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Fiscal Policy Federal Debt and Entitlement Programs Research Proposal

… Fiscal Policy

Federal Debt and Entitlement Programs

Much of the debate relative to federal debt and the spending practices within public services has been generated by the large costs registered by the Bush administration in its war against terrorism. With the realization of the magnitude of the federal deficit, to an extent that it would require the contributions of two more generations to be extinguished, the public debate relative to fiscal policies has gained momentum. Fiscal policies are developed and implemented by state authorities -- generally the governments within democratic countries or other forms of authority within non-democratic states.

The argued role of fiscal policies is that of supporting the fruitful development of the country's economic state, which then triggers social or technological advancements. In…. [read more]


Policy Agenda of Budget Deficit and Debt Research Paper

… Large Federal Budget Deficit and Debt

For the present fiscal year which draws to a close on Sept. 30th, with 2.6% or $468 billion of the country's whole economic production, the figures of the Congressional Budget office or CBO fixed the deficit in the budget way beneath the mean share of the last 50 years (Timiraos, 2015).

It is forecast that the deficit in the federal budget will progress on a downward trend even after next year such that even with the economic circumstances seeming to grow, the red ink of the government will still go up in 2017 and rapidly grow especially with a population that is aging. As per the CBO forecast, this will be as a result of increases in social security…. [read more]


Aid President George W. Bush Term Paper

… A weak dollar policy is inflationary; this would put upward pressure on the interest rates as bond investors would demand an extra return for a future purchasing power that has been lost. The downfall of the dollar would also deter foreign investors as there is an inevitable risk of holding depreciating dollars. This would prompt them to demand a higher rate of return which will in turn create an upward pressure on interest rates. The upward pressure on the interest rates has a direct impact on the stock market. Stocks with rich valuations based on future growth would be hard hit. Higher interest rates would also be unkind on the entire housing industry thus causing the figures of growth to reverse and plummet eventually. While…. [read more]


How Does Canada's Federal System Affect Economic Policy in the Recovery? Term Paper

… ¶ … Canada's Federal system affect economic policy in the recovery?

In answering this question, you might consider the following (though you should NOT treat them as a series of short answer questions):

What is the most important economic priority for Jim Flaherty, the Federal Minister of Finance? Why is it important to him?

What is the most important economic priority for Dwight Duncan, the Minister of Finance for Ontario? Why is it important to him?

How might Flaherty's policies increase Canadian competitiveness? How might Duncan's policies increase Ontario's competitiveness?

What are the advantages to having different economic policies at the Provincial and Federal level? Disadvantages?

QUESTION 1

The most important economic priority for Jim Flaherty, the Federal Minister of Finance is to insulate Canada…. [read more]


Public Budgeting Process the Options Term Paper

… Rep. Bob Matsui, D.-Calif., "is skeptical of costs and funding options, citing overruns on the Medicare prescription drug plan that were hidden from Congress" (Strope, 2004). Matsui favors a less drastic change, a combination of "tax increases, benefit cuts for future retirees and raising the retirement age" (Strope, 2004). By the time the Republicans got around to refuting Matsui and the Democrats, it was a "$3.7 trillion, 75-year shortfall, and they noted that as "more baby boomers retire, the system will start paying out in benefits more than it collects in taxes in 2018" (Strope, 2004).

In the end, there is no way to analyze the budgetary effect of a partial privatization plan for Social Security; the variables are legion and probably only partially apparent,…. [read more]


Political and Economic Implications of International Debt Essay

… Political and Economic Imlications of International Debt

International debt can be seen as an element part of the international financial infrastructure. At its surface, one can consider it as a way by which governments add money to their budgets in order to be able to increase their governmental spending on projects which will benefit the population. However, this is an extremely one-sided, positive perspective.

Sometimes, as was the case with Argentina, international debt and foreign borrowing is used as a mean to finance governmental deficits rather than concrete projects. At other times, the macroeconomic imbalances that these debts create bring less rather than more to the country. Finally, some argue, and history seems to provide examples in this sense, that international debt is often used…. [read more]


How to Revive the Economy Term Paper

… ¶ … Revive the Economy

The United States today is facing a number of challenges, not least of which is the terrorist threat and political upheaval. One of the major internal problems the country is facing today is the economic downturn that started in 2008 and is still affecting the economy today. Economists have offered varied solutions, from tax cuts and rebates to a free market economy and the withdrawal of the government from spending regulation. Whichever solution is chosen, it is vital to recognize the importance of critical thinking in devising solutions to the economic problems and debt issues the country faces today.

Influences on Fiscal Policy

It is the opinion of several authors that the influence of Government and fiscal policy upon the…. [read more]


Public Sector Unions Research Paper

… In 1947 the Taft Hartley act was passed which removed many union gains from the Wagner act. It very explicitly denied public workers the right to strike, and required that workers who did strike would be dismissed (brown, 2010). This legislation was hard to overcome, but support began to grow for allowing public unions to form.

At this time, public sentiment began to change, leaning more toward unions, as public employees were demanding change. One challenge of the sixties was the battle for collective bargaining rights. The age of teacher militancy began in November 1960 with a one-day walkout of the united federation of teachers of New York City; two years later the UFT won the first comprehensive teacher contract in the country (Edwards, 2010).…. [read more]


Public Administration Most Important Economic Problem Essay

… Public Administration

Most Important Economic Problem

Without any iota of doubt, the most significant economic problem is our swelling national debt. To give an indication of the serious nature of the problem, all we have to do is to compare the federal budget deficit from 2008 with the next year. In 2008, the federal deficit stood at $459 billion but the impact of housing mortgage bubble and the recession that ensued increased the national debt to a staggering $1.4 trillion which when equated becomes $4,500 for every American. Future projections are even scarier with the debt slated to cross $16 trillion within the next decade. National debt also increased a whooping 32% from around $9 trillion in Sep 2008 to more than $12.4 trillion in…. [read more]


Reagan and the 80s Movie Term Paper

… REAGAN & the 80S MOVIES

The objective of this work is to take a closer look into popular movies in the 1980s and the role Ronald Reagan's presidency played in them. This work will take three different years in the 1980s, or specifically the years of 1982, 1985, and 1986, and parallel them with two different genres: Teen Comedy and Drama and show how these films follow the same narrative. This narrative will follow the theme of (1) Outsiders; (2) Redemption; and (3) Victory.

The era of the Regan administration is one that is characterized by a slipping away from morals and values traditionally held evidenced in the breakdown of the traditional family structure, racial turmoil, crime, school problems, drugs, and declining sexual morality. Reagan…. [read more]


Reagan Era Economics and Uses Term Paper

… Interest rates, inflation, and unemployment fell faster under Reagan than they did immediately before or after his presidency.

The only economic variable that was worse in the Reagan period than in both the pre- and post-Reagan years was the savings rate, which fell rapidly in the 1980s. The productivity rate was higher in the pre-Reagan years but much lower in the post-Reagan years (SUPPLY-SIDE TAX CUTS AND THE TRUTH ABOUT THE REAGAN ECONOMIC RECORD by William A. Niskanen and Stephen Moore (http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-261.html).

There were four key elements to the era which is now referred to as Reaganomics. These factors were the foundation for the rest of the policy and included:

restrictive monetary policy designed to stabilize the value of the dollar and end runaway inflation;…. [read more]


Financial Institutions and Global Poverty Essay

… Financial institutions & Global poverty

GLOBAL POVERTY

A Look at International Financial Institutions in Relation to Global Poverty

The Great Depression of the 1930s, the problems surrounding international trade and economic policies that were isolationist in nature, and the imminent end of World War II -- all of these factors led the world's powerful and leading politicians to the Bretton Woods Conference. The conference's solution: the creation of international institutions that are known today as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, and the World Trade Organization (WTO). These institutions were established with the aim of solving global economic problems (New Internationalist Magazine 1994).

At present, at the heart of our many global economic problems, we shall find the most basic issue of global…. [read more]


Would Euro Become a Reserve Currency in the Case of UK Adoption? Term Paper

… ¶ … Euro as Reserve Currency

The position of the dollar in the world economy has seldom been questioned. Although economists feared for the currency's status as dominant reserve currency during events such as the rise of the Deutsch Mark and the Yen in comparison with the decline of the dollar, these fears proved unfounded in less than a decade. The most recent depreciation of the dollar and its subsequent decline have given rise to new concerns. The euro has shown increasing strength as opposed to dollar decline, leading to projections that the euro may eventually supplant the dollar as the dominant reserve currency in the world. The question however remains that, in the light of past trends, how realistic is such a projection? Several…. [read more]


Business Economics Vincent Term Paper

… (Global Agenda; Brown' red box, full of pink slips)

The targets set in these are to improve government service and in Canada the objective is to make the users at least more satisfied by 10% by 2005. In Italy, the government has set up its own charter in 7,000 agencies and local governments. The targets are defined in concrete terms like hospitals cutting waiting lists, schools increasing literacy rates, etc. The manager concerned has to take care of this when he decides on the activities of the department. Some of the other countries like Denmark and Finland have tried to remove one of the main problems of managing public service, and that through the retention of any surpluses that arise from the current year's budget…. [read more]


Alternative Energy and Changes in the Pattern of Economic Development the Case of Lagos Nigeria Dissertation

… Alternative Energy and Changes

Alternative and Changes in the Pattern of Economic Development the Case of Lagos Nigeria

Over the last several decades, the international community has been focused on dealing with a host of economic issues in Lagos, Nigeria. The reason why, is because the country has been trying to deal with a number of challenges since gaining independence. However, many of these different kinds of programs have been proven to be ineffective. This is based on a number of different factors including: high amounts of illiteracy, the ineffective use of foreign aid programs, a lack of foreign direct investment, security issues, crippling deficits, frequent power outages, a lack of planning in infrastructure / transportation, political instability, failing to address the needs of many…. [read more]


GDP and Economic Growth in Ireland Term Paper

… Ireland's Economy

Ireland's banking system which for over a decade was a financial global powerhouse, suffered an ignominious fate when Irish central bank regulators proposed "to nationalize its banking sector after its government uncovered a €24 billion ($33.9 billion) capital shortfall in the latest round of 'stress tests' of top banks" (Enrich. D. April 1, 2011). The nationalization of the banking sector reflects the troubles with the broader Irish economy after a decade marked by a meteoric rise in the strength and size of GDP and employment. As the Euro zone continues its nascent recovery from the global recession, Ireland's story will continue to play out on the front pages. "Last fall, the spiraling costs of repeatedly bailing out its banks pushed Ireland close to…. [read more]


Development of Health Management System in Saudi Arabia Research Proposal

… Healthcare in Saudi Arabia

Project Title: Development of Health Management Systems in Saudi Arabia

Geopolitical Overview

Within the global healthcare model there are various expressions of appropriateness of care. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for instance, healthcare has always been the purview of the government, funded at the behest of the ruling family, designed for a predominately young or middle aged population, and certainly not designed for the increasing urbanization and economic improvements that oil and natural gas have brought to the region. In addition, changing demographics in the Kingdom make it necessary to rethink the model of healthcare.

A geopolitical and cultural background of the country and comparison with the region is first provided to engage the reader in the synergism between these…. [read more]


International Relations the International System and Global Term Paper

… International Relations

The International System and Global Integration

Relations between states and their institutions lie at the heart of the dilemma of global integration. Whether represented by individual governments, private corporations, supranational bodies, or international non-governmental organizations (NGO's), these bodies profoundly affect the way the peoples and polities of the world interact politically and economically. Supranational organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, endeavor to manage the global economy by controlling the movements of funds between nations, governing relative values of world currencies, and providing financial aid to developing and "transitional" economies. Playing their part, too, the private multinational corporations and NGO's possess often selfish agendas that can powerfully influence the actions of the multi-state organizations and the distinct nations they…. [read more]


Fiscal Federalism Spending and Taxes Essay

… Fiscal Federalism: Spending and Taxes

The modern communities strive to develop and offer increased living standards for their population. In doing so, they collaborate closely with the state and federal institutions, which send them part of the required funds. "The federal government transfers about one fourth of its revenues to the states, which in turn disburse important operating funds to cities and counties. State governments play a major role in funding local governments - including counties, municipalities, and school districts - for education, transportation, public health and social services. When tough economic times depress revenues at the top, jurisdictions at the bottom bear the burden" (Ruben, McGuire and Kellam, 2007).

However, there are situations in which these funds are insufficient - a relevant exemplification of…. [read more]


Oil Industry Term Paper

… ¶ … Oil Industry: Background and History

In historical terms the oil industry began more than five thousand years ago. In the Middle East oil was used in"... waterproofing boats and baskets, in paints, lighting and even for medication" (History of the oil industry). Oil and oil usage is evident in human society even in ancient times where the use of oil was used for medical, domestic and building purposes and not seen as a fuel as it is today. For example, the Bible refers to pitch being used for building purposes in the cementing of the walls of Babylon. (History of Oil Use) Even as late as the 1800s, oil was seen as "...a disinfectant, a vermin killer, hair oil, boot grease, and a…. [read more]


NAFTA Historical Beginning Term Paper

… 3. A panel of experts was utilized to handle disputes.

The creation of CUSTA sparked interest from Mexico. The free trading area or FTA spanned greater than 360 million people, and $6 trillion in annual output. NAFTA may also be considered a link to two of the largest trading partners to the U.S.: namely Mexico and Canada.

History Bibliography:

Mariama W. Williams, A Brief History of GATT and NAFTA; Women's Alternative Economic Network

Gary C. Hufbauer, Reginald Jones Senior Fellow and Diana Orejas, NAFTA AND THE ENVIRONMENT: LESSONS FOR TRADE POLICY, Institute for International Economics (2001)

Daryll E. Ray, Director, Agricultural Policy Analysis Center Melissa B. Cooney, NAFTA and the Small Mexican Farmer, Graduate Research Assistant University of Tennessee

US-Mexico Chamber of Commerce.

NAFTA Objectives…. [read more]


Economics Politics Trade Term Paper

… Economics, Politics, Trade

Geopolitical base

Geography

Political Systems

Monetary, trade and economic backgrounds

Germany

Peru

Economics, Politics, Trade

This paper shall be a comparison of two countries of the world-one which is a developed country and another developing country. The developed country chosen for the study is Germany and the developing country is Peru. The paper shall deal with the geopolitical base and the Monetary, trade and economic backgrounds of the two countries.

Geopolitical base

Geography:

Germany occupies 356,959 square kilometers. It is the sixth biggest country in Europe with Alps in the south and extending 853 kilometers from Denmark as its northern border. Germany measures roughly 650 kilometers from the Belgian-German border in the west to the Polish frontier in the east. The province…. [read more]


Principal-Agent Model in Economics Dissertation

… The entire implementation procedure was accomplished in twelve sequential steps, staring mainly from the reduction and the removal of the customs and import quotas among the trading coalition. The Tunisia-EU free area trading agreement after affects and whereabouts are discussed in order to explore the findings about the research question that is the impact of the Tunisia-EU agreement on the trading patterns of Tunisia.

Literature Review

The international political perspectives of free trade

A Global Analysis

The growth of world trade has consistently outstripped rates of world output in post-war years, a trend that has continued to play a key role in the internationalization of economic activity and to deepen global inter-dependence of regions and nations. In 1994 world trade was valued at $5.14 trillion,…. [read more]


Retirement Portability Term Paper

… Retirement portability is a hot topic globally; as the economy forces job-hopping work life habits on more and more workers, it is necessary to be able to accrue funds for retirement; under traditional pension plans, retirement funding was lost when workers changed companies. The advent of the 402(k) changed that for companies that offered the plans; however, it also pushed more of the burden of retirement planning and preparation onto the wage earner. For low-wage earners, this was difficult because they often had nothing to put aside. The problem of portability is not unique to the United States, and it is likely there are lessons to be learned concerning achieving fairness, adequacy and efficiency in pensions, based on mandatory, universal, portable plans.

Introduction

Establish a…. [read more]


Reagan and the 1980s President Term Paper

… Conservatives countered that lowering the risks of hiring would increase employment. Reagan's administration successfully slowed the growth of welfare and other social spending and was heavily critized by the gay community for its slow response to the HIV-AIDS crisis. Even though two of the three Supreme Court justices Reagan selected, Sandra Day O'Connor and Anthony Kennedy, voted to uphold Roe v. Wade, Reagan himself took a strong stand against abortion and was said to be very disappointed that Roe v. Wade wasn't overturned.

Reagan's stance on crime was more punitive than corrective. There was a "Just Say No" campaign spearheaded by his wife (Ronald Reagan) designed to prevent drug use. But, Reagan's policies in the "War on Drugs" emphasized imprisonment for drug offenders while simultaneously…. [read more]


Future Wars of the Middle East Will Result Over Water Shortages Term Paper

… Water in the Middle East

Governments around the world have a primary concern over water availability and the Middle East and North Africa are no exception. The thesis evaluates the possibility of future wars throughout the Middle East and North Africa due to water scarcity and limited water resources presently being experienced in that region.

The paper starts by revealing the gravity of the situation by showing the present statistics surrounding the problem of water scarcity throughout the world. Thereafter, the paper highlights the importance of water in the national economy. From then on, the paper briefly discusses the present situation of water scarcity in the Middle East by noting down the present available resources of water in the Middle East. Lastly, the paper briefly…. [read more]


Efficiency of Nonprofit Versus Government Agencies Term Paper

… Efficiency of nonprofit vs. government agencies

As individuals, we often feel the need to know we are being protected, we need safety and security. As children, these roles are taken on by our parents, but simultaneously, they are being protected by the federal institutions. These normally ensure the equality and freedom of all citizens and regulate multiple sectors, such as education, politics or the environment. More recently however, other institutions have begun to emerge and their purpose is also to support the freedom and development of several members of the society. These are called nonprofit organizations, and however they generically serve the same clients as the government, they do share some differences.

Nonprofit Organizations

The nonprofit organization is a legal entity constituted with the special…. [read more]


Civil Liberties Are Protections From the Power Term Paper

… Civil liberties are protections from the power of governments, such as freedom of speech, which may be guaranteed to a people through a constitution. Political rights are those rights that a person is granted because of a constitution, such as the right to vote or the right to due process of law. Legal privileges are permissive activities granted by a government, which can sometimes be revoked.

Ex post facto laws and bills of attainder are prohibited in the Constitution because they deny people due process of law. Ex post facto laws permit people to be punished for behavior without notice that the behavior is illegal; and bills of attainder permit people to be punished without a trial.

Selective incorporation refers to the fact that the…. [read more]


Economic System of Mexico Term Paper

… The president is in charge of assigning the Secretaries of State, which are individuals who are assigned to be in charge of certain areas of the country. These positions include health care, tourism, the environment, education, commerce, social development, energy, peace within the nation, communications, the countryside, tax collection, labor, relations with other countries, and more.

Mexico's future depends on the economic future of the U.S. (Southwest Economy, 2002). The economic recession in the U.S. caused Mexico's exports to the U.S. To drop from $147.7 billion in 2000 to $140.3 billion in 2001. The latest data from the National Statistics Bureau shows that Mexico's exports in the first six months of 2002 dropped 2.8% compared with to last year. In June of 2002, the total…. [read more]

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