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Policing: The 21st Century Term Paper

… ¶ … Policing:

The 21st Century has put policing in a different situation in which the causes of crime and criminal behavior usually lie outside the immediate community. As a result of the new situation, dealing with crime has necessitated the use of new and innovative approaches from the police. The new challenges brought by the new situation have resulted in new trends that are affecting policing as well as critical issues that may have significant impacts on this aspect. Actually, the success of police agencies with regards to the critical issues depends on the ability of these agencies to adapt and change rapidly and evaluate the emerging trends in various communities.

Dangers of Policing:

Since police officers are in a position to protect people…. [read more]

Policing Policies Analysis Essay

… Across the world, police departments have embraced a variety of POP and COP programs. Equally, various names have been ascribed to the numerous implemented programs. For instance, Baltimore Police refers to POP as citizen oriented police enforcement and Michigan adopted the community-based policing as a problem solving strategy and a philosophy. Both community and problem oriented policing is to reinforce safety and security (Scott, 2010).


Communities seek opportunities to participate and offer their support in return; zero tolerance does not advocate for this. Under the problem oriented policing, departments aim to resolve individual incidents rather than to solve recurring problems of crime. The implementation and design of COP help in better understanding the role of community in policing. It solicits community-police cooperation, emphasizes mutual…. [read more]

American Policing Essay

… With the passage of time, such risks are increasing due to a number of factors including increased demands, prevalent shift work and trauma, elevated occurrence of infectious diseases, extensive illegal drug production and utilization and enthusiasm amongst criminals to assault or molest the policemen (Mayhew, 2001).

Policing is a difficult job. Therefore, various technological advancements have been included in the department to ease the working and task performance of the daring, brave and daunting individuals who put up their lives for the sake of common citizens.


Grant, H.B., & Terry, K.J. (2008). Law Enforcement in the 21st Century. (2 ed.). Allyn & Bacon. Print.

Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-Than-Lethal Weapons. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from

Johnson, C.P. (2000). Crime Mapping and…. [read more]

Contemporary Criminal Justice Issue Police Use of Deadly Force Capstone Project

… Police Use of Deadly Force

Since time immemorial, the use of deadly force has been considered justified for self-defense, or for the defense of one's family and even property. When deadly force is used by governmental authorities to protect law enforcement authorities, citizens and property, though, the justification becomes less clear-cut and the appropriateness of such use can be highly subjective. Because most uses of deadly force take place during violent encounters where split-second decisions can mean the difference between life and death for police officers, there must be solid guidelines in place to help police make the right decision at the right time. To determine what type of typical guidelines are in place in various jurisdictions throughout the United States and the controlling federal…. [read more]

Police Personality Term Paper

… Criminal Justice - Police: Police personality position paper

An Examination of the Concept of "Police Personality" in General and "Unique Traits" Versus "Socialization and Experience" in Particular

Just as with any profession, the men and women who join the ranks of the "Thin Blue Line" generally have very specific reasons for doing so; while these personal reasons are as varied as the individuals themselves, there are a sufficient number of commonalities among those who pursue a career in law enforcement to help draw some broad generalizations about the profession. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to develop a concept of "police personality" in general, as well as a distinction between those unique traits that may be part of the…. [read more]

Police Intelligence: Rapidly Changing Research Paper

… [2: There is some disagreement about what the acronym "Compstat" actually means. Former NYPD police commissioner William Bratton suggests that it stands for "computer-statistics meetings" (Bratton 1998, 233), but Silverman attributes the term to "Compare Stats" -- a computer filename (Silverman 1999, 98). Some commentators have collapsed these meanings and argue that Compstat refers to "computer comparison statistics" (Willis, Mastrofski & Weisburd, 2003)]

This latest model of policing has become known as intelligence-led policing and it focuses on intelligence gathering and analysis of data in determining police objectives and resource allocation. Originally, it was meant to spotlight criminal activity, focusing on active and repeat offenders by using informants, interviews, analysis of calls for service, and community information (Ratcliffe, 2008). This focus has evolved into a…. [read more]

Strategic Assessment of International Policing Essay

… Changing Paradigm in International Policing: A Strategic Assessment Paper on International Policing in the Contemporary Environment

The first United Nations peacekeeping mission was dispatched to the Middle East in 1948. it's mission was "(Desiring) to bring about a cessation of the hostilities in Palestine without prejudice to the rights, claims and position of either Arabs or Jews."

The role of the military looking peacekeeping forces was not to engage in military action, or to choose one -side over the other, but by their presence to represent the member nation states of the United Nations in its role to negotiate, first, a cease fire, and, subsequently, to engage the warring Arabs and Jews in non-violent conflict resolution. Non-violent conflict resolution has been the weighty undertaking of…. [read more]

Diversity in a Police Force Police Departments Research Proposal

… ¶ … Diversity in a Police Force

Police departments in the 21st century enjoy a level of technology that would make Dick Tracy envious, but they are also faced with several challenges that have made their jobs more difficult than ever. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the nation's law enforcement community has been tasked with a number of responsibilities that further exacerbate the difficulty of their jobs, and immigration, the flow of illegal drugs and violent crime continue to plague the nation today. In this environment, identifying more effective approaches to the provision of policing represents a timely and important enterprise and represents the focus of this study. A growing body of evidence suggests that in an increasingly multicultural society, a police…. [read more]

History of Juvenile Justice System Essay

… On the contrary, in the 21st Century, while dealing with criminals, law enforcers issue Miranda and warnings to suspects before they can interrogate them. Moreover, police officers carry out warrantless searches on suspects if they hold that the searches are likely to lead to evidence of a law violation and crime (Matthews & May, 2007).

Will diversion be relevant during both periods of time? Will there be preventive options during both periods of time?

Criminal and mental health lawyers (CMHL) are a set of different defense lawyers. They do not seek a repeat business because they want offenders to rehabilitate so that they do not re-offend. Offenders who have mental and cognitive health impairments are often represented through out the criminal justice system. There is…. [read more]

Importance of Budgeting for Police Managers Term Paper

… ¶ … Budgeting for Police Managers

Although municipal police departments are typically required to abide by many of the same accounting standards as private sector companies, there are some fundamental differences in the respective missions that are involved that must be taken into account in considering how their budgets should be administered. Nevertheless, there are also some significant similarities between police departments and the private sector when it comes to budget requirements for which the police manager may be responsible. In such cases, it is vitally important the police managers understand the budgeting process and what priorities must be considered as the budget period progresses. To determine what is involved in the process, this paper reviews the relevant literature to determine the importance of budgeting…. [read more]

Proactive Policing Term Paper

… Moreover, opportunity reduction programs that indicate the success and is concerned with extra police patrols in high-crime "hot spots" along with the monitoring carried out by specialized police units of high-risk repeat offenders has been made (Cordner, 1997).

Additionally, the "what's promising" list includes a combination of proactive approaches for example:

Community-based mentoring to be done by the Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America.

Greater respect is shown by the police to arrested suspects (this approach has been found to be effective in the reduction of repeat offending)

Effective way for gang monitoring by community workers and probation officers as well as police should be implemented and Field interrogations of suspicious persons in "Polite" manner (Cordner, 1997).

Other such programs include:

Community-based after-school recreation programs

For…. [read more]

Protecting Police and Engaging Citizens Term Paper

… These names should not be construed as flippant or in any way diminishing the significance of strategies to keep policemen safe in the community.

Friendly cop, aloof cop. One out of every pair or every group of officers on duty must maintain a high level of alertness and must resist casual engagement by community members and distractions of any kind that would diminish his or her acute watchful state. It simply is not possible to alert fellow officers to potential harm or to protect them in an escalating situation while completing paperwork or stirring half-and-half into a Venti.

Bond, James Bond. Officers should assume, like every 007 worth his salt, that the environment they are presently in can quickly sour, or the next environment they…. [read more]

Police Leadership Crime in Britain Went Up Term Paper

… ¶ … Police Leadership

Crime in Britain went up from 25 to 40% a decade ago and is now the number-one issue among the population (Brand 2007). Only a third of them rate police performance well. Only 25% or one in five says he or she does not go out alone in their area after dark. Policing was at first mainly a local service before it became a State function. Many police authorities perform reasonably well within their limited powers, but the police, as a whole, have remained largely disconnected from other local services and the local population. This disconnectedness is the major cause of dissatisfaction with the police and skepticism among the people as to police effectiveness. The fear of crime remains a top…. [read more]

City Police Departments Term Paper

… "The question is, who are they back in service for (Tos, 2000)? Dispatch? Or the citizens -- all the citizens, not just the ones who call for service? The old school of police practice was that responding to the dispatcher's calls took precedence over other duties. Community policing puts the focus on building a working relationship with the community and on early intervention to prevent crime."

Community policing is based on the idea that the police must work with the callers, as well as organized groups with particular interests, such as neighborhood groups worried about the quality of life, merchants worried about petty theft and parents who want safe schools and playgrounds. In the past, policing looked at these groups as "special-interest groups" that should…. [read more]

Assessment for Training of the Metropolitan Police Department Term Paper

… ¶ … Training of the Metropolitan Police Department

Context of the Problem

Brief History of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Area Police/

Community Relations since World War II

Major Problems Preventing Positive Relations between Communities and District of Columbia

Metropolitan Area Police Force

Can Training Programs Enhance Community

Relations for the District of Columbia Metropolitan

Area Police Force?

What Training Modules Can be Used to Enhance Relations between Surrounding Communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan Area Police


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations



Context of the Problem

The issue of poor training has weighed heavily on the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department over the last few years. This issue hinders the necessary trust and…. [read more]

Gun Control in the 21st Century Term Paper

… Gun Control

In the 21st century, the legislature should make the ability to bear arms a privilege instead of a right.

Whether American citizens should have the unfettered right to bear arms and own guns, has been one of the most hotly debated and contentious issues ever since the Second Amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution as part of the Bill of Rights. Opponents of government restrictions on possession of guns are adamant that such laws are a direct infringement on the right to bear arms guaranteed in the Constitution and also contrary to the hunting / sporting ethos imbedded in the gun culture, which is an essential part of the American heritage. Supporters of gun control, on the other hand, firmly believe that…. [read more]

Community Policing the End of the 20th Term Paper

… Community Policing

The end of the 20th century has seen vast changes in almost all spheres of human activity. Today the state, living and information have undergone vast changes both in the concept and definition. Availability of a number of opportunities, change in lifestyle and upward mobility of the people as a whole has given rise to new genera of crime and therefore the modern state requires better policing. The earlier police state was such that the people were 'policed' by the agency which was active at the time of an occurrence. Today the policing have to be in terms of preventing and arresting the crime before it happened. The police state is slowly giving way. There is more public participation in governance. Community policing…. [read more]

Management Account in the Public Essay

… Nevertheless, the idea of utilizing more international standards of accountancy, combined with an increased stakeholder presence, has normalized many of the functional areas of public accounting. This is especially important when one looks at the macroview, in which the Australian government is being tasked with more and more demands for monetary spending on public policy issues (Funnell & Cooper 1998).

Similarly, private sector accounting can not be as hidden or private as before. There is also demand, particularly from stakeholders, that these entitites move into a more deliberate and robust reporting of not only the basics required by law, but the manner in which many of those figures and extrapolations were arrived at. One of the ways this has become endemic in Australia is the…. [read more]

Prison Overcrowding Is Indeed Ghost Writing

… Mechanisms for early release can help reduce overcrowding in prisons and also facilitate integration and social rehabilitation. Policies and legislations should be put in place to provide for possibilities of early release and parole and the conditions for the former. Early release should be structured in such a manner as to make it a part of the normal process of enforcement of the sentence. Prisoners who wish to apply for parole may be encouraged to do so by the necessary authorities.

There is available empirical data indicating that crowded prisons are stressful and create conditions contrary to any aim at rehabilitation. This has increased efforts of finding ways of reducing the overcrowding. A lot of effort has been directed towards making changes to the design…. [read more]

20Th Century the Twentieth Term Paper

… The whole nation supported the INA and British resorted to brutal repression. The Indian Navy in Bombay calls for Naval strike. Acknowledging the strong anti-British notions Clement Atlee granted India independence, leading to the formation of Indian constitution and Mount Batten takes control of India. And on August 15,1947, India won her independence.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister, while expressing the sentiments of the country said, "Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we will redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when…. [read more]

Jungian Phenomenology and Police Training the Methodologies Term Paper

… Jungian Phenomenology and Police Training

The methodologies selected for this study were the meta-synthesis approach developed by Noblit and Hare (1988) and a content analysis technique described by Neuman (2003) and others. The meta-synthesis approach allows researchers to draw broad substantive interpretations from various sources. According to York (1994), the meta-synthesis technique is a type of research that "systematically compares studies in order to interpret meaning, to clarify research foci, and to resolve existing substantive, methodological, or interpretive problems" (p. xiii). This approach allows the researcher to "compare and analyze text, creating new interpretations in the process" (Noblit & Hare, 1988, p. 9).

The seven-step process used in the meta-synthesis methodology developed by Noblit and Hare is set forth in Table 1 below.

Table 1.…. [read more]

Servant Leadership and the Police Essay

… As Van & Patterson state, the goal of the servant leader is to 'understand the lessons from the past, the realities of the present, and the likely consequence of a decision for the future. It is also deeply rooted in the intuitive mind' (Van & Patterson, 2010, p. 19). There are several changes underway in many police departments within the United States. These changes were made or are being made, because of the problems that arose from mistakes and misconduct. The servant leader must then take the place of the leader, but bring forth a new perspective and apply that endless drive towards a modified culture. One that offers solutions to the problems and gives a new direction for followers that may remain stuck following…. [read more]

Women Representation in Law Enforcement Thesis

… Women Representation in Law Enforcement

Women Working in Law Enforcement

The United States has proven once again that it is capable of change, and the election of the first African-American as president and the fact that his Republican opponent selected a female as his vice presidential running mate suggest that glass ceilings are shattering across the country even as this study was being researched. Unfortunately, the state of affairs that exists in the nation today did not come about overnight and the disparities of the past will likewise not be overcome quickly and this especially appears to be the case when it comes to the number of American women working in law enforcement today. The results of a comprehensive national survey administered by the U.S.…. [read more]

Future of Unions in America Term Paper

… The period from the mid-1950's to 1980 formed the greatest period of influence and prosperity for the labor movement in America. Unions were recognized as bargaining organizations in the auto, steel, trucking, and chemical industries. Wages rose by over 2% per year and workers began to receive an ever expanding list of benefits; including medical and dental programs, paid holidays and vacations, supplemental unemployment insurance and retirement packages. While the strength of the unions in terms of bargaining power was at it's greatest, the numbers of unionized workers continued to decline. In the period from 1953 to 1983, for instance, "the unionization rate fell from 42% to 28% in manufacturing, by nearly half in transportation, and by over half in construction and mining." (Friedman) The…. [read more]

Controlling Our Emotions? Emotional Literacy Research Paper

… g., Ekman & Friesen, 1975; Nowicki & Mitchell, 1998; Scherer, Banse, & Wallbott, 2001). When focused on the self, this dimension is related to greater emotional awareness (Lane, Quinlan, Schwartz, Walker, & Zeitlin, 1990), lower alexithymia (Apfel & Sifneos, 1979), and less ambivalence about emotional expressivity (King, 1998; King & Emmons, 1990). When focused on other people, this dimension encompasses what is meant by affect sensitivity (Campbell, Kagan, & Krathwohl, 1971), affect-receiving ability (Buck, 1976) and nonverbal sensitivity (Rosenthal, Hall, DiMatteo, Rogers, & Archer, 1979).

Use of emotion to facilitate thought

The second branch of El concerns the ability to use emotions to focus attention and to think more rationally, logically, and creatively. Using emotions may require the ability to harness feelings that assist in…. [read more]

Corrections Gius, Mark. ) Term Paper

… Under option four, the regional facility manages both pretrial and convicted inmates, however only portions of the participating jurisdictions continue to operate their own facilities. Under option five, local facility accepts referrals from other participating jurisdictions, including the state, for specified inmate types. Under option six, a single jurisdiction accepts pretrial and/or sentenced inmates on a set fee-for-service basis. Under option seven, total consolidation of city-county jurisdiction inmates, resources and governance.

The author notes that there is no one right answer, nor is there a quick and easy way to make the decision, and that success lies in careful consideration of a number of complex issues, and hinge on a number of factors, as leaders develop innovative and strategic collaborations that bring benefits to both…. [read more]

Film Review of Mystic River Direct by Clint Eastwood Film Review

… ¶ … Mystic River

Through decades of roles in television and film, Clint Eastwood established himself first as a strong actor, then as an acting icon, such as "Dirty Harry." He later continued his film career by moving into directing. Since becoming a director, he has made several high grossing and critically acclaimed films that challenge the viewers as much as they challenge the actors within the film. One of his films, upon which the paper will focus, is Mystic River, which was released a decade ago, in 2003. This is a film in which Eastwood served as director, producer, and film scorer; therefore, he was heavily dedicated and involved in the film because he occupied multiple key roles. The film has quite an all…. [read more]

Law Enforcement Benefits of GIS Essay

… Mapping for tactical purposes is more for immediate uses. This technique is defined as "An analytical process that provides information used to assist operations personnel (patrol and investigative officers) in identifying specific and immediate crime trends, patterns, series, sprees and hotspots, providing investigative leads and clearing cases" (Johnson, 2000). Tactical policing helps police map out the crimes an individual has committed over a short period of time and attempts to "place" the individual or group in a centralized location.

Geographic profiling is another use for GIS that closely mirrors tactical uses. It is a more immediate use for the technology that can assist agencies with "forecasting an offender's residence or next crime target based on history and patterns" (ESRI, 2007). This technique allows law again…. [read more]

Capitalism Is Moral Questioning Essay

… These feelings are conducive to happiness and socially accepted, moral behaviors.

Because capitalism involves cooperation, capitalism furthermore involves socialization. Socialization is a key skill in human development and participation in capitalism can bolster healthy socialization practices and behavior. Certain patterns of experiences and behaviors emerge with extensive use of a capitalist system. Social relations are established and repeated. After long practice engaging with capitalism, a certain affect or sense for business may emerge. Capitalism can be on the side of the participant to nurture positive development and business skills. Fourcade & Healy continue:

"In practice, many exchanges defined as formally market-like fall somewhere on a continuum between the paradigmatic poles of direct bargaining and serial reciprocity. The pure, abstract, and anonymous common sense of the…. [read more]

Develop an Affirmative Program Designed to Reduce Citizens Complaints Essay

… Reducing Citizen Complaints

A growing body of evidence suggests that in any police department a small percentage of officers are responsible for a disproportionate share of citizen complaints. Develop an affirmative action program designed to reduce citizen complaints. Discuss affirmative steps that a department may take to train and monitor officers' conduct that tend to produce citizen complaints. Include discussions on the legal and personnel implications of your proposed program.

Psychologists have proven that it is often a part of human nature that when humans are given more authority, sometimes they act excessively with that authority and go beyond the normal, accepted morality of a situation to become more brutal and violent. Witness many rather mild-mannered German officials who, during the advent of Nazism, became…. [read more]

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