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Predestination and Free Will as These Concepts Essay

… ¶ … Predestination and Free Will as These Concepts Were Understood in Islam by the Jabrites and the Qadarites

An Insight into Prestination and Free Will in the Jabrites and Qadarites

One of the dilemmas that continues to hold resonance for religious thinkers is the question of fate vs. freedom. This question has had an intrinsic appeal throughout the ages. It is sometimes spawned out of the sense that there may be forces beyond human control -- whether benevolent or hostile -- which influence a person's capacity to choose and to act.

From a theological perspective, this dilemma raises important questions that have played out in Islamic debates over predestination and free will. Does the divine decree eliminate choice? Are humans masters of their own…. [read more]

Dutiful Children of Loving God Martin Luther Term Paper

… Dutiful Children of Loving God

Martin Luther's 1520 treatise on the Freedom of a Christian (sometimes translated from the German "Von der Freiheit eines Christenmenschen" as "A Treatise on Christian Liberty") developed key aspects of his theology. In this treatise he examines an idea that can be seen (within the context of his overall writings and teachings), the concept that Christians are fully forgiven children of God. Because God is perfect, his forgiveness is perfect. Thus even although humans will remain limited and corrupt, God's love (and the grace that arises through Jesus's self-sacrifice) humans can achieve salvation through the simple acceptance of faith into their lives.

In this treatise, Luther argues that humans are freed from the obligation to perform good deeds and are…. [read more]

Salvation Debate- Calvinism and Arminianism Essay

… Arminius believed that man cannot be saved unless it is man's will to be saved. Man cannot continue in salvation unless he continues to "will" to be saved. Man can choose to walk away from God's salvation. The Conditional preservation of the saints, or commonly conditional security, is the Arminian belief that believers are kept safe by God in their saving relationship with Him upon the condition of a persevering faith in Christ. Arminians find the Scriptures describing both the initial act of faith in Christ, "whereby the relationship is effected, and the persevering faith in Him whereby the relationship is sustained." The relationship of "the believer to Christ is never a static relationship existing as the irrevocable consequence of a past decision, act, or…. [read more]

Sex in Milton's Paradise Lost Term Paper

… Milton's Paradise Lost

Predestined to sexual knowledge: Eve's Dream and the Existence of Sexual Knowledge before the Fall of Man in Milton's "Paradise Lost"

In the modern, popular cultural imagination, John Milton's retelling of the first few books of Genesis, "Paradise Lost," has supplanted the Biblical work itself as a representation of the Fall of Man and Original Sin. Culture loves a narrative, and people have come to associate the sensual Eve, the innocent Adam, and the angry, Byronic Lucifer with the original depictions of these characters themselves in the Hebraic scriptures. However, it must not be forgotten n that "Paradise Lost" is actually an artist's retelling and fictional elaboration and expansion of Genesis. Milton had his own theological and topical agenda in examining the…. [read more]

Man and the Right Government Term Paper

… Rousseau referred to a small village or civic community, but the concepts he provided were also applied to great sovereign nation-states, so Rousseau ironically became the forefather of nationalism although he personally wished for a federal Europe, stating that "if we could realize a European republic for one day, it would be enough to make it last for ever" However, he was realistic enough to see that the realizations of his project was improbable, owing to the folly of men.

Rousseau's work coincided with the emergence of the political consciousness and power of the middle classes and of the masses. The vagueness of the concept of general will did not affect its adaptability and prestige: constitutionalism became even more liberal and dynamic and demagogues and…. [read more]

Religion Augustine: Divine Grace and Free Will Term Paper

… Religion

Augustine: Divine Grace and Free Will

One of the Doctors of the Church, St. Augustine's teachings have been profoundly influential since earliest times. In particular, St. Augustine expounded upon the relationship between Divine Grace and human Free Will and the roles that the two did, or did not play, in the achievement of individual human salvation.

The argument represented a major doctrinal dispute of Augustine's day, most notably between his own teachings and those of Pelagius. The ideas of Pelagius, which taught that Divine Grace was not the sole necessity for achieving salvation, were ultimately condemned as heretical at the Council of Carthage in 418. Augustine himself believed that Divine Grace, above all, was essential for the salvation of human beings; that men and…. [read more]

Sociological Theories Marx Weber Durkheim and Mosca Essay

… Sociological Theories

The theory of history from Marx, Durkheim, Weber, and Mosca- There are a number of different modern social theories regarding the nature of society, social change, human's place within society and the idea of how integration and alienation fit within a modern society. These paradigms combine reflexively into a notion of history. Many of these theories have been used to buttress political regimes, many social and psychological thoughts, and many simply to readdress the manner in which humans can more appropriate interact in a post-industrial world. There are three four theorists that have contributed to this discussion; certainly not an opus of their work, but clearly, influential and controversial in their own right: Karl Marx, Max Weber, Emile' Durkeim and Gaetano Mosca.

Karl…. [read more]

Optical Revolutions How the Telescope Essay

… Optical Revolutions

How the Telescope was a More Significant Invention to the Microscope

Advances in optical technology made it possible for early modern scientists to explore both the vastness of the universe and the minute complexities of the microbial world. However, while the invention of the microscope has transformed medicine and, ultimately, the lives of virtually every living person on Earth, these advances took decades to play out and were initially considered trivial. In contrast, the telescope may have had a less profound impact on everyday life, but, through its influence on a seminal figure, sparked an explosive revolution in early modern European thought, challenged the intellectual hegemony of the Church, and, ultimately, shifted our sense of the universe and our place in it.

The…. [read more]

Providence Debate According to J Research Paper

… Calvin rejected the traditional theology in favor of Protestant simplification.

Arminius was more cautious: he recognized the need for further study, and intimated a return to the doctrine of the Church Fathers.

Finding an Alternative: A Reconciliation of the Two Views through Scripture

The operation of Providence in man's daily life has been duly noted in Divine Scripture. As Leslie Walker observes, "Man tills the ground (Genesis 3:17 sq.; 4:12; 9:20), but human labors without Divine assistance are of no avail (Psalm 126:1; 59:13; Proverbs 21:31)."

The primary importance given to the notion of "divine assistance" in the daily life of man points to the idea that Providence has an essential role in helping man achieve his aims in this life, fulfill his duty of…. [read more]

Human Beings Make Sense Essay

… Such alienation from the world and from nature is universal in modern society (May, p 54). May thought that the schizoid personality best typified the modern age of being "detached, unrelated, lacking in affect, tending toward depersonalization, and covering up…problems by means of intellectualization and technical formulations" (May, p. 56).

Individuals are not merely abnormal but isolated and alienated from society, with a sense of disconnectedness of the type portrayed in film noir. Ever since the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, the Western world has had a "passion to gain power over nature" rather than be part of it (May, p. 57). For the existentialist psychotherapist, "the problem is not at all that these patents have endured impoverished pasts, it is rather that cannot or do…. [read more]

Hegel's Historical Narrative Philosophy of History Term Paper

… ¶ … GW Hegel's Philosophy of History. The author explores the narrative and his ideas and concepts that are derived from that work. The author also compares and contrasts this work with the beliefs and theories of Karl Marx. The author uses four sources to underscore the important points of this paper.

Often times writers, historians and philosophers develop their ideas and concepts based on the experiences that they have in their own lives. It is a natural occurrence and one so deeply imbedded that they do not always realize that is what is happening. The experiences they have, coupled with the way they feel and think create a breeding ground for the views of the world and life that they espouse. It has been…. [read more]

Marx Weber Durkheim Term Paper

… Sociology - Theorists

According to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists of productive forces and the relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, and the means of production - which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of land on which one is working. The relations of production are the social and technical means by which work is carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a particular society's productive assets, cooperative work relations, and specific modes of relation among workers. A social relation may be a relation among different groups, among individuals belonging to a particular group, or between one particular individual and a group. This group may be an ethnic group, a social class,…. [read more]

Confessions of St Term Paper



In 397 a.D., St. Augustine, born as Aurelius Augustinus in 354 a.D., began to write what was to become his most famous theological work, namely, his Confessions, "a treatise which expressed his thanks to God for saving him from a life of hedonism and sin and written through the use of intimate autobiographical reminiscences." In this work, St. Augustine reveals his own inner demons related to his lifelong struggles with himself, his sexual appetite, his lack of self-will and his overbearing pride. In essence, St. Augustine's Confessions was composed in order to praise God "for his redemption from sin and to rejoice "in the grace of God Almighty who had allowed such a terrible sinner to be saved…. [read more]

Traditional Chinese Thoughts Essay

… Traditional Chinese Thoughts

Human nature has been the subject of debate amongst various classical Chinese philosophers. The philosophers expressed their different understanding of the human nature. The paper will focus on two Chinese philosophers Confucius and Mozi. Both philosophers came up with a different interpretation of human nature. It will look at the differences and similarities between the understandings of human nature by these two philosophers. It will also link these two philosophies with other Chinese philosophers such as Mencius, Xun Zi (Hsun Tzu), Lao Zi (Lao Tsu) and Zhuang Zi and expose how they relate.

What Confucianism and Moism entail

Confucianism and Moism were among the most influential schools of thought during the states period of war. Confucianism is philosophical and ethical system of…. [read more]

St. Anselm One of the More Influential Term Paper

… St. Anselm

One of the more influential Christian leaders and thinkers of the Medieval era was St. Anselm of Canterbury, a man who helped shape philosophical thought for his era and who also developed the intellectual life of England in the twelfth century.

Anselm was born in 1033 near Aosta, which in those days was a Burgundian town on the frontier with Lombardy. His early life is largely unknown, but he left home when he was 23 and spent some time wandering aimlessly through Burgundy and France, arriving in Normandy in 1059. There, his interest was captured by the Benedictine abbey at Bec, where a famous school under the direction of Lanfranc could be found. Lanfranc was the abbey's prior and was also a scholar…. [read more]

Saint Paul the Man Term Paper

… Paul with regard to salvation. The Catholic Church teaches that Jesus Christ is the Savior of all mankind and he gave up his life as atonement for the sins of all mankind. This is based on the thoughts of St. Paul who spoke of the Savior as the on who wished to save men and that they come by the knowledge of the truth as there is only one God and one mediator between God and men and that was Jesus Christ himself, who gave himself as the ransom. On this is the belief that the Catholic Church established by Jesus Christ through St. Peter is the true Church and that one is obliged to be a member of this Church for anyone who wants…. [read more]

Quaker Law, Prison Reform, and William Penn Term Paper

… The idea behind solitary confinement was that it would give hardened criminals more opportunity to reflect on their lives and draw nearer to God. Though the conditions were still largely deplorable in American jails, the Quakers set about initiating a range of other reforms—such as “separating women from men, and debtors and witnesses from convicts, eliminating liquor and paying jailors a regular salary” (Friends Committee on National Legislation), which helped to give Pennsylvania a unique place in American history with regard to criminal justice.

In conclusion, William Penn’s Quakerism helped to influence his approach to criminal justice. He promoted ideas of reform and rehabilitation in the penal system rather than punitive and corporal punishment. His reforms were based on his own experiences in prisons…. [read more]

Hawthorne and Redemption the Scarlet Letter Research Paper

… Hawthorne and the Redemptive Aim in the Scarlet Letter

As Hawthorne noted several times in his own works, he wrote "romances" -- not novels. The Romance writer, he contended, gave himself a degree of "latitude" that a novelist could not enjoy (Hawthorne, The House of the Seven Gables 1). What Hawthorne attempts to "enjoy," so to speak, in The Scarlet Letter is the reconciliation of diametrically opposed forces. On the one hand is Hester, who is ready to quit the Puritan community and embrace "freedom" (Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter 175) -- freedom from sin, from guilt, from the past, from societal constraints, from judgment, from everything. On the other hand is Dimmesdale, who knows that there is no redemption in such a life as the…. [read more]

Evil Is Divided Into Two Main Categories Book Review

… ¶ … Evil is divided into two main categories. First, there are moral evils. Moral evils are "bad deeds committed by agents who are capable of moral decision making" (p.415). Examples of moral evils include, but are not limited to: wars, murder, abuse of power, domestic violence, rape, child abuse. Second, there are natural or physical evils. "Natural evil refers to events that are not committed by human beings, but that have evil consequences for humanity or other sentient creatures" (p.415). Natural disasters are probably the most commonly-recognized type of natural evils, though things like birth defects could be considered natural evils as well.

How do process theologians explain evil?

Process theologians take a metaphysical approach to theology. They believe that suffering and tragedy are…. [read more]

Jonathan Edwards' "Sinners Term Paper

… ..."

Now suddenly, one's status has become hereditary -- at least in certain situations. A European or Indian who has been indentured serves only for the term of his indenture. The status of indentured servant is only incumbent upon himself. In strong contrast to this, we find that persons who have been sold into slavery -- and from the act discussed above we know this definition includes only Africans -- transmit their servile status to their children. Thus, a slave woman who has a child with a free man gives birth to a slave child who belongs to the woman's own master. Slavery has not only become hereditary, it has also become self-perpetuating.

Further statutes intensified and entrenched the slave status of Virginia's African population.…. [read more]

Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed Essay

… "Since the founding of the United States, Americans have believed that it is their mission to spread social justice and liberty across the world, and to lead human beings to the New Jerusalem. This sense of mission was deeply rooted in American culture, and exerted a huge influence on the values and attitudes of American people" (Kang, 155). Another manner in which the colonies were able to develop is that they were guided by a belief system which heavily and fully believed in the importance of education: education and enlightenment were absolutely important for all people, according to Puritan social values. By valuing education and enlightenment, Puritan values put the colonists in a situation where they were going to steadily evolve -- become better, smarter,…. [read more]

How Does Spinoza Argue Against the Doctrine of Final Causation Is He Convincing Discuss? Essay

… Spinoza's Argument Against The Doctrine Of Final Causation

Spinoza wants to rule out prejudices in human thought that have come about because of the traditional concept of God and have resulted in a belief in final causation, which Spinoza feels causes a confusion between cause and effect, attributing effects as causes for natural phenomena. He focuses on teleological reasoning as one of these prejudices. He finds that teleological reasoning is dangerous for several reasons. First, he feels like teleological reasoning anthropomorphizing God and/or nature. This is due to the fact that people assume that God's intellect would mirror mankind's, and that God would be doing things for certain purposes. Nature does not have to have a reason or a purpose. Moreover, people assume that nature…. [read more]

Rise of the English Baptist Term Paper

… Rise of the English Baptists

Introduction and origins

Reasons for the emergence of the Baptists

The early Baptists: The General and Particular.

different views.

Introduction and origins

The rise and growth of the English Baptist Church is generally seen as a response to the dominance and perceived false doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church. While there are divergent views and debate among scholars about the actual origins and emergence of the Baptists, yet there is general agreement on central aspects, such as their origins in the Separatist Movement of religious dissenters. These dissenters disagreed with the dominant faith of the time- the Catholic Church.

The term directed to the development of the religious sect that grew out of the English Separatist movement and the…. [read more]

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