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International Political Economy in the U.S Term Paper

… International Political Economy in the U.S.

Political economy has become two artificially diverse things, political study and economics. However the seeds of political success always lie in the success of the economic policies of any government. Political needs often shape economic policies, and these often are beneficial as in the times of depression or are disastrous, as will be seen when political policies are examined in the context of the economic impact. America is the nation where capitalism was experimented when it got independence. Capitalism was the driving economic force that made the U.S. what it is, and is still the fundamental force behind its development and becoming a world wide presence. That capitalism could be experimented in the new constitution was itself a result…. [read more]

International Financial Management Report Term Paper

… International Financial Management

The sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone -- focused on Greece, Spain, Portugal and Ireland but threatening to spread to other countries as well -- has been caused be a number of different factors. Of the nations involved, Greece has long been in an unstable financial position, while countries like Ireland and Spain has strong financial positions prior to the bursting of the housing bubble and the global financial crisis. Aside from Greece, therefore, the financial crisis precipitated much of the crisis. Observers from outside of Europe have noted that the Euro currency itself is a major contributor to the crisis. Where devaluation is not an option, recovery is inherently slower and more painful, which in turn has an impact on the…. [read more]

International Pol. Ec Essay

… Competing in a no-growth scenario typically emphasizes cost reductions to help the firm compete on price. Such scaling back of the business also insulates the firm against future shock as well, up to and including a banking system shock that makes the acquisition of capital more difficult.

The financial regionalism scenario will increase economic regionalism in general. For a domestic IT firm, this will make it more difficult to expand into the world's growth regions (notably Asia). However, if these challenges can be overcome, the firm can build growth outside of the sluggish domestic market. No matter if this course of action is undertaken, the firm must adjust to this economic dynamic by making adjustments to its domestic operations, either by cost-cutting or by seeking…. [read more]

Political and Economic Implications of International Debt Essay

… Political and Economic Imlications of International Debt

International debt can be seen as an element part of the international financial infrastructure. At its surface, one can consider it as a way by which governments add money to their budgets in order to be able to increase their governmental spending on projects which will benefit the population. However, this is an extremely one-sided, positive perspective.

Sometimes, as was the case with Argentina, international debt and foreign borrowing is used as a mean to finance governmental deficits rather than concrete projects. At other times, the macroeconomic imbalances that these debts create bring less rather than more to the country. Finally, some argue, and history seems to provide examples in this sense, that international debt is often used…. [read more]

International Lending Implications Thesis

… International Lending Implications

International lending - historical evolution and potential causes

International movements of capital fluctuated a lot in the last 150 years. The reasons that generated these fluctuations were subject to a considerable number of economic studies.

Eichengreen (1990a) brought into discussion three potential explanations for this pattern. The first explanation referred to the international gold standard, which would explain the high volume of international capital flows because this standard minimized exchange rate risk, considered to be one of the factors discouraging international investment. The gold standard implies that the value of money in circulation is linked to the store of gold. When currencies are fixed to a gold standard it means that these currencies are fixed to each other and one of the…. [read more]

International Business Country a -- United States Essay

… International Business

Country a -- United States

Country B - United Arab Emirates

Industry -- Telecommunications Equipment

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven emirates situated on the Arabian Gulf and bordered by Saudi Arabia and Oman. The UAE has become an economic source of power in the region throughout recent decades, with the original momentum arising out of its petroleum exports. In a few years, the UAE has branched out its economy as a regional financial, services and tourism center. This movement to a non-commodity-based export economy has provided opportunities for U.S. businesses to tap into a progressively more multifaceted economic environment in the UAE. The UAE is recognized in the region as a business-friendly nation with a government focused on…. [read more]

International Relations Making Poverty History Term Paper

… International Relations

Making Poverty History

For more than fifty years now, it has been recognized that the nations of the world are divided between the "haves" and the "have nots."

The "haves" are the developed countries - technologically advanced and economically successful. Their populations are educated and by and large enjoy a high material standard of living. Decent healthcare is reasonably accessible, and endemic ill-health, scarcity of food and other basic resources are virtually unknown. And there are the "have nots" - countries lacking a modern infrastructure and whose economies are poorly developed. The people in these countries frequently endure grinding poverty, hunger, and disease. Conditions here have barely improved despite half a century of efforts on the part of the developed world. The United…. [read more]

International Capital Markets Term Paper

… International Capital Markets

Capital markets provide the means to raise capital for all ventures. The investments in the products available in the capital markets help generate funds and stabilize interest rates. It is also an indicator pertaining to the status of the economy as also the fluctuations in the capital market and lending rates creates far reaching changes in the economy in the short run. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries when most countries were the colony of the European countries particularly Britain, the capital markets were institutions of international nature. After the first and Second World War, the fragmentation and independence of nations created institutions in each nation with regulators within the nation. The modern era has seen the emergence of the international capital…. [read more]

European Economic Crisis -- Greek Term Paper

… Recent OECD data show that Greece is among the least recipient of foreign direct investment capital in Europe. The cold attitude of Greece in its business dealings with countries all over the world reduces their chances of receiving foreign aid for paying out the debts (Abboushi 2012).

Inefficiencies in the Public Sector

The real appreciation of wages in the public sector and the increase of employees in the public sector of Government and municipalities led to a reallocation of capital and labour away from the private sector and especially from export oriented sectors leading to the loss in competitiveness and the increase in the current account deficit (Kouretas, Georgios and Vlamis 2010). The private sector received a setback, as it was immensely dependent on government…. [read more]

U.S. National Debt Term Paper

… U.S. National Debt

United States National Debt

national debt represents the amount of money the government owes to its creditors and it is currently maintaining its ascendant trend. On the 12th of October 2007, it was estimated at a total value of $9.030 trillion, out of which $5.038 trillion was held by the public and $3.992 trillion was represented by intergovernmental debt holdings. The opinions in regard to the large amount of the debt vary, some arguing that the debt is beneficial, others stating the contrary. Whichever strategy the U.S. Government will apply towards the regularization of the national debt, it will have implications on the U.S. economy and on the following generations.

Economic Effects

The effects that an increased national debt has upon the…. [read more]

European Debt Crisis Beginning Essay

… e. Euro Bonds). The basic idea is that interlinking the stronger and weaker economies together will have greater fiscal controls over government spending. However, there are divisions among some nations (i.e. France and Germany) about when they should be issued. France believes that these instruments must be used right away for dealing with all of the weaker nations' financial problems. Whereas Germany, feels that this is not a substitute for the fiscal causes. Instead, they want to see these nations' make drastic changes to austerity programs, spending and taxes. Once this happens, is the point that Germany thinks that Euro Bonds should be issued. This is because they believe that there needs to be a long-term solution to the challenges facing the EU. In the…. [read more]

Neoliberal Economic Models the Future Essay

… Such a piecemeal introduction would allow for artificial intrusions to the marketplace in ways that could be far more damaging than current ones in that they could introduce more government interference that already exists.

Trade liberalization (which is also generally known as free trade) assumes that government at all levels (but especially the federal level) does not intentionally affect or unbalance the flow of imports and exports across its borders. This means that the government supports (or requires) neither subsidies nor tariffs.

The World Trade Organization is the primary enforcing agency of such an economic perspective in the world today and it is not coincidental that such an agency must exist on the super-national level. Nation-states are under considerable pressure to protect their own industries…. [read more]

Comparing Assessing the Impact of Political or Economic Globalization Between Two Countries Thesis

… ¶ … Political or Economic Globalization Between Two Countries: China and India

The following work is of the nature that focuses on comparison and assessment of the impact of political or economic globalization and specifically as related to two particular countries which are those of India and China.

Despite its many critical views, globalization not only spreads democracy, but it also increases efficiency and therefore increases prosperity as well. Globalization is a realistic route out of poverty for the world's poorer populations.

The methodology employed in the present study is one that is qualitative in nature and that involves a review of literature and specifically peer-reviewed professional or academic literature.

Literature Review

In a 2003 speech entitled: "Globalization and Its Challenges" Stanley Fischer states that…. [read more]

International Trade and Comparative Advantage Term Paper

… The KEI, Innovation, Education, and Information Infrastructure for Egypt, the Middle East and the world are provided in Table 1 below.

Table 1. KEI, Innovation, Education, and Information Infrastructure for Egypt vs. The Middle East and the World.



Econ. Incentive Regime



Information Infrastructure







Middle East and North Africa












Source: KAM 2005:2-3.

Figure 1 below shows that Egypt enjoys a slight advantage over its Middle Eastern and North African neighbors in terms of its Knowledge Economy Index and Education, and vast superiority in terms of its Innovation qualities, but lags behind the region and the rest of the world in terms of its Information Infrastructure.…. [read more]

CPI and Global Economy Essay

… History Of Quantification

Corruption Quantified

Country comparisons serve many purposes: Economic, political, social, educational, and so on. Many countries -- and likely all of the developed countries -- conduct country comparisons that are focused on international trade and overall national economic status. The collection of international economic data has been increasingly influenced by sophisticated strategy and technique, largely because national fiscal markets are globally linked and multinational corporations engage at high rates with foreign supply chain vendors (Podobnik, et al., 2008). Measures such as the gross domestic product (GDP), the consumer price index (PCPI), general government gross and net debt, and purchasing power parity (PPP) are all used to understand the economic status, monetary exchange, and other fiscal dynamics in different countries ("WEO," 2014). Discourse…. [read more]

Economics Evaluate Explanations Offered Essay

… (Gwartney, Stroup, Sobel, & MacPherson, 2008 )

One of the main reasons as to why China is a tough place to do business in is the fact that there are no set laws on counterfeiting and piracy is rampant in the absence of regulatory checks. This means that businesses looking to set up there will have to face the pressure from sub-standard fake products that can eat into its revenues as well as tarnish its image in the consumer's mind, a consumer who unknowingly buys these counterfeit versions.

Another factor is that Chinese government is oppressive in that any voices that rise to challenge the government are oppressed and are punished severely. Especially so in cases of media reporting where people looking to express themselves…. [read more]

Principal-Agent Model in Economics Dissertation

… The entire implementation procedure was accomplished in twelve sequential steps, staring mainly from the reduction and the removal of the customs and import quotas among the trading coalition. The Tunisia-EU free area trading agreement after affects and whereabouts are discussed in order to explore the findings about the research question that is the impact of the Tunisia-EU agreement on the trading patterns of Tunisia.

Literature Review

The international political perspectives of free trade

A Global Analysis

The growth of world trade has consistently outstripped rates of world output in post-war years, a trend that has continued to play a key role in the internationalization of economic activity and to deepen global inter-dependence of regions and nations. In 1994 world trade was valued at $5.14 trillion,…. [read more]

Global Economy Key Player Essay

… S. needs its strong financial system. Under the current approach to oversight, this means that bailouts of the financial system are necessary to preserve the health of the nation's economy. There is the risk that economic catastrophe here will compromise the rise of American values around the world

Preservation of the international order is another key interest of the United States in this situation. Harmony within the Eurozone countries is key to harmony within the European Union. If there is a perception that some nations within the zone are not being treated fairly, and the euro collapses, such an event could destabilize Europe. More pressing than the political order is the economic order. The European Union and Eurozone represent two of the most important partners…. [read more]

Government Subsidized Student Loans Thesis

… Higher education is taken to be a safeguard against unemployment with statistics indicating that unemployment among university graduates was 4.4% whereas for people who had not completed secondary school, unemployment was near 11.5%. (The Economist, 2011)

Although the phenomenon, with the state supporting education may sound ideal, and other emerging countries too might try to emulate the model in an effort to bring their economies up to par, several contrary view points have been voiced by critics that question the economic and political feasibility of the subsidized student loans.

Foremost is the startling figure of $1 trillion worth of outstanding student loans. Secondly there are arguments that this loan is for students who have already completed their studies and hence subsidizing it further will not…. [read more]

Risks From International Business Case Study

… The threat of a lower credit ratings of the United States, which ended up happening last week sending the world's stock and equity markets into a tailspin, could not have been fully anticipated by even the most astute global planning department of an international business. The focus of global markets on solvency is making international business extremely difficult to stabilize today, leading to countries reverting to much more stringent levels of credit and payment globally. The net result is that international businesses need to work much more efficiently to gain new business by accelerating their new products and services to market

What does this chapter reveal about the relationship between an MNCs degree of international business and its risk?

MNCs have the most significant risk…. [read more]

National Debt Jefferson vs. Hamilton Term Paper

… ¶ … Macro Vision of Jefferson vs. Hamilton

The debate and sparring that took place in the 1790s between the Federalists and the anti-Federalists had a huge impact on the progression of American history. Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists, and he had married into the wealthy Schuyler family, representing the urban mercantile interests of the seaports; the anti-Federalists, led by Thomas Jefferson, was the mouthpiece for the rural and southern interests. The debate between Hamilton and Jefferson concerned the power of the federal government vs. that of the states' governments, with the Federalists favoring the former and the anti-Federalists advocating states' rights.

Hamilton sought a strong central government acting in the interests of commerce and industry. He brought to public life a love of efficiency,…. [read more]

Shareholder Capitalism as a Model Research Paper

… The opportunity to easily remove equity made a wealth effect-driven increase in consumer consumption, raising housing as well as retail sectors whilst producing increasingly risky amounts of household bill (Greenspan and Kennedy 2008). As soon as house costs inescapably corrected course, countless homeowners saw themselves owing much more on their house than it had been worth, as well as mortgage non-payments made a cascading financial shrinkage that rapidly dispersed all over the world. At this moment, approximately one mortgage in 4 in the U.S.A. is underwater (i.e., a home is worth lower than the total amount left over the loan)-a figure likely to rise in the near future (Davis, 2010).

The flooding of this real estate bubble as well as its attendant after-effects revealed the…. [read more]

Europe Debt Crisis the Maastricht Treaty Produced Essay

… Europe Debt Crisis

The Maastricht Treaty produced a set of criteria which were to be met by countries seeking to join the Eurozone and adopt the euro as their currency. During the initial evaluation, Greece failed to meet the criteria, but later gained entry by way of fraud. The current economic crisis has exposed Greece and created a sovereign debt crisis in that country. Other economies have also suffered, in particular Ireland and Spain, which both face deflation and sky-high unemployment.

The situation in Greece is the worst of the three, with its debt achieving junk status as the interest rate on the 10-year note breaking the 10% barrier. The result is that each of these countries will be forced to face potentially years of…. [read more]

How Does Canada's Federal System Affect Economic Policy in the Recovery? Term Paper

… ¶ … Canada's Federal system affect economic policy in the recovery?

In answering this question, you might consider the following (though you should NOT treat them as a series of short answer questions):

What is the most important economic priority for Jim Flaherty, the Federal Minister of Finance? Why is it important to him?

What is the most important economic priority for Dwight Duncan, the Minister of Finance for Ontario? Why is it important to him?

How might Flaherty's policies increase Canadian competitiveness? How might Duncan's policies increase Ontario's competitiveness?

What are the advantages to having different economic policies at the Provincial and Federal level? Disadvantages?


The most important economic priority for Jim Flaherty, the Federal Minister of Finance is to insulate Canada…. [read more]

Business Economics Vincent Term Paper

… (Global Agenda; Brown' red box, full of pink slips)

The targets set in these are to improve government service and in Canada the objective is to make the users at least more satisfied by 10% by 2005. In Italy, the government has set up its own charter in 7,000 agencies and local governments. The targets are defined in concrete terms like hospitals cutting waiting lists, schools increasing literacy rates, etc. The manager concerned has to take care of this when he decides on the activities of the department. Some of the other countries like Denmark and Finland have tried to remove one of the main problems of managing public service, and that through the retention of any surpluses that arise from the current year's budget…. [read more]

Disrupting America's Economic System Term Paper

… The U.S. Treasury, led by Andrew Shaw, subsidized these gold flows by offering to temporarily place public deposits in banks if they imported gold from abroad.

The policy lowered the gold import point by offsetting the interest lost while gold was in transit. Goodhart [1969], however, notes that the gold import point was often low enough to have justified specie inflows without the subsidy. In the fixed exchange rate world of 1906, such large gold outflows were a significant threat to a country's ability to maintain the par value of its currency, which, for the pound sterling, was $4.867.

Faced with its lowest ratio of reserves to deposits since the 1893 crisis, the Bank of England nearly doubled its discount rate, from 3 1/2% on…. [read more]

Due to Changes Essay

… As it can also be observed that what Citibank did in the India market is also on example of online transactions. Furthermore the users are now able to transact money through their mobile devices. One more amazing feature which can be observed is that users will be able to deposit money through ATM machines by this the burden on the branch networking will be lowered. The development in the technological field have provided users several methods to transact whichever suits them the best, hence more consumer focused exercises are being conducted these days.

It can be observed that advancements in the technological factors enable the financial institutions to provide the customers better services and best response in timely manner.

Risks and Benefits of Carry Trade…. [read more]

EU Enlargement and Economic Growth in the New Member Research Paper

… ¶ … 1979, the European Monetary System (EMS) was established to stabilize exchange rates between the participating European countries. After a decade, the Single European Act of 1987 was set to pave the way for a single European market and for a monetary union, known as European Monetary Union (EMU). The Maastricht Treaty, which was signed on February 7, 1992, and came into effect on November 1, 1993. Subsequently, European Union was established. Further, on January 1, 1994, the European monetary institute was established in Frankfurt to lay the groundwork and rules for the European Systems of Central Banks, which is responsible for the general oversight of the preparation of EMU. The European Union (EU) was established with the commitment of economic and monetary union…. [read more]

Globalization and the Impacts in the Politics of Authority Essay

… Globalization and the Impacts in the Politics of Authority

Does globalization impact in triggering recent economic recession?

The current financial crisis will be remembered as one of the most serious in the history of world capitalism. The increasing difficulty experienced by the financial authorities of the major economies and by international financial bodies in limiting the most devastating effects of events on the world economy makes it difficult, in turn, to handle banking and financial crises. The current institutional composition of the markets, the deregulated nature of those markets and the vast liquid assets in private hands have even placed limits on concerned action by national governments. This does not allow anticipating stabilization, but, on the contrary, it might be alleged that episodes of large…. [read more]

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing Thesis

… But just as China (Beijing consensus)'s economic and military power does not yet match that of the United States, China (Beijing consensus)'s soft power still has a long way to go as demonstrated by a Chicago Council on Global Affairs poll. China (Beijing consensus) does not have cultural industries like Hollywood, and its universities are not yet the equal of the United States. It lacks the many non-governmental organizations that generate much of U.S. soft power. Politically, China (Beijing consensus) suffers from corruption, inequality, and a lack of democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. While that may make the "Beijing consensus" attractive in authoritarian and semi-authoritarian developing countries, it undercuts China (Beijing consensus)'s soft power in the West. Although China (Beijing consensus)'s new…. [read more]

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