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Political Science International Political Economy: Realist, Liberal Research Paper

… Political Science

International Political Economy:

Realist, Liberal, and Marxist Perspectives

The current international order is in a state of flux. As economics becomes ever more global in scale, nation states struggle to maintain their independent powers and spheres of influence. The more than three hundred year old Westphalian order has been replaced, to a significant extent, by a system of international organizations, and an international political economy that has attempted to coalesce around a single hegemon. Through agreements such as Bretton Woods, the United States established its currency as the world's reserve standard. The petroleum that fuels the globe's industrial powerhouses is, by and large, bought and sold in dollars. The United States, despite enormous declines in industrial output, and a move toward a post-industrial…. [read more]


International Organizations Compare and Contrast the Realist Term Paper

… International Organizations

Compare and contrast the realist, liberal institutionalist, Marxist and feminist perspectives on international organizations, strengths, weaknesses. which perspective is more persuasive and why?

Institutionalism, suggests that IR is based on "utilitarian morality" and that self-interests are "aggregated" in the form of institutions, specifically in the form of the nation-state. The world is like a rational market exchange where different entities wrangle for dominance to promote the aggregate interests of domestic groups ("Theories of IR," 2007). Interdependence amongst nation-states facilitates these interests and cooperation can help promote security to advance state interests holistically, like advancing free trade. When certain interests between states conflict -- for example, Japan may benefit from its protectionist policies, while this hurts the U.S. -- institutionalism is silent, and thus…. [read more]


International Relations the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Essay

… International Relations

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has been, since the end of the Second World War one of the most important forums of discussion and action of the Free World. Its main rational related to the actual notion of the international political system as a bipolar system. More precisely, it was aimed at a strategic threat which at that time was represented by the Soviet Union. After the fall of the Communist regimes throughout the world but most importantly in the U.S.S.R., the scope and range of NATO was clearly put into question. The actual reason for being was undermined as many thought the existence of the Alliance to lack any functional role in the world (Nye, 2005).

However, as history moved on, the…. [read more]


Empirical and Theoretical Debate of Political World Affairs Term Paper

… International Affairs

Political Science - International Relations

The objective of this work is to write concerning an event or element in international affairs post-1989 and to employ all levels of analysis, systemic, and sub-systemic, and then, through use of a theory, to consider the direction which the event of situation is headed in relation to world affairs. This work will then answer the question that asks: "What reinforces the issue and will the reactions noted be of a realist, liberalist, globalist, and etc. nature?"

The period referred to as the "Cold War" era was a time characterized by competition between the East-West as well as a time full of tension, conflicts with hostility being mutually perceived on the political and military alliance levels. After the…. [read more]


Politics International Trade-Offs Term Paper

… Liberals might also argue that rogue states are more likely to be reformed if they are not decimated by invasions and other aggression. Constructivism would take a similar point, arguing against a single state blindly trying to force its political structure on all other nations in the name of freedom. A constructivist would be especially horrified at the way in which current American policy does not take into much consideration the native culture and sociology of the nations it is preemptively attacking. Rather than suggest acting unilaterally to wipe out theoretical enemies in a search for supreme power, constructivism would likely suggest attempting to understand the enemy culture, and work out the boundaries and relationships that can be had between the cultures.

If, as might…. [read more]


Conflict and Security Term Paper

… Conflict and Security

International relations has always been an arena of conflicting theories and hypotheses; the existence of many political systems and various ideas regarding how nations should behave is a testament to the eternal nature of the questions concerning the best forms of governance. Since the ancient Greek philosophers right up through the twenty-first century, political scientists, philosophers, and laymen alike have theorized about the most effective and just form of international relations, the ways that states interact with one another.

The liberal and realist schools of thought have been seemingly opposing viewpoints for centuries; the liberal interest individual rights and an international focus on compromise and cooperation as opposed to the realist idea of self-preservation for the nation-state at any cost, even one…. [read more]


Liberal and Realist Creative Writing

… American realists believe that international relations are dominated by a political power struggle among sovereign nation-states. These states must rely on their own devices to survive this struggle, which they attempt to do by acquiring economic and military power. Realists stipulate that the anarchical international condition formed by this state security seeking is difficult or even impossible to overcome." Craig states that there are many realists in America who have followed the path of Kenneth Waltz in attempting to assume an objective approach "…eschewing moral assessments of international relations and foreign policies in favor of positivist analysis of interstate systems. Their realism nevertheless is driven by clear normative concerns, as they have usually sought to promote foreign policies or at least political worldviews that enhance…. [read more]


Power, Interdependence, and Nonstate Actors Research Paper

… Power, Interdependence, And Nonstate Actors in World Politics

Power, Interdependence, and Non-state Actors in World Politics

In the late 1970s, new approaches emerged concerning international relations. Although the constituents of the new approaches appear in numerous literatures, several political scholars combined the themes in the various literatures to develop a competitor to realism, which later led to the formulation of neo-realism. This model was first discussed in Power and Interdependence; however, this approach is currently popular and referred to as neo-liberal institutionalism. After three decades since Power and Interdependence, numerous studies suggest that this new model has gained significant international relations. On the other hand, After Hegemony, which is core to the neo-liberal model, provided the most compelling theoretical support for the existences and role…. [read more]


Realism and the End of the Cold War Seminar Paper

… Realism and the End of the Cold War

The field of international relations has always been dominated by one theory or another that tried to explain, through different mechanisms and concepts, the evolution of the international affairs.

Realism was one of the theories that tried to best characterize the period of the Cold War and especially the bipolar relation between the West and the East, which is between the United States and the Soviet Union. After the fall of the U.S.S.R. At the beginning of the 1990s, it was considered that the realist theory of international relations did not grasp sufficiently accurate the power relations between the two important players and was not able to predict the fall of communism and the end of the…. [read more]


European Union a State Research Paper

… Whereas, the democracy provided by the EU is mainly "with the people" and "for the people" and is mostly done through this vast process of the intermediation of the interest; this is also known as "Community Model" (Schmidt and Monnet, 2004).

Because of such a fragmented democracy the legitimization of EU has been questioned as, EU is compared to the nation-states, whereas, if EU was considered as a regional state the lack of democracy that is sometimes observed at the EU level won't seem as much troublesome as it is mostly presented. But the national democracy's problem turns out to be really big with regards to the EU; however, the effect of EU on the member state's traditional working is great because of the shortage…. [read more]


Foreign Policy of China (Beijing Thesis

… But just as China (Beijing consensus)'s economic and military power does not yet match that of the United States, China (Beijing consensus)'s soft power still has a long way to go as demonstrated by a Chicago Council on Global Affairs poll. China (Beijing consensus) does not have cultural industries like Hollywood, and its universities are not yet the equal of the United States. It lacks the many non-governmental organizations that generate much of U.S. soft power. Politically, China (Beijing consensus) suffers from corruption, inequality, and a lack of democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. While that may make the "Beijing consensus" attractive in authoritarian and semi-authoritarian developing countries, it undercuts China (Beijing consensus)'s soft power in the West. Although China (Beijing consensus)'s new…. [read more]


World Order Soft Power Non-State Actors Marxism and Constructivism Future Hypothetical System Term Paper

… Globalization, soft power, NGOs, and world order

Soft Power

What is a soft power?

Soft power is a concept that describes the ways and means that a particular nation uses in persuading other nations to accept her policies. A nation that uses soft power may uses things like cooperative programs and financial aids in attracting other nations. The nation considers other nations as partners and uses incentive ways to capture their interest. Soft power contrasts with hard power, which uses coercion, military force, and other influential ways in achieving desired objectives.

How do proponents of using a soft power argues that the U.S. should address the increasing economic and military growth of China?

Some of the proponents that are using soft power in exhibiting their…. [read more]


Inter-Parliamentary Union and Its Role in Enhancing International Law Term Paper

… Inter-Parliamentary Union and Its Role in Enhancing International Law

Legal Status of the Inter-Parliamentary Union

The Development of the International Institutions

The Public International Unions

The Private International Unions

Historical background of the IPU

Brief Overview of the IPU Statutes (Assemblies and Committees, Members,

Functions, Goals and Activities)

The Relationship between the IPU and the United Nations

Beneficial Cooperation between the IPU and the United Nations (Common

Goals, Agenda and Concerns)

The Importance of the Recognition of the IPU Contribution

The Role the IPU Played in Implementing Decisions taken by the Assembly of the United Nations and the Implementation of the Millennium Development

Goals

The UN as a Framework of International Machinery for the Peaceful

Settlement of Disputes

What Role can the IPU Play in…. [read more]


Globalization and the Impact to Democracy Essay

… Globalization and Democracy

"Some argue that [democracy and globalization] go hand in hand -- that unrestricted international transactions encourage political accountability and transparency and that politically free societies are least likely to restrict the mobility of goods and services. Others argue that democracies, in which special interests that suffer from foreign competition have voice, are more likely to have closed markets and vice versa" (Eichengreen, et al., 2007, p. 289).

The concept of globalization is seen by some as a new phenomenon, a concept that emerged due to the digital revolution, and due to the remarkable advances in communication and information that link states and companies with a surprising immediacy though they be in far-flung parts of the world. Globalization has been called a curse…. [read more]


Dutch Revolution, Burkean Writings and the Libyan Essay

… Dutch Revolution, Burkean Writings and the Libyan Revolution of 2001

Everywhere people have the 'desire to live in liberty', but, at least according to Guido Bentivoglio Relatione dell Provincie Unite of 1611, nowhere was 'the love for liberty' as strong as in the 'Flemish regions' (Hampsher-Monk, 1976). It was an opinion widely shared in seventeenth-century Europe. With the rest of Europe suffering from civil wars or rising absolutism, the Dutch Republic was said to offer a haven of tolerance, intellectual and individual freedom, serving as sanctuary for philosophers such as Descartes, Spinoza, Bayle, and Locke.

Conformist theories of revolution and Burkes writings edify that the revolutions like the Dutch Revolt and the modern revolutions like the one in Libya, in 2011, display one or more…. [read more]


Interventionism From the Perspective Case Study

… These studies serve as the foundation for this present analysis.

Other studies have shown that foreign military intervention can easily be conducted even if they are in violation of the United Nations charter and lack authorization of the Security Council (Cassese 1999). This shows that countries can and do act on their own in engaging in interventionism. The motives for doing so are what this study plans to investigate.

A number of Western countries support humanitarian interventionism but they have not yet intervened in Syria. The reality behind humanitarian interventionism is that there are clear political, geopolitical, and economical consequences to every foreign intervention. Intervention is not merely a humanitarian crusade but rather a highly explosive affair that can cripple countries' infrastructures and have global…. [read more]


Several Readings to Discuss 1 General Opinion Issue or Similarity Article Review

… ¶ … universality of the Western interpretation of human rights.

In Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A Quest for Consensus edited by Abdullahi Ahmed an-Naim (1992), the articles are mostly concerned with reworking the notion of human rights in an effort to achieve consensus on a 'new,' 'more universal' (or cosmopolitan) view of human rights, as "the lack or insufficiency of cultural legitimacy of human rights standards is one of the main underlying causes of violations of those standards" (1992, p. 19). Subsequently recognizing the fact that the prominent view of human rights is a Western one, an-Naim points out that, over the course of history, groups in power (or dominant classes within a society) typically uphold views and perspectives of cultural values and norms…. [read more]


Art Violence and Social Engagement in Colombia Research Proposal

… ¶ … Colombia is the third-largest recipient of military aid from the United States and is at a critical juncture in its turbulent history. More than three million people have been displaced in Colombia during the past decade alone, and violent deaths and kidnappings remain alarmingly high. While violence is nothing new to the people of Colombia, their response to its sources and causes have been portrayed in the visual arts in various ways, with one of the most recent manifestations of this being portrayal such as the "The Skin of Memory," developed by the anthropologist Pilar Riano-Alcala and the artist Suzanne Lacy in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team in Colombia. Because art must also serve a social function and civic responsibility, this thesis evaluates…. [read more]


Cold War Polarity Constitutes Term Paper

… S. policy is required to be unilateralist for the simple fact that all large powers follow essentially unilateralist policies. As a realist, he thinks the international principles and institutions as greatly as window dressing, the significance of which has been largely overstated by liberal intuitionalists. In no cases can the fostered power by the dominant power of such norms and institutions -- not withstanding the fact of its imaginative and judicious attributes -- persuade rulers in Beijing, Moscow, New Delhi, or Paris to withdraw their attempts to equilibrate.

Moreover Mearsheimer's view of hegemony is starker. He protests that no state is quite safer, that it does not necessitate acquisition of sufficient power and that a great power that has remarkable power benefits over its competing…. [read more]


Foreign Policy and Declining U.S. Influence Under the Bush and Obama Administrations Methodology Chapter

… Consecutive Executive

George W. Obama & U.S. foreign policy doctrine

When the speech writer for the former U.S. secretary of state Condoleezza Rice, Christian Brose (2009) predicted that the continuum in foreign policy initiatives as undertaken by contemporary U.S. presidents would be advanced by Barack Obama in the Making of George W. Obama, he argued that virtual erasure of bi-partisanship posturing is the domestic raison d'etre to foreign policy, and the impetus to diplomatic secession. Indeed, Brose's claim goes so far to say that Obama would continue to adopt the same international relations posture associated with the administration of predecessor president George W. Bush.

An alternative vision of the transition between the two presidencies where foreign policy doctrine is concerned is offered by way of…. [read more]


Global Warming Essay

… And in Asia, the additional flooding expected due to the melting glaciers in the Himalayas could cause severe "diarrheal disease" and could also contribute to the "toxicity of cholera" in South Asia (Mastaler, 66).

In Africa and in South Asia, the ecosystems and weather patterns will be "uniquely impacted ecologically by climate change," Mastaler continues on page 71. Due to rising temperatures and scarce water sources "drought and desertification is expected to become increasingly common and more severe" in Africa and South Asia; and the inhabitants of those regions of the world are already struggling to make ends meet may be hit the hardest by global warming (Mastaler, 71).

The Literature -- Why are there Disbelievers?

Using the phrase "global warming" can bring quite different…. [read more]


Plays of British Dramatist, Pam Gems Dissertation

… Edith once engages two marines she meets in a pub in a menage a trois; it is possible, that the bartender formed the fourth of this group. There is no indication that Edith is particularly gifted in the art of making love. She just makes her self available as a willing sexual partner. Except with Marcel Cedran, the married boxer, Edith manages to dissociate physical pleasure from any emotional foundations. With Marcel, Edith is truly in love. But this union is not to be. Anecdotes abound, that Edith's jealous sister informs Marcel's wife of her husband's "philandering." Edith's sexual proclivities and escapades are not a manifestation of her femaleness. Her sexual nature transcends gender. It is a flaw in most superstars. In Edith's case, particularly,…. [read more]


Modern Rhetoric Essay

… ¶ … Hate Begets Hate," http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/05/opinion/05tue2.html

A piece of writing cannot be rhetorically analyzed in isolation but must be considered within the context in which it was written. This editorial is an excellent example of well-timed rhetoric in that it meets the criterion of exigency. The topic -- currently proposed legislation in Uganda that would impose the death sentence for homosexuality -- is of immediate concern since international criticism may be able to derail the proposed law.

I believe that the editorial writers have properly gauged the nature of their audience in that they have correctly assessed both the emotional and psychological make-up of their readers, who are likely to be both liberal (and so agree with the editorial's criticism of the abridgement of the…. [read more]


Oscar Wilde, Rebellion of His Themes Thesis

… Oscar Wilde, Rebellion of His Themes and Morality in Comparison to the Society of the Time

The objective of this work is to discuss the central image of Oscar Wilde, both conformist and rebel and the extent to which his work contains an inherent contradiction, and specifically in his pointing out the folly of his contemporary society and his expression of values that were contrary to the social norm or that which was expected within society and simultaneously his work being published, performed and appreciated within that society. This work will discuss the central image of Wilde as a figure of contradiction and paradox.

Reality within the view of Wilde is one without a consistent value as he blurs his edges and hides behind a…. [read more]


Government the Diversionary Effects of War by US Presidents Term Paper

… Government - the Diversionary Effects of War by U.S. Presidents

The world we live in seems to be one of the most important periods in the history of humanity, as no other epoque has seen more development in terms of technology, information, and psychological manipulation. Indeed, this is the result of evolution and revolutions. However at the same time, it can be said that there are some precepts which fail to become dissolute. In this sense, in the 18th century theories have argued what today can be justified. Carl von Clausevitz considered after the French Prussian conflicts that in fact, wars represent just politics conducted with different means. Nowadays, when future offers humanity endless possibilities of traveling, thought, nanotechnology, it also ensures that populations, no…. [read more]


Compare Obama vs. G.W. Bush Foreign Policy Research Paper

… Bush v. Obama Foreign Policies

Neo-conservatism and Liberalism in Practice:

Comparing George W. Bush and Barack Obama Foreign Policies

In 2001 George W. Bush presided over the Presidency which had to face new kinds of challenges in American foreign policy. When Bush was the incumbent, the United States was attacked by terrorists, which killed nearly 3,000 Americans. The rest of Bush's Presidency reflected his Administration's response to that event and the period is known as the post-9/11 era. The eight years of Bush's Presidency was mired in many controversies -- chief among them was the Bush Administration's decision to go to war against the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq -- but also a period that did not witness any further terrorist attacks on American…. [read more]


John Grierson the Documentary Film Developed Term Paper

… John Grierson

The documentary film developed alongside the narrative film, though largely during the sound era. It was shaped most profoundly during the 1930s as filmmakers began to record sociological an anthropological studies of different populations. Some of the early films were treated much as narrative films were and were widely released in theaters, achieving some popularity. In the early 1930s, this included such films as Nanook of the North and Moana, both by Robert Flaherty. These films were different not only because they presented real people in real situations but because they were filmed on real locations and not in studios. The silent film had sometimes gone outside the confines of the studio, but the advent of sound tied the camera to the soundstage…. [read more]


Death in Spanish Literature While the Renaissance Term Paper

… Death in Spanish Literature

While the Renaissance in Europe bred abundant literature on every lively intellectual subject, the Baroque period was filled the Spanish nation with disappointment. In Europe in 1567, the Netherlands revolted against the rule of Spain under Philip II, and a costly war began. England gave their support to the Netherlands, and Philip sent the Spanish Armada to conquer England in 1588. The Armada was defeated in a humiliating sea battle and this drained the Spanish treasury.

Tragedy and death permeated the history and literature of Spain. Despite political upheaval, literature entered the Siglo de Oro (Golden Age) in Spain, spawning many creative and prolific writers in the late 16th century. The Spanish writers wrote of how talents were no match for…. [read more]


Ethnic Conflict Why Is Nationalism Relevant Research Paper

… Ethnic Conflict

Why is nationalism relevant to the experience of ethnic conflict? What are the main points Perlmutter highlights about nationalism and ethnic conflict? Which emotions does Moisi identify with specific regions of the world in his clash of emotions analysis?

There are mainly two forms of nationalism that states throughout the world have adopted. The first is civic nationalism that refers to viewing all citizens of a state as members of one nation. The United States is a prime example of a country that exhibits civic nationalism. The second is ethnic nationalism that is based on ethnicity. An example of a country exhibiting ethnic nationalism would be Turkey where the state has identified ethnic Kurds as Turks for the last eighty years, and this…. [read more]


American Empire Is There Room Essay

… V. Conclusion

Some scholars advise that even if China does manage to avoid authoritarian modernization, revolution, upheaval, and war that tend to befall most imperial countries, the country will face a different challenge in demographic deterioration. In essence, China will grow old prior to becoming rich, as Mark Haas, professor of political science at Duquesne University, has argued. Goldman Sachs posits that by 2050, China's economy will have long since overtaken the United States' economy, but by then the median age in the United States will be the lowest of any of the world's major powers with the exception of India (Joffe, 2009). Moreover, the United States' population of working people will have increased by approximately 30$ while China's will have declined by roughly 3%.…. [read more]

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