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Political Philosophies of John Locke and Karl Marx Essay

… Political Philosophies

When we talk about the political theories of the modern world then two names are of prime importance, John Locke and Karl Marx. These two philosophers have greatly worked on the political conditions of the modern era and it is impossible to sum up the work of such great philosophers in a few pages but their concluded perspectives are discussed below (Tully, 1993).

John Locke who is popularly known as the father of Liberalism has greatly worked for the political philosophies of the modern era. According to Locke people are born independent therefore their liberalism is natural and the ruler or and government cannot bound them under any restriction that is against their basic rights. These basic rights include right of life, their…. [read more]

Political Philosophy I Pick Essay

… More precisely, socialism is a doctrine based on the community, on the common good and the notion of social equality. In an era in which market competition together with the free trade that was moving across the continents, the role of social equality in a populous country was essential. Therefore, there was a need for unity at the level of the ideals and ideas that would drive the nation forward with due regard for the notions described by the communist doctrine. Thus, the idea of national heritage and the development of the sense of belonging to something greater than the local community was essential and Mao pointed it out in a very benefic manner for him and the Communist Party. The role of the Communist…. [read more]

Monticello, the Mansion That Thomas Term Paper

… .. The complete return of man to himself as a social being..." (Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844)

This directly contrasts with Locke's admonition that:

The great and chief end, therefore, of men uniting into commonwealths, and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property; to which in the state of Nature there are many things wanting. (Locke, Second Treatise, Chapter 9)

This is where Marx and Locke are opposites. Locke's system whereby freedom is guaranteed is predicated on the existence of property, whereas Marx believes that the existence of private property precludes 'true' freedom. Although it can be said that Marx's view of property deals more aptly with the concerns of industrial society, this can mostly be attributed to the…. [read more]

Karl Marx and Individualism Term Paper

… ID: 76072
Paper Type:
Pages: 6
Topic: Karl Marx and Individualism
Citation Style: MLA
Bibliography: 3
Due: 2007-04-25 22:00:00
Worth: $48.00

Info: Topic:
Karl Marx is best known for his incisive analysis and acidic criticisms of
capitalism, including the ideology that reinforces and legitimizes it. Marx
is especially critical of modern theories of individualism. What is Marx's
critique of individualism as developed and demonstrated in the political
writings of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, two of the greatest champions of
individualism? Be sure to provide specific examples of individualism in
their thought as you explain Marx's critique.

**Must use these sources for bibliography**(No other sources):
1. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996)
2. John Locke, Two Treatises of Government (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press,…. [read more]

Political Philosophy Research Paper

… Government

Political Philosophy

Political Philosophy: Government

The role and function of government has over the centuries been at the centre of debate and even conflict among various political theorists and activists. The question of what the "job" of government should be, hinges to a great extent on the underlying philosophical trajectory that determines the shape, form and function, the extent of powers and control and how the government is expected to act in certain circumstances.

In other words, the central question of the job or function of government is predicated on a range of prior questions, which relate to the way in which the nature and function of government is perceived. For example, the ideal of government in an elitist and aristocratic model will differ…. [read more]

John Locke Was Born in Wrington, Somerset Term Paper

… John Locke was born in Wrington, Somerset, England on August 29, 1704 to John Locke and Agnes Keene, who were both Puritans (Uzgalis 2001, Wikipedia 2006, Microsoft Encarta 2006). His father, after whom he was named, served as captain of cavalry for the Parliamentarian forces in the early part of the English Civil War. His family later moved to Pensford and Locke grew up in a rural Tudor house in Belluton. He attended the Westminster School in London in 1647 under Alexander Popham, a member of Parliament and his father's former commander. Then he was admitted at the Christ Church College at Oxford University, where he developed greater interest in modern philosophy, such as Rene Descartes', than the school's classical material. He earned a bachelor's…. [read more]

Existence of God the Philosophical Essay

… It may be argued that if an all-good God designed the world, he surely would not have allowed evil. The problem of evil is generally regarded as the most important argument against theism. (Mavrodes, 1995)

The argument from morality, like the cosmological argument, is really a family of arguments (Hick, 26-27). First, there is the argument from the existence of objective moral laws to a divine lawgiver. Second, there is the argument from the existence of objective moral laws to a transcendental Ground of Values. Third, there is the argument from the fact of human conscience to a divine "voice of conscience." Finally, there is the argument from the acceptance of moral obligation to the postulation of a transcendental Ground of Values. Religion and morality…. [read more]

Locke vs. Marx the Principles Essay

… On the other hand is Karl Marx, who's basic philosophy is aimed at destroying the current system and replacing it with a new system, more in line with what he considered to be fair to the workers. Marx felt that the state, or government, was a tool for the upper class to maintain control over the masses of people who make up the working class. Capitalism was just another tool to keep the workers controlled and complacent in order for the upper class to exploit them economically. Marx also asserted that after a revolution, in which the workers would set up a dictatorship of the proletariat, they would reform society along socialist lines which would remove all classes and install a socialist order of absolute…. [read more]

Politics Modern Political Thought Term Paper

… Modern capitalism is far less restrictive than what they were used to. When society evolved to try to give everyone a small piece of the big pie, it eventually called it Capitalism. "Over a period of a few centuries the 'long journey' toward capitalism extended in this direction: a complex and interlocking process which involved the formation of merchant and banking bourgeoisies, the appearance of nations and the establishment of modern states, the expansion of trade and the domination on a world scale, the development of techniques of transportation and production, the introduction of new modes of production and the emergence of new attitudes and ideas." (Beaud, 17)

There are still debates on whether capitalism is actually a system or if it is merely an…. [read more]

Mind and Body the Generational Outlook Research Paper

… Mind and Body in History

Mind-Body Dualism in History

Most philosophers in history from Plato to Descartes assumed the existence of dualism between the mind and body, and the physical and spiritual worlds. They made a distinction between the basically rational and logical faculties of the mind over and above instincts and emotions. Other philosophers and psychologists like Nietzsche and Freud and the Romantics put far more emphasis on the emotional and irrational side of the mind, but for Plato and Aristotle, only women, slaves, peasants and the lower orders in general were guided by passions, feelings and desires (Lehrer, 2009, p. xiv). In contrast, the materialistic and atomistic view existed from the very beginnings of Western philosophy, but not as the majority position even…. [read more]

Shifting Definitions of Power From Modern to Postmodern Thought Term Paper

… Sociology

The Shifting Definitions of Power from Modern to Postmodern Thought

There are certain things that we all know, but cannot describe: Love is one of these things, as is Power. Power, like Love, exercises a mysterious control over all human relationships, over all human endeavors. Every individual occupies a specific place relative to all other individuals. One is either equal to another, above another, or below another. These relations change with time. An interpersonal condition might be long-standing, or it might shift with every moment. We go up, and we go down. Power is ever in flux, and yet, the rules that govern its application appear so strangely inexorable. It is as if we are all subject to the same mysterious force, one that…. [read more]

concise Analysis of A Philosophical Summation Term Paper

… Through philosophy, I now understand that some of my beliefs were wrong, others were not contradictory, and others need to be investigated further to prove if they are true or not. This has obviously caused significant disruption in my life as some of the beliefs I held as true provided me with a feeling of certainty and comfort in my life.

An example of how the study of philosophy has changed my life so far is that with the little knowledge I have gained in epistemology, I now think more logically or rationally. This is because epistemology has given me a different perspective on how to look at things. Before speaking or arguing with others over what I believe, I now realize that I have…. [read more]

Wealth of Nations Book Report

… Wealth of Nations

Adam Smith, whose Wealth of Nations was published in 1776, was the father of modern economics and capitalism. He argued that the free operation of market forces was the best recipe for a flourishing and growing economy. If everyone is as free as possible to pursue his or her own self-interest, he or she will be led by an "invisible hand" to promote the welfare of society as a whole.

There are many reasons why self-interest is the most effective technique of increasing wealth in society. Within a community/society/countries, there are two main assemblies, the government and the citizens. Both assemblies play an important role in the market place, the government is there to regulate any conflicts and minimize problems and bring…. [read more]

Secular Humanism Research Proposal

… Secular Humanism

The rise and influence of Secular Humanism in the 20th century


Brief Overview of the Antecedents of Secular Humanism

The Enlightenment and Renaissance

Political and Economic Factors

The Modern Era

Historical aspects; The Formalism of Secular Humanism

The Role of Science

Secularization in the West

Influential Thinkers

Secular Humanism in the Twentieth Century and its Crisis

The Influence of Secular Humanism

The phenomenon of secular humanism is a central facet of the constitution and character of contemporary Western culture and society. The modern development of this ideology or worldview has progressed from the humanism of the Enlightenment to the particle style of secular humanism that we find in the twentieth century. This cultural phenomenon became a dominant social and cultural force during…. [read more]

Second Treatise of Government Journal

… Second Treatise of Government

The second treatise government

John Locke was a thinker and physician who attended Westminster School, and later joined Christ Church at Oxford. He was a brilliant thinker who had a lot of influence on matters of epistemology and political philosophy. Locke's contributions to Liberal theory and classical republicanism were also tremendous. His writings have largely formed the basis for Western philosophy.

John Locke on property

Locke states that the earth is the property of people, and hence useful for their survival and benefits. He wonders on why people own property individually yet humankind should own the earth, and everything in it is common to everyone. Locke believes that individuals appropriate things around them for individual property to exist. He claims each…. [read more]

Nature Term Paper

… "

(Marx, Karl Communist Manifesto p.28) His ideal was a society without private property, where the class of workers of proletariat would govern, through the decision accepted on councils. In reality it was an utopia, a fairy tale, which is not appropriate for modern realities, when every person has a firm and convinced sense of being a man of property. The failure of communist regimes in Russia and Eastern Europe had proved it perfectly.

The development of pacifism, antiwar movement of the twentieth century and immorality of two world wars had made a stamp on modern civilization, as it aspires to non-violent principle of solving its burning issues. In recent years the society had made a step forward towards mutual understanding, morality and tolerance; the…. [read more]

Western Civ. V The Philosophes Believed Research Paper

… Western Civ. V

The philosophes believed that moral values and the value of life itself are enshrined in natural law and that therefore the best way to discover them is to use the scientific method.

How did the romantics' view of nature differ from that of the philosophes? In what ways does William Wordsworth's poem, "The Tables Turned," express this romantic outlook? (Although we emailed the poem to you, we have also put it on the third page of this assignment.) According to romantics like Wordsworth, how was the meaning of life to be found?

Romanticism began as a reaction -- not so much against anything tangible, more as a result of prevailing tendencies and moods. In music it was a way to expand Classical…. [read more]

What Is the Place of the Market in Marxist Political Economy? Essay

… ¶ … Market in Marxist Political Economy

Today's individual has an unlimited access to information, which is generally due to the burst of the dot-com era, but also due to several process of social emancipation. We are now only one click away from finding out the types of data we need for barely almost any kind of research. In the field of economics, the specialized literature is extremely vast, detailing the basic principles of the market place, the macro and microeconomic forces, labor force characteristics, the contemporaneous economic crisis and so on. And the wide access the individual has to this information is not only due to the technological appliances and the social developments, but mostly to the economists who played a vital role in…. [read more]

17th and 18th Century, Europe Term Paper

… ¶ … 17th and 18th century, Europe was under the grips of a major revolution in science, philosophy and religion. Following was known as the Age of Reason, a period of deeply rooted challenges to the establishment occurred that was termed the Age of Enlightenment. This 18th century movement was about establishing the lines of rhetoric and reason, and changing the landscape of social, political and religious landscapes. Some noted philosophers during this era, such as George Berkeley attempted to rationally demonstrate the existence of a supreme God, while others such as Thomas Paine and Voltaire opened challenged the status quo institutions of church and state. The conflict and revolution inherent within the Age of Enlightenment centered on empiricist ideas and the application of fundamental…. [read more]

SARA Miles Take This Bread Term Paper

… ¶ … Bread

Sara Miles "Take This Bread"

One day when Sara Miles was 46 years old she did something she had never done before, the celebrated the sacrament of Holy Eucharist for the first time. She described this monumental event as "outrageous and terrifying," and said it "made no sense. I was in tears and physically unbalanced." (Miles, p. 59) But if one reads her book, entitled "Take This Bread," and reads it carefully, one will see that this experience is one that she had been preparing for her entire life. While she claims that she had lived a secular life, and for the most art she did, she unknowingly maintained Christian ideals inside of her in the guise of secular ideology. When she…. [read more]

History of Human Civilization Term Paper

… Through the social contract, there will exist control and governance, wherein the people are to be served by the government rulers. Aside from the power of the General Will, the social contract also "binds" people together in making a functional and orderly society, and wherein every action of Man must be made in accordance to the common good. If the rulers of the society deviate from the preservation of common good, the people must exercise their power to replace the current set of rulers for another one who will agree to the cause and objectives of the society.

Adam Smith had become a significant proponent in contributing to the economic aspect of Utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is a philosophy that is based on the humanistic approach of…. [read more]

Dreams in Sigmund Freud Term Paper

… .. The unconscious is the true reality of the psyche, its inner nature just as unknown to us as the reality of the external world..." (405). Referring to the externality of the unconscious, Freud's discourse illustrates how the Unconscious as an external force that resides 'within' the individual. In effect, Freud illustrates how through dream experiences, the Unconscious is confronted by the individual. Thus, the individual, through his/her dreams, bridges the gap and resolves the conflict between the Conscious and the Unconscious selves of the individual. It is then posited that after an analysis of a dream experience, people become more 'in touch' with themselves, the true nature of the Self, and not the "impersonal one."

This episode is what exactly had happened in Kafka's…. [read more]

Social Theory the Wide Diversity of Human Term Paper

… Social Theory

The wide diversity of human behavior in a social setting for thousands of years makes it imperative to study these societies to better understand their properties. What are the similarities and differences of this behavior? What are the causes? How do humans differ than other animals in their social development? These questions have been asked by theorists for generations. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, for example, defined individuals and their relationship to society. In the 1800s, social theory was more clearly defined by Emile Durkheim and Max Weber as separate from the individualism in the study of society, or sociology. From this time, specific theories arose, such as functionalism, Marxism, interpretivism, and post-modernism to explain the function of society. These theories, all relevant,…. [read more]

Taylorism There Are a Number of Different Essay

… Taylorism

There are a number of different modern social theories regarding the nature of society, social change, human's place within society and the idea of how integration and alienation fit within a modern society. These paradigms combine reflexively into a notion of history through labor and economic theory. Many of these theories have been used to buttress political regimes, many social and psychological thoughts, and many simply to readdress the manner in which humans can more appropriate interact in a post-industrial world. A number of scholars and intellectuals have tried to explain society, all the way to the Ancient World, but certainly after the Industrial Revolution (Grint, 2005). For us to understand economic sociology, then, we must first understand some of the theory behind it.…. [read more]

Natural Law Essay

… ¶ … constitutes religion, science, sociology and so on is hard to define and ambiguous at times. Take, for instance, fundamentalism in religion, the fact that life is still difficult to define in scientific terms or the complexity of natural law, in Latin, lex naturalis. What each of these three issues have in common is the difficulty they impose on someone trying to get to the bottom of them because there are so many perspectives one could approach them by and none is self sufficient.

In the seventeenth century, two key concepts started to gain power over scholars. These concepts originated in the Medieval period but had not stretched as far as to gain universal dominance until then. I am referring to the laws of…. [read more]

Individuality and Community Ethics Essay

… Individualism can be lost in a group's quest to make sure that rights are distributed equally. As an example of this, Akhtar (2011) relates that "for instance, Naisha will have her own particularized way of being Indian in addition to the collective form of the culture that she shares with others." Every individual will benefit from the equal distribution of the right that has been given to all or the status that all have achieved, but they will all wear it differently. Each person within the collective has their own unique way of employing the distribution. So, the autonomy, the right to personhood, also needs to be recognized as an essential element of all these conceptions of social justice.

Critical Recognition

The liberal form of…. [read more]

Industrial Revolution: Cultural and Construction History Essay

… Industrial Revolution: Cultural and Construction History (1750 to 1900)

Cultural Environment

During the Industrial Revolution machines changed the way people lived and their ways of manufacturing. The advent of steam power and its associated machinery in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries spurred significant changes in farming, manufacturing, mining, and transport. Beginning in England, these developments started a process of using vast natural resources to power economic change, for example in such areas as the manufacture of cloth and in the use of locomotive engines in transportation (Schivelbusch). Europe's socioeconomic and cultural conditions were transformed (More). Technology introduced mechanised production systems that replaced manual labour. One of the principle ways in which the Industrial Revolution altered these different arenas of life was by making it more…. [read more]

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