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Aristotle and Aquinas Law Case Study

… Distributive justice is an overall social consideration of justice rather than that between two individuals. Corrective Justice is based on fairness in which the individuals are held as equals before the law in exchange of good with no consideration for their merit and involves the adjudication that restores equality to the two unequal individuals. This type of justice is focused on transactions between two individuals within society rather than on society-at-large. Aristotle held that that which is reciprocal is just and is a concept based on an eye for an eye. Aristotle related that the Pythagorean definition for justice was that of reciprocity.

Summary and Conclusion

Aquinas holds the belief as written in the gospels that man is inherently evil and that law is required…. [read more]

Plato vs. Aristotle Research Proposal

… Plato vs. Aristotle

It is safe to say that Plato and Aristotle are some of the philosophers who played a fundamental part in influencing modern thought in the western society. The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the differences which exist between the two thinking systems belonging to the philosophers mentioned above. Let us take a look at the main ideas that each of the philosophers thought to be of most importance.

The concept of harmony was extremely important for Plato. Therefore he applied it to the universe and the individual. According to him the human soul can be healthy only if it reaches the ideal state, the one of harmony. The matter becomes complicated as the soul is believed to be composed…. [read more]

Plato and Aristotle's Political Theories Term Paper

… In reality, Plato opined that efficient social life needs guardians of two different types: there must be soldiers who are in charge of safeguarding the nation against outside opponents and to enforce its laws, and rulers who are there to settle disputes among the citizens and make choices regarding public policy. The guardians in a group therefore constitute those individuals whose unique technique is merely the job of running the administration itself. To satisfy their proper activities, these individuals will have exceptional capabilities. Plato implied near the beginning that one of their most obvious features would be an unpredictable penchant towards philosophical thoughts. (Plato: The State and the Soul)

Aristotle on the contrary looks at society as possessing capability that is repeatedly endeavored. Comprised in…. [read more]

Plato vs. Aristotle Research Paper

… ¶ … Aristotle and Plato ethical philosophy

In the history of philosophy, the two Greeks, Aristotle and Plato are some of the greatest names that made contributions towards the advancement and development of philosophy as a discipline. They are known for their immense contributions towards development of science, ethics, politics and other fields with significant impact. Plato was a philosopher born in Athens around 427 BC.He lived during the Synthesis age. Until his mid twenties Athens was involved in a long military conflict which had ben quite disastrous known as Peloponnesian war. Plato got common Athenian education in Athens. He was taught grimmer, painting, music and gymnastics. In his years as a youth, he took the poetry profession. Later after meting Socrates the stopped poetry…. [read more]

Slavery and Citizenship in Aristotle Article

… Comment by patrick: However, it is also my view that these inconsistencies are only apparent and that they vanish with consideration of A's natural teleology. Comment by patrick: Almost all commentators have read the term "natural" to mean "native" with the suggestion of slavery as congenital or genetic. Comment by patrick: Such a translation overlooks entirely the teleological signifiance of the term "physei." Comment by patrick: A's ostensible incoherence is merely apparent. It is introduced into the material by the readers, the same readers who do not appeciate the contextual significance of A's teleology. [13: Dobbs, D. (1994). Natural Right and the Problem of Aristotle's Defense of Slavery. The Journal Of Politics, Vol. 56, No.1.] [14: Maritain, Jacques. 1943. The Rights of Man and Natural…. [read more]

Aristotle Spinoza Hegel Kant Fichte Term Paper

… Hegel and Aristotle

Aristotle's belief that "man is by nature a political animal" and that men are best served when they join together under the aegis of the state was echoed years later by the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Both philosophers would also agree that the process of human thought is intrinsically linked to history and politics. Human thought itself is a process, and both men believed that such a process involved a system of logic. Aristotle's beliefs perhaps laid the groundwork for the much later ideas of Hegel, and the influence of both mens' philosophies on thought, logic, and politics continued to influence people and schools of thought for years after their deaths.

Aristotle was a scholar who was known to have…. [read more]

Philosophy Plato's Works on Euthyphro, Apology Essay

… Philosophy

Plato's Works on Euthyphro, Apology, Crito and Phaedo

These four dialogues describe the discussion of Socrates during times of trial, imprisonment, and execution of Socrates. In the dialogues Euthyphro, approaches the court trying him of atheism, and corruption charges. Similar to how people question the relation of religion and social ethics. From this, Socrates challenges Euthyphro's argument that ethics be because of religion. Socrates presents his defense in the second dialogue the Apology. His defense outlines the reasons for devoting his life to challenge, and examine the influential and powerful people a process, which has result immense resentment, and his indictment. His argument in this dialogue is that instead of a trial he should receive a reward for serving his fellow citizens.

This makes…. [read more]

Metaphysics Versus Psychology Dissertation


Metaphysics and Psychology have historically been at odds with one another in what is an unnatural although real separation from a somewhat new science and its mother science. Although many believe that psychology and metaphysics are actually joined together the view of many in these two areas of study are adamant that the two are opposed to one another. Indeed it is just this debate which will be examined during the course of this study reported herein.

Metaphysics is the mother science of psychology and was first established as such in ancient times by such as Aristotle, Plato and others. Metaphysics is of the nature that conducts an examination of reality and the relationship that exists between the physical world and other…. [read more]

Plato Euthyphro Thesis

… Socrates

The context for this particular discussion between Socrates and Euthyphro is that Socrates has been accused of impiety. He must therefore present an argument to the Senate that will determine whether he has created new gods, and done away the old ones, or if in fact he is not involved in promoting ignorance. He sets out to show that his actions are the actions of a very pious man with pious thoughts, deeds and actions, at least according to the definition of piety in that day.

His first job then is to present Euthyphro as a pious man, a man that will be respected in the courts and judged as a theologian who knows of what he speaks. Whether Euthyphro is an imaginary character…. [read more]

Plato's Republic 475a 480a Knowledge Opinion and the True Philosopher Thesis

… ¶ … influential minds in western philosophy is that of Plato. Plato lived from 422-347 B.C, and was born into an aristocratic family in the city of Athens where he became a student of Socrates, and eventually a teacher of Aristotle. Plato followed the basic ideas of Socrates, in which no laws are to be broken despite their relevance. He makes clear why laws should be followed and why disobedience to the law is rarely justified. This theme of law, self-actualization, and justification of responses, resources, and human thought would run through all of Plato's works.

The major argument in the Republic, is the search for Justice, who is an entity rather than a concept. Instead of the argument of rhetoric vs. philosophy, the Republic…. [read more]

Comparison and Contrast of the Philosophies of 3 Greek Philosophers and Alexander the Great Research Paper

… Their collective philosophies align with that of Alexander in his later years, especially when he met with the Brahmans. When he told them to ask them anything and they asked for immortality, Alexander admitted to the lack of power to grant it. He also acknowledged that the greatest achievements in this world mean nothing in the end because everything in this world is temporary. Being a student of Aristotle, Alexander was necessarily influenced by the Greek philosopher's teaching on the moral life and the emptiness of all worldly victory.


Asirvathan, Sulochana R.2014. "Alexander the Philosopher in the Greco-Roman, Persian

and Arabic Traditions." Academia. 311-326. Retrieved on June 29, 2014 from

Crisp, Roger 2002. "Aristotle's ethics: how being good can make you happy." Richmond…. [read more]

Meaning of Life Essay

… ¶ … Life in Aristotle, Socrates, King, and Frankl

The Nicomachean Ethics starts by saying that all knowledge and purpose aims at some good (Aristotle, trans. 1893, 1094a1). In medicine, for example, the good is health (1097a7). But what is the highest good? According to Aristotle, the highest good is that which is achieved for itself alone rather than as a useful means to something else (1094a2). He goes on to show that this ultimate goal is happiness (eudaemonia), because happiness is that which is self-sufficient, final, most desirable, and always chosen for itself rather than for sake of something else (1097b7). He links happiness directly with rationality, saying that it is "a certain kind of exercise of the vital faculties in accordance with excellence…. [read more]

concise Analysis of Plato Essay

… [footnoteRef:8] [8: Habib, Rafey. Identity and Difference: Plato and Aristotle on Democracy. Rutgers, 1998.]

Some of the arguments and criticisms made by Plato appear to be rational. However, upon closer evaluation, some that can be contented. One of the key aspects of Plato's argument is that democracy is unfair. This is because every individual is permitted to do as he desires and this gives rise in anarchy. Nonetheless, the idea that justice is associated to harmony is bizarre. In essence, justice encompasses what is deemed fair. However, it is not apparent that when Plato outlines the aspect of justice as harmony, whether he is speaking on justice. It is sensible to assert that justice is diligently linked to fairness. Nonetheless, it is plausible to think…. [read more]

Knowledge and Assumptions Research Paper

… Knowledge and Assumptions in Plato's Meno

Man's unquenchable thirst for knowledge has spurred our species' rapid ascendency within the physical realm, while guiding the refinement of our moral spectrum, but throughout history the role of assumption in shaping knowledge has been the subject of intense philosophical debate. Among the celebrated treatises on reason and logic known as the Dialogues of Plato, it is a relatively short discourse between Socrates and the sophist Meno which today stands as the most lasting monument to the ancient Greek tradition of pedagogically examining the true nature of knowledge. Plato's Meno is an artfully constructed depiction of an intensely logical dialectic between the sober and systematic master of the Socratic method, and his companion Meno, who claims to possess conclusive…. [read more]

Raphael's School of Athens Term Paper

… Raphael's "School of Athens"

Biography: Artist History

Who: Raphael (a short Biography)-1

Where: Rome: The Stanza and the Vatican-1

What: "The School of Athens"-2

Composition: Organization of Elements

Medium and Support-2


Shape and Form-2

Light and Shadow-2


Iconography: Mythology, History, Philosophy

Message 1: Philosophy is Fresco-3

Object 1: Raphael's vision of the Renaissance-3

Object 2: The different schools of philosophy-3

Person 01: Plato-3

Person 02: Aristotle-3

Person 03: Apollo-3

Person 04: Minerva-4

Person 05: Pythagoras-4

Person 06: Euclid-4

Person 07 Ptolemy-4

Person 08: Zoroaster-4

Person 09: Socrates-4

Person 10: Xenocrates-5

Person 11: Epicurus-5

Grouping: What groups can be identified - who is part of these groups?-5

Aspects of Non-Verbal Communication -5

Body language-5

Facial expressions-6

Physical contact-6

The Gaze-6




Raphael's…. [read more]

Philosophy Human Nature Essay

… For example, Aristotle posited that reason was necessary for human happiness. St. Augustine also recognized that base desires in human beings for instant gratification and egotistical satisfaction are innate, but they are destructive only when the will is weak. The key is to harness the aspect of human nature that can temper elements like hunger and aggression.

Generally, the rationalist view of human nature that suggests that human nature is inherently good. Reason is a part of human nature, just as much as appetite. However, Plato did suggest that a person can easily lose the ability to heed the call of reason. This does not mean that human nature is inherently bad, but that a person needs to harness the power of the will using…. [read more]

Role of the Military: Changing Views Research Paper

… This man, the son of a potter, through all the changes in his fortunes always led an infamous life. Nevertheless, he ac companied his infamies with so much ability of mind and body that, having devoted himself to the military profession, he rose through its ranks to be Praetor of Syracuse. (pp. 55-56)

Not satisfied with this lofty position, Agathocles went on to seek higher office by using violence to achieve his objectives, going so far as to use the military to assassinate the entire senate of Syracuse to assume power himself. As Machiavelli confirms:

Being established in that position, and having deliberately resolved to make himself prince and to seize by violence, without obligation to others, that which had been conceded to…. [read more]

How Does Political Philosophy Identify the Good Regime? Essay

… ¶ … intended for use as a rough guide or outline. Hopefully it helps in your studies.

Defining a Good Regime

Early Philosophers

Early philosophers like Aristotle and Plato each characterized their versions of ideal government and governance in their own words in works such as Ethics and Meno. Their ideals were formed through a close critical examination of what is right, and what it means to be a just leader, or politician. The question of what exactly makes a good regime, according to these philosophers, is dependent on the ideals that the regime or its leaders would strive for. Much of the early thinkers' ideas and concepts were later included in many political realms, including the founding of the Unites States.

Aristotle's Ethics, which…. [read more]

Augustine and Aquinas: The Influence of Platonic Essay

… ¶ … Augustine and Aquinas: The Influence of Platonic and Aristotelian Thought

According to St. Augustine, one of the greatest sins of his early life was his love of classical, pagan philosophy. Augustine traces his early sinfulness not simply to his crimes of fornication and stealing pears as a young boy, but also to his belief in the superiority of Latin classical rhetorical works over the Christian words of the Bible. However, he did acknowledge the pagan neo-Platonists who had influenced his thought. In fact, in his Confessions, Augustine writes that it was studying the neo-Platonists that enabled him to break away from the erroneous, heretical teachings of the erroneous, heretical teachings of the Manicheans. It was the neo-Platonists "that first made it possible for…. [read more]

Philosopher Graphic Organizer Thesis

… Philosopher Graphic Organizer

Philosopher: Plato

Summery of Educational Contributions:

In Plato's Republic, the philosopher makes several statements about the importance of education and education method, especially in terms of philosophical education. In her important work on the subject -- "Education in Plato's Republic" -- Ariel Dillon suggests that Plato contributes two very separate accounts of education to the realm of educational philosophy. In the first account, Socrates, who dictates Plato's philosophies, discusses the importance of education for representatives of the military. They should be trained, according to Plato, to both exhibit ferocity with their enemies as well as a "gentle[ness]" with their "familiars" (Dillon 2004). Through this type of education, the military men will be trained as a type of noble, according to Plato. Similarly,…. [read more]

Psychology of Happiness Essay

… This sense of nobleness is the outcome of our belief in good and bad. Every religion advocates that animalistic natures within an individual is to be controlled in order to get himself engaged in ethical, just and moral behavior (Wright, 2011).

Aristole's writings are considered as those which have great influence on the mindset of the Western society and civilization. In his work Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle has significantly explored the ideas related to moral values, God, character and happiness. He has debated a number of issues related to the mentioned subject areas. Moral virtue has been defined by him as an outlook to conduct oneself in the desirable way and as a representation of extremes of insufficiency and surplus both of which are considered as…. [read more]

Behaviorism in the 20th Century Term Paper

… (Whissell, 2004) The results are stated by Whissell (2005) as being "interpreted as reflecting the functions of titles and changing trends in psychology, for example, the predominance of Behaviorism in the earliest sample and the inclusion of more social-psychological terms in the most recent one."

In the work entitled "On Preventing Another Century of Misunderstanding: Toward a Psychoethology of Human Experience and Psychoneurology of Affect, Panksepp (2004) writes that, "The one thing all might agree on is that the experimental psychology that emerged during the past century has yet to give us a lasting and coherent science of the human mind or animal condition." The work speaks of psychoanalysis and how that it addresses many of the issues of the "fundamental fabric of mind and…. [read more]

Evolution of Psychology Thesis

… Evolution of Psychology


The Chapter on Rationality (and irrationality) is very well structured. It fully covers all possible areas of interest surrounding the topic, and investigates each of these to the extent that the chapter length allows. The reader is left with a much better understanding of the basis of rationality and the causes of irrationality. The author begins by taking the reader through a historical tour of considerations of rationality throughout the history of philosophical and psychological research.

Beginning with the Greek philosophers, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, the author moves through the centuries up to the paradigms of modern psychology. The causes for irrationality are also fully investigated. This is investigated on various levels. Inner biological and psychological disorders are supplemented with considerations…. [read more]

Raphael's Painting School of Athens 1509 11 Essay

… Raphael's painting "School of Athens" 1509-11

Raphael's triumph of Renaissance humanism and Neo-Platonic thought

One of the great Renaissance artist Raphael's works for Pope Julius II was not a religious piece of art, but a work that mimicked classical antiquity. The great painting the School of Athens depicts an idealized vision of great, classical Greek philosophers and scientists interacting with one another before a symbolic representation of 'Dame Philosophy.' All of the figures represent the people whose work was to provide the intellectual cornerstone for so much of the Renaissance's great scientific and artistic innovations. Interestingly, Raphael left no notes about the painting as to the identity of the various philosophers depicted, suggesting that it was assumed that his audience would know who they were.…. [read more]

Personal Theory Self-Exploration Term Paper

… The former refers to internal satisfaction and contentment over doing something, whereas the latter depends upon some outside reward. People usually change because of intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation comes from inside. It enables a person to do something he or she enjoys doing e.g. A painter or a musician is at his best when is motivated internally. Material rewards cannot motivate a person to such extent. Intrinsic motivation gets the best out of a person triggering his creative instincts. On the other hand, extrinsic rewards can boost a person's motivation to do an unpleasant job, but it cannot maximize performance to its best. People are usually petrified of change because they have fear of unknown. In situations, where people can seek intrinsic and extrinsic rewards…. [read more]

Epistemological Beliefs and Organizational Leadership Essay

… Here, there are also challenges as a learner. Essentially, I could learn faulty mechanics through an inept teacher. Moreover, I could also not ever understand the knowledge I wish to know in the external world, as my search for knowledge is relative to how I experience the world. Poor experiences lead to poor knowledge gaining abilities.

Challenges as a Leader

As a leader, the main challenge would be to have the patience to work so delicately with individuals on their own paths. Each individual has their own path to knowledge, and being able to understand their uniqueness and incorporate it into facilitating strategies is definitely challenging.

There would be the challenge of finding an effective way to best communicate the structures that the learner would…. [read more]

Hegel vs. Aristotle Thesis

… Hegel's System: The New Philosophy of Idealism, Death, Sense of Life/Family

Hegel's philosophy is regarded as an instance of transcendental philosophy ( Taylor, Westphal). However, this view overlooks or ignores Hegel's severe criticism of transcendental philosophy. To paraphrase Jacobi's remark concerning the thing-in-itself, it is impossible to enter the Kantian philosophy without taking a transcendental turn, but it is equally impossible to remain in the Kantian philosophy after taking the transcendental turn. For Kant raised but did not resolve the problem of the ontological interpretation of the transcendental ego, and, with it, transcendental philosophy. Hence, as Hegel repeatedly pointed out (Peperzak 1960, p 12). Kant is trapped in the impossible predicament of attempting to know before he knows. The problem of the ontological interpretation of…. [read more]

Philosophy in His Discourse Term Paper

… Aristotle, on the other hand, resorts to both reason and empiricism as his tools in explaining and describing God's existence. He agues that like St. Augustine's argument that God resides with humanity through free will and divine grace, God in Aristotle's view exists in Nature itself, which includes not only humans, but all living and non-living entities here on earth. The three religious philosophers, although they differ in explaining God's existence, had provided strong arguments in convincing people that indeed, God exists, whether it be through us, Nature, or simply because God exists in this world.

Under the Augustan Principate, Rome eventually emerged as the Great Empire all over the world. Rome's success as an empire was mainly due to Emperor Augustus' rehabilitation of Rome,…. [read more]

Ancient Greece Developed Eastern Side Essay

… Although many Greeks described themselves as pious, their cosmology was fundamentally human-centric. "The ancient Greeks were a deeply religious people. They worshipped many gods whom they believed appeared in human form and yet were endowed with superhuman strength and ageless beauty" (Greek Culture, n.d, Ancient Civilizations).

This stands in contrast to the Egyptian gods, which tended to have animal attributes and were fundamentally distinct from human beings in terms of their ways of interacting with the world. The Greeks believed that the gods were capricious in the manner in which they treated humans and would deal with humans harshly who showed hubris. Yet Greek mythology also expressed a great deal of affection for men like Odysseus, who were clever in outwitting their foes.

Greece's climate…. [read more]

Philosophy While There Is Plenty Essay

… That is, the combination of past memories, present sensory perception, and assumptions and predictions regarding the future all combine to create consciousness, and thus the personal identity. However, Locke somehow does not recognize that this is essentially an argument against the soul, or at least against the soul as any kind of useful, relevant, or productive concept. Nonetheless, Locke's theory is the first step in doing away with the notion of a soul.

Hume subsequently expands on this by noting that personal identity and consciousness is dependent on a contiguity between experiences, such that the individual always perceives him or her self to be the same individual regardless of time past. An easy way to see this phenomena at work is to note a point…. [read more]

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