and those posited by Charles Darwin in The Origin of Species. The unifying thread that runs throughout both of these works may be found in their adherence to (if not outright dependence upon) a longstanding conception of struggle which may in fact be traced back to Heraclitus. This particular Greek philosopher hypothesized that a state of war is fairly natural and has engendered virtually everything in existence. Such conflict theory is central to both communism and to evolution, as it is the primary means by which change is thought to manifest itself. However, there…. [read more]

Faith: Philosophy Paul Tillich Term Paper

… Therefore he felt that external objects were the source of precipitated images and thoughts.


It has been discovered that a lot of Descartes thoughts were inspired by the work of medieval theologians. He was also a very devout catholic and did not want to offend the church. There are some flaws in Descartes work. He believes that God would never deceive us. There are a lot of doubts about that theory. God is perfect and omnipotent but there is no way he would not deceive us. Deception is all part of our destiny. It depends on how we tackle the situation. His theory about the distinctiveness of the mind from the body has some minor flaws. Dreams are also thoughts and images, which are…. [read more]

Debating and Defending Issues Essay

… ¶ … individuals are of the opinion that the difference between determinism and free will is that determinism can be looked at as a lack of any real choice while free will is all about allowing a space for the freedom of making one's own decisions (Whitfield, 2014). The nature of one's choosing, or the degree to which one's choices are "determined" or "free" has been an issue under heated debate for many years in both psychology and philosophy (Ogletree & Oberle, 2008). The theory of freewill means that for someone to be considered to have acted freely, those actions must have directly originated from that individual. The thought of freewill states that we are considered to have acted freely, when we are permitted to…. [read more]

John Dewey When Charles Darwin First Published Essay

… John Dewey

When Charles Darwin first published his On the Origin of Species in 1859 it immediately sparked a scientific and theological controversy with the intellectual world. But Darwin's theory of evolution did more than simply cause disagreements between intellectuals, it changed the very way that people think. Prior to Darwin's book, the human race lived in a secure world that was orderly and stable, one in which people generally believed that the universe, and everything in it, was part of a grand design. Everything had its place and there was a guiding principle behind the nature of the universe. However, with his theory of evolution, Charles Darwin introduced the concept of randomness, or chance, to the universe; and thus destroyed the idea that there…. [read more]

Optical Revolutions How the Telescope Essay

… Optical Revolutions

How the Telescope was a More Significant Invention to the Microscope

Advances in optical technology made it possible for early modern scientists to explore both the vastness of the universe and the minute complexities of the microbial world. However, while the invention of the microscope has transformed medicine and, ultimately, the lives of virtually every living person on Earth, these advances took decades to play out and were initially considered trivial. In contrast, the telescope may have had a less profound impact on everyday life, but, through its influence on a seminal figure, sparked an explosive revolution in early modern European thought, challenged the intellectual hegemony of the Church, and, ultimately, shifted our sense of the universe and our place in it.

The…. [read more]

Nature of Science Term Paper

… Nature of Science

Even in a technologically advanced society such as ours, there is little common awareness of science and of scientific principles. As a result, many people are blinded by pseudoscience. In his article "The Nature of science," David S. Smith outlines the definition of science, the process of science, and the limitations of science so that readers can better understand how to distinguish between scientific fact and fiction. According to Smith, there is no universal definition of science. However, for the purposes of his argument, Smith defines science as the branch of knowledge that deals with the structure and operation of the universe. Science is only concerned with natural principles, observable phenomena, and verifiable evidence. Science is not, on the other hand, interested…. [read more]

Atheist in on Being Essay

… However, one of the puzzling things about McCloskey's argument is the issue of how to even define evil if one ignores the existence of God. Morality may not be wholly dependent upon the existence of God; atheists can and do exhibit morally upright behavior. However, where have they received their moral guidance? It is only with the existence of a perfect God, and that good that one can label any behavior as evil. Otherwise, even the most seemingly depraved behavior would simply be a human being's independent choice to exercise human free will outside of a moral and ethical system developed and applied by that human's equals. It is only with the existence of a greater power that the idea of evil becomes something that…. [read more]

Science and Religion Term Paper

… Science and Religion

How exactly is the movement known as "Deism" motivated by the scientific discoveries of Isaac Newton? That is, precisely what aspects of Newton's mechanistic worldview offer support to advocates of Deism?

Both science and religion have attempted different quests and inquiries into the nature of our universe and especially into its origins. Modern science however, beginning with the positivist science of Newton and Darwin, postulates that the laws of nature can be all self- explained on the basis of rational thought and, consequently, as the famous statement of the French nineteenth century physicist Laplace informs us, there is no need for the God-hypothesis to interpret the universe. It has been stated many times that that Isaac Newton has revolutionized the world of…. [read more]

American Indian Studies Native Essay

… It was traditionally used to transmit religious beliefs because it conveys cultural tradition" (Oral Tradition And Origin Myth, n.d).

One of the most widespread forms of oral tradition is the story. Storytelling is a skill passed down from one generation to another. Just as with any arrangement of art, practice is the key. The storyteller must be able to gain the complete attention of the listeners; otherwise part of the lesson will be lost. The transmission of lessons by word of mouth leaves them susceptible to dissimilar understandings and fading forever. The story can cease to survive if it is forgotten; because there are no backup copies, the people's memories are the keepers of the scripts (Oral Tradition and Origin Myth, n.d).

One manner in…. [read more]

Price Beauty? Term Paper

… These ideas provide an excellent overview of that Age's understanding of the subject. In the second edition of his Enquiry (1759),

Burke addressed the idea of Beauty, by which he meant "that quality or those qualities in bodies by which they cause love, or some passion similar to it." Burke's goal of identifying the physiological relationship between external objects and their emotional apprehension is most apparent in Part Four [of the Enquiry], where he hoped to "discover what affections of the mind produce certain emotions of the body; and what distinct feelings and qualities of body shall produce certain determinate passions in the mind."

Physical beauty, therefore, was seen as inspiring an emotional response; specifically a feeling of love and affection on the part of…. [read more]

Origen's Doctrine of Reincarnation Thesis

… Origen remains one of the most tantalizing, and often frustrating, thinkers of early Christianity for multiple reasons; Origen's own work is already complex enough, because his hypotheses regarding some of the theological and dogmatic issues facing the young Church necessitated the formulation of a complex cosmology, but the difficulty in understanding it is complicated by the fact that central components of Origen's work was subsequently deemed anathema, precipitating the destruction or alteration of many of his texts. In fact, there is even evidence to suggest that "his friends imposed a sort of informal censorship on works and passages that seemed to them to besmirch his orthodoxy," such that the only extant versions of Origen's work comes to us through a variety of redactors and Bowdlerizers…. [read more]

Religion and Society Essay

… Religion as a basis for moral authority was the focus of Sallust's Moral Deterioration, finding that without a sound basis of moral law society crumbles. Frederick II elaborated on this religious authority by citing the Divine Right of Kings and the manner in which the State and Church must coexist. Finally, Voltaire shunned millennia of Christian persecution of "the other," in favor of using religion in its most positive sense, to guide and organize a tolerant and just society.


Akhenaton's Longer Hymn to the Aton. (n.d.) Trans. J. Breasted. Retrieved from:

Abulafia, D. (1988). Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor. New York: Oxford University Press.

Armstrong, K. (2001). Holy War -- The Crusades and Their Impact on Today's World, 2nd ed. New York: Anchor…. [read more]

Ethics Epistemology Religion Term Paper

… Religion

This work looks at the concept of religion by first explaining its definition. It argues about whether God really exists and takes the standpoint that He does exist. The argument of this paper is based on this thesis and addresses some of the issues associated with God. It describes two theories that express religion and picks the strongest theory for the rest of the work. It also looks at the controversial issues of God and science. It follows to discuss the nature of God and the conflicts that arise with His interaction with man. The work ends with a conclusion that summarizes the main points captured in the work.

There as many definitions of religion as there are people who try to define it.…. [read more]

History of Satan Devil Lucifer in Judaism Christianity and Islam Research Paper

… History Of Satan

Since the very dawn of civilization, the battle between good and evil has been part of the mythology and interconnected philosophies of human beings. From the Epic of Gilgamesh to the battles between Egyptian Gods, to the words of the Koran and the Bible, conceptions of the battle of good and evil abound in popular, philosophical, legal, and religious literature. Many theologians and scholars have tried to argue the creation of evil. They question if God created it or if man and his perversion of the good created the absence of "goodness," and therefore the necessity of evil. Add to this the human capacity for a sliding scale of evil (e.g. deception, lust, greed, avarice), and we have an epitome of the…. [read more]

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