Viewing papers 1-30 of 1,000+ for political social economic reforms

NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.
123. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Political and Economic Differences Essay

… Still, China's economy remains relatively enclosed and well-protected from the ebbs and flows of the global economy, other than the inevitable pressures of consumer demand abroad.

China's economic strength in the region has bolstered and buoyed many of the smaller East Asian powerhouses nearby of the developing world, such as Vietnam, which also has an export-driven capitalist economy with an officially communist government. "Vietnam exports 70% of its rubber to China, but it buys two-thirds more rubber products from China than it sells. Generally speaking, Vietnam relies on China for a very broad range of its imports, twenty percent of its total imports, and sells coal, oil and food products to China. Vietnam is a perfect external market for Chinese goods because of similar economic…. [read more]

Comparing Assessing the Impact of Political or Economic Globalization Between Two Countries Thesis

… ¶ … Political or Economic Globalization Between Two Countries: China and India

The following work is of the nature that focuses on comparison and assessment of the impact of political or economic globalization and specifically as related to two particular countries which are those of India and China.

Despite its many critical views, globalization not only spreads democracy, but it also increases efficiency and therefore increases prosperity as well. Globalization is a realistic route out of poverty for the world's poorer populations.

The methodology employed in the present study is one that is qualitative in nature and that involves a review of literature and specifically peer-reviewed professional or academic literature.

Literature Review

In a 2003 speech entitled: "Globalization and Its Challenges" Stanley Fischer states that…. [read more]

Social Security Reform Term Paper

… According to the press release, the president believes that, "Personal accounts give younger workers the opportunity to receive higher benefits than the current system can afford to pay, and provide ownership, choice, and the opportunity for workers to build a nest egg for their retirement and to pass it on to their spouse or their children" (Social Security 4). As his second terms begins, the president has stated that he wants to work with Congress to develop an alternative framework wherein taxpayers would have a choice between using the personal investment accounts or to simply continue to draw their benefits as they do now. Finally, the White House press release on Social Security notes that, "Any proposal will include limitations on the risk of investments…. [read more]

China's Economic Reform an Examination Term Paper

… The problem is not small either; in fact, between 100 to 150 million surplus rural workers remain unemployed or underemployed, with many of them subsisting only through part-time and low-paying jobs (China Economy 4). China's accession to the World Trade Organization, though, better positioned the country to take advantage of its existing competitive advantage but some observers caution that this initiative will add further fuel to the social fires that are already burning throughout the country (China Economy 5). In fact, Li (2003) suggests that the long-term costs of delaying badly needed constitutional reforms may ultimately outweigh the short-term gains in the country's economic performance.


The research showed that China in general, and regions such as Guangdong in particular, have reaped the benefits of…. [read more]

Russia and China's Economic Reform Term Paper

… Therefore, the enthusiasm to establish social welfare reconstructions meant for the farmers in China was of course greater than that in Russia. In case of Russian farmers as reform implied that they would have to bid adieu to "socialist welfare" their enthusiasm truly is feeble. (Russia's fall, China's Rise? - Comparing Transitions of Russia and China: (Part I))

The speedier development of China has primarily arrived from resource reallocation, e.g. industrialization -- low-priced rural labor migrating from low productivity agricultural sector to the industrial sector. Russia on the contrary, is experiencing a very unusual concern. Initially at the early phases of the reformation China was primarily an agrarian peasant economy. (Could Russia Have Learned from China?) Russia on the contrary to this is regarded as…. [read more]

Social Security Crisis Term Paper


Any time money is a topic of serious discussion, emotions tend to run high. Those who support privatization insist that if we do not add "ownership" in the form of personal investments to the plan as just requiring future workers to shoulder a tremendous burden, and that after they have done this, their benefits will be lower (Reynolds, PAGE). This does seem to be a possibility if nothing is done. Other experts, however, look at the situation differently. They argue that younger workers must set up personal retirement accounts such as IRA's because they cannot be certain Social Security will be there for them when the time comes for them to retire (Reynolds, PAGE).

However, people tend to talk about the problem in emotional…. [read more]

Economic Development Is a Key Term Paper

… System of incentivizing workers to increase productivity was also introduced.

(Chenery) in a comparative framework for assessing performance of China in comparison to other developing countries says that China has achieved the adequate industrial structure and investment structure of a middle-income country. The author says, "In the case of China, industrialization has proceeded much further than is typical for countries of its income level." The author also attributes slow population growth in the country as a factor to achieve economic growth. Moreover he gives credit to the autarkic policies followed over three decades in China for its industrial growth.

China now has a per capita gross national income of about U.S.$4,260 (World Bank). It stands in the queue of upper middle-income countries. Now the country…. [read more]

Reforms Who Were the Progressives Essay

… S., state and local governments. The problem was that this caused, trade to decline with partners imposing similar kind of duty. The combination of these factors created an environment that allowed the Depression to spread quickly around the world. (Devine) (Murphy 27 -- 63)

How did the harsh realities of the Great Depression transform American politics and economics?

The realities of the Great Depression demonstrated that there needs to better protections for the general public and the economy. This is because there was a lack of regulations, which helped contribute to the bubble and subsequent collapse. The most notable include: regulating the stock market and the banking sector. In the case of the stock market, there were no laws limiting the activities of investors and…. [read more]

Social Policy and Economic Policy? Essay

… This, in turn, will be elevating for the economy.

Keynesianism goals are several:

1. Economic spending - where increase of ability spend boosts earnings in others. This in turn has a positive effect on the economy and encourages competition which stimulates innovation and leads to increase in employment.

2. Greater government investment in economy -- This promotes public spending and serves as model example. Government should invest and introduce incentives as well as engage in government spending in order to encourage people to spend.

If the government has little money at the moment, it should borrow money in order to boost demand by pushing money into the economy. The government can repay once the economy has stabilized.

Private investors too should be encouraged to contribute…. [read more]

Political, Social, and Economic Reforms in Great Term Paper

… Political, Social, & Economic Reforms in Great Britain Through 1850

Between 1831 and 1850, Great Britain experienced numerous economical, political and social problems that threatened to literally tear the country apart. For many of those associated with the English government, especially the men that sat in the House of Lords and the House of Commons, it was clear that after the disastrous war with the American Colonies that England must somehow reform its laws and statutes that mostly affected the middle and lower classes. Thus, many new bills and acts were passed that in essence served as the dynamic process for change in Great Britain. The Industrial Revolution, which had vastly altered the social and economic face of England between 1750 and 1850, brought about…. [read more]

Economic Miracle Post War Term Paper

… Economic Miracle: Japan 1946-1973

Japan lies in the Eastern Coast of Asia between the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan (Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2007). Its total land area is roughly 378,000 square kilometers. It consists of Hokkaido in the North, Honshu at the center, and Shikoku and Kyushu in the South (Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Japan at present competes for world leadership in terms of GDP per capita and wage per hour with the United States (Luu et al. 1996). In comparison, Japan's GNP at about $34,000 is higher than the U.S.A.'s only $25,000. Japan's wage per hour is roughly $16 compared to only $12 of the U.S. These figures demonstrate that Japan is 35-45% ahead of the U.S.A. (Luu et al.). This…. [read more]

Economic and Trade Development Thesis

… Economic and Trade Development

The economic situation of Western Europe was faring extremely well in the first thirteen years of the 20th century following the Industrial Revolution. However, the growth of Nazism and Fascism followed by the World Wars and the Great Depression plunged most of the major European states particularly Germany and France into a seemingly irretrievable economic situation. What happened in Western Europe after the Second World War was an exceptional case of economic turnaround with a remarkable and swift pace of transformation to an industrialized society. This exceptional growth lasted only until 1973 but in this short span of time, it placed the Western Europe economy at par with other industrialized economies of the world despite the phenomenal destruction of men, materials…. [read more]

Political, Social and Economic Plan Term Paper

… It is my belief that we must adopt the good points of any system that suits us without labeling them as 'capitalism' or 'socialism' etc. It is now an accepted fact that no country can develop in isolation and even previous 'isolationists' like communist China have integrated into the international economy. The double-edged ramifications of 'Globalization' as experienced by the Asian 'tiger' countries have taught us that while Globalization makes it possible for countries to enjoy one another's strengths by the flow of products, ideas, technologies and investments, it also exposes them to each other's weaknesses. (Samuelson, 2002) It is, therefore, vital for us to avoid the mistakes made by others and benefit from the liberalized world economies while being on guard against the perils…. [read more]

Political Science International Political Economy: Realist, Liberal Research Paper

… Political Science

International Political Economy:

Realist, Liberal, and Marxist Perspectives

The current international order is in a state of flux. As economics becomes ever more global in scale, nation states struggle to maintain their independent powers and spheres of influence. The more than three hundred year old Westphalian order has been replaced, to a significant extent, by a system of international organizations, and an international political economy that has attempted to coalesce around a single hegemon. Through agreements such as Bretton Woods, the United States established its currency as the world's reserve standard. The petroleum that fuels the globe's industrial powerhouses is, by and large, bought and sold in dollars. The United States, despite enormous declines in industrial output, and a move toward a post-industrial…. [read more]

Public Finance and Legislative Procedures Essay

… Social Security in the U.S.: Better than CPP and OAS?

According to a 2009 poll by the National Academy for Social Insurances, 2/3 of Americans would choose to strengthen the United States' Social Security System over using its revenues to balance the national deficit (Leigh, 2010). Given the volatile state of the economy and the recent decrease in the international credit standing of the United States, the overwhelming support for bolstering a program that assists the elderly and the disabled demonstrates the exigence of such a program to protect workers in their retirement or in their time of medical need. Contrast this need, though, with the findings from the Cato Institute regarding the solvency of the U.S. Social Security System:

The Social Security system will…. [read more]

Social Security Research Paper

… This is going to have dire consequences when the current politicians are all dead and young people inherent a bankrupt Social Security system, right around the time they finish paying off their student loans and can start saving for a down payment on a house. Without concrete action today to restructure the Social Security system, it will face a funding catastrophe that will be difficult to resolve by the time politicians feel motivated to address it.


Autor, D. & Duggan, M. (2006). The growth in social security disability rolls: A fiscal crisis unfolding. NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from

Biggs, A. (2011). Means testing and its limits. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from (2014). FAQs. Social…. [read more]

Social Security Since Its Inception Term Paper

… Currently, financial analysts advise younger people that they can no longer depend on Social Security benefits for their retirement. Instead, they need to provide for at least half of their retirement income on their own.

Social Security Crisis

While estimates regarding the year vary, most experts agree that the Social Security funds will face a cash deficit in the foreseeable future. The large number of baby boomers who are expected to retire starting 2008 will serve to add large numbers of beneficiaries while removing a significant proportion of workers who currently pay FICA contributions. This problem will be worsened by the decrease in the number of new workers, since most baby boomers had smaller families the generation preceding them. As a result of these two…. [read more]

Role of Private Investment on Economic Development in Iraq Literature Review

… Role of Private Investment on Economic Development in Iraq

Private investment in developing countries

An overview on early Empirical studies

In 1980s, the developing countries encountered some increment in their development behaviours with debt crisis, which affected the formation of capital. Concurrently, the affected countries were transforming from the post-era to a structural reform efforts. In mid 1980s, the developing countries adopted the reform programs within the new paradigms (Serven&Salimano, 1993) & (Jaspersen, Aylward&Sumlinski, 1970). Consequently, this led to the formation of environmental private sector that highly relied on the existing market. The formation and implementation of the new policies affected the availability of response to the private investments. The debt crisis lowered the private investments within the developing countries and this disheartened them. The…. [read more]

Social, Cultural, and Political Influence Research Paper

… S. (Crinson, 2009).

An alternate factor in the health care access issue is recognized in instances of urban poor. Information from urban slums shows that newborn and under-five death rates for the poorest forty percent of the urban populace are as high as the remote ranges (Crinson, 2009). Urban inhabitants are extremely powerless to macroeconomic stuns that undermine their earning limit and expedite substitution towards cheaper and less nutritious foods. Individuals in urban slums are especially influenced because of poor sanitation, absence of appropriate housing, fit sanitation, and legitimate education (Wilkerson, 2008). Financially, they lack reserve funds, extensive sustenance stocks that they can draw down over the long haul. Urban slums are also home to a wide display of irresistible illnesses like HIV / AIDS,…. [read more]

Neoliberal Economic Models the Future Essay

… Such a piecemeal introduction would allow for artificial intrusions to the marketplace in ways that could be far more damaging than current ones in that they could introduce more government interference that already exists.

Trade liberalization (which is also generally known as free trade) assumes that government at all levels (but especially the federal level) does not intentionally affect or unbalance the flow of imports and exports across its borders. This means that the government supports (or requires) neither subsidies nor tariffs.

The World Trade Organization is the primary enforcing agency of such an economic perspective in the world today and it is not coincidental that such an agency must exist on the super-national level. Nation-states are under considerable pressure to protect their own industries…. [read more]

International Politics Economics Essay

… International Political Economics

The international financial system has changed significantly over the past thirty years. Among the most significant changes, the Bretton Woods system collapsed, regulations regarding transborder capital flows have eased and the Euro was created. Each of these major changes has contributed significantly to the global financial system we have today.

The Bretton Woods system was devised in the wake of the Second World War and was based on pegging the world's major currencies to the value of gold. The pegs were to be within 1%. By 1968, Bretton Woods had been adapted to a floating rate system. The U.S. dollar, the reserve currency under Bretton Woods, was unable to maintain its peg. The U.S. dollar became overvalued in relation to gold.

The…. [read more]

Globalization and Workers Term Paper

… Globalization -- Take-Home Test

Neoliberal globalization has specific consequences for women workers from the global South. What are these consequences, and why do you think this is the case? How have women workers responded?

"We are told to tighten our belts -- but in this belt-tightening, others are loosening" (Chang, 123).

In the peer-reviewed Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography the authors explain that there are competing arguments for the effects that globalization has had on female workers in Africa. In one of the arguments, it is said that "…globalization and liberalization offer entrepreneurial opportunities for women" (Johnston-Anumonwo, 2011, p. 8). But on the other hand Johnston-Anumonwo points out there is an argument to be made that "…the neoliberal political and economic reforms" that are linked…. [read more]

Economic Conditions and General Dynamics Term Paper

… Since the 1980s, they have risen and moved further away from normal ratios. The female illiteracy rate has been consistently higher than that of men. About 70% of China's 140 million estimated illiterates are women, concentrated in the economically underdeveloped rural regions.


World growth is forecast to begin recovering from the recession in 2002, with the world GDP will rise by 2.5% in real terms, purchasing power parity rates, before growing by 4.1% in 2003. The U.S. economy has passed its low point and will recover later in 2002. The OECD economies, which are key destinations for China's merchandise exports, are expected to lead the world economic upturn. World trade growth will accelerate from just 0.9% in 2002 to 7% in 2003. Global inflation…. [read more]

Argentina Political Factors Research Paper

… Argentina

Political System

Argentina was founded in 1816 as the United Province of Rio Plata, and today's nation is what remained after Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay split from that country (CIA World Factbook, 2012). Argentina is a republic, and throughout most of the 20th century its political system was characterized by instability. The central government has three branches, the executive, legislative and judicial. The current

President is Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner. There are 23 administrative divisions and one autonomous city (Buenos Aires).

The instability in Argentina's government, often with forms of military intervention, came in 1983. Since that point, Argentina has enjoyed a democratic system, albeit sometimes with limited transparency. During the 1990s the country had peso-dollar convertibility as a key economic policy, but this…. [read more]

Kenyan Reform Policy Successful? Term Paper

… The production of food crops such as maize, potatoes, and beans went on a decline. Horticultural product exports on the other hand increased by 18 per cent compared to the previous year. During the same year, tea and coffee exports rose by 7.7 per cent and 5.2 per cent respectively making Kenya for the first time the world's leading tea exporter. (, 2001)


Adverse economic conditions prevailing in the country hampered the growth of this sector in 1992. This trend of slow growth continued in 1994 due to lack of adequate funds for public projects. Employment in this sector rose from 21,000 people in 1993 to 26,000 people in 1994. Slowdown in economic activities in the domestic economy and lack of adequate funds for…. [read more]

Mexico Economic and Political Situation Term Paper

… Drug syndicates in Mexico control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country, which also operates as a significant money-laundering center. This continued illegal drug trade in Mexico has led many political and economic critics to view Mexico with a discerning eye. Furthermore, the corruption widely noted in the Mexican police and border control officials has also contributed to the problem of drug trafficking out of Mexico. From an international perspective, unless the Mexican government takes steps necessary to remedy this serious problem, other countries will try their hand at attempting to regulate this issue, which may not be in the best interest of the Mexican agricultural economy.

Mexico's trade with the United States and Canada has tripled since 1994, and currently, Mexico has 12…. [read more]

Reforms After Communism in Poland and Yugoslavia Term Paper

… Reforms After Communism in Poland and Yugoslavia

The communist rule in Europe marked an important historical moment. It represented the framework for the political, social, economic, and cultural evolution of most East European countries. Nonetheless, each country faced a somewhat different experience and therefore, once the fall of the Berlin Wall sealed the end of communism, the consequences of this regime were all the more different. Poland and Yugoslavia are an eloquent example of the way in which post communist countries recovered or failed to do so. Although there are certain similarities between the two, Poland and Yugoslavia now stand at practically opposing points of development.

Overall, the first clear distinction is their positioning in relation to the international organizations and forums. Poland, on the…. [read more]

Economic Advisor to a Less Developed Nation in Africa Essay

… Economic Advisor to a Less-Developed Naton in Africa

Economic Advisor to a Less-Developed Nation in Africa

For many years, experts in fiscal decentralization and local public finances have held the firm opinion that tax is close to an ideal tax for local government finance. The experts have presented compelling reasons why they hold this conviction. This study provides some recommendations to property taxes in Least Developing Country (LDC) on how they can achieve their objectives.

Property Tax

Role that I would assign to property taxes in this nation to achieve its objectives

LDC's should assign revenue sources, particularly taxes to each level of government. This will enable the country to align expenditure assignments with sufficient revenue thus raising capacity at every level of the government…. [read more]

Economic Development of Eastern Essay

… The relative success of Western Europe's economic policies following World War II is evidenced by the stark distinction between the economic development of East and West Germany following the war, because while the former was dependent upon, and controlled by the Soviet Union, the latter had access to the definitively more well-off Western Europe, and as such was able to expand its economy much more rapidly and freely. This is why, for example, West Germany had no problem cutting off all economic ties to East Germany in 1951; "the inner German trade was much more important for East than West Germany," because the East depended heavily on the importation of crucial materials such as steel, coal, and iron, while West Germany had a much broader…. [read more]

Privatization of Social Security Term Paper

… With our growing utilization of air power, in fifty years we'll be wondering why we spent so much money on destroyers, frigates, battleships, submarines, and the like. We need aircraft carriers and ships to protect them, but it is hard to think of a way to justify the continued use of other ships that can take weeks to deploy to hostile places when we have planes that can be there in hours.

As the so-called Third World becomes gradually more industrialized, all of its people are going to want a higher standard of living. This means, at some point, cars and fuel for them, plus tons of plastic gadgets and plastic packaging for the plastic gadgets -- all made from petroleum. Since mother nature isn't…. [read more]

123. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.