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Preemptive Warfare Term Paper

… Preemptive Warfare

The concept of preemptive warfare and the explication of its goals are clearly outlined in a September 2002 White House publication entitled "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." This seminal neoconservative essay outlines the role of the United States in an age of global terrorism. Trans-national terror networks have replaced the nation-states of the past as America's greatest enemies. The essence of the modern preemptive warfare doctrine is expressed on page 12: "While the United States will constantly strive to enlist the support of the international community, we will not hesitate to act alone, if necessary, to exercise our right of self-defense by acting preemptively against such terrorists, to prevent them from doing harm." Referred to as the Bush…. [read more]


Unilateralism and Preemptive Defense Term Paper

… The Bush administration is culturally blind and will not recognize the innate differences between American and Iraqi political needs.

Granted, the political systems of many nations leave a lot to be desired and the world would be a better place without systematic cruelty, corruption, and oppression. As Jackson Diehl states in his Washington Post article "The Accidental Imperialist," "inaction seemed the worst choice." Intervention is often the humane, just, ethical course of action. In fact, if the United States did act out of genuine concern for the people of Iraq, as it claimed to do, preemptive strikes could be ethically justified. If the United States did take it upon itself to help those who suffer through the use of military force, however, the action would…. [read more]


Guerrilla Warfare Counterinsurgency Directly Essay

… Al Qaeda has a distinct possibility for employing false flag tactics, for the simple fact that the terrorist organization (although being distinctly Muslim in its constituency) is largely without state or nation in its pervasiveness, its ideologies, and in its decidedly global aspirations. Therefore, the U.S. has a right to be weary of false flag operations from al Qaeda, and must make every attempt it can to expose any illicit actions undertaken by this group so that the public is aware who the true culprit of such activities are. The media can be integral as a means of such exposure by broadcasting the many branches of this organization and its activity.

According to Institute of Defense Analysis employee Brad Roberts, there are five conditions which…. [read more]


Terrorism Shares Features Essay

… The war paradigm of terrorism, on the other hand, fully embraces the potential of WMDs. According to the war paradigm of terrorism, "the worse the damage the better," (Arquilla et al. 1999, p. 149). Therefore, the war paradigm can sometimes be antithetical to the coercive diplomacy model. The use of WMDs may be in collusion with state actors or not. Finally, the new world paradigm is built on religious ideology. It "harks back to the dynamics of millennialist movements that arose in past epochs of social upheaval," and "is likely to seek the vast disruption of political, social, and economic order," (Arquilla et al. 1999, p. 150). All three of these pradigms of terrorism: the coercive diplomacy paradigm, the war paradigm, and the new world…. [read more]


American Foreign Policy Since September Essay

… Precedents for the Bush doctrine

The "Bush doctrine" is an approach to foreign policy codified by the Bush (Jr.) administration after 9/11. Its key principles permit: (1) war against nations that harbor terrorists who plan to attack the U.S., (2) preemptive attacks on said nations, (3) unilateral action, and (4) democratic regime change. In themselves, these principles do not stray from historical precedent for U.S. foreign policy. However, they do represent a step backwards in terms of international cooperation, demilitarization, and ideological pluralism. The doctrine of Manifest Destiny represents a similar set of foreign policy directives that, although we now see them as brutal and racist, were key to nation-building efforts during the 1800s. Unilateral action was also a central element of Manifest Destiny, and…. [read more]


Phoenix Program Term Paper

… ¶ … Phoenix Program Lessons to Iraq

Scope and Significance

Summation

The Phoenix Program in Vietnam

Lessons Learned from Phoenix

Applications for Iraq

Selected Bibliography

APPLICATION of PHOENIX PROGRAM LESSONS to IRAQ

It is not at all unusual to hear popular comparisons made between the Vietnam War and the current war in Iraq and though most experts see only a casual relationship still others see a comparison that is not only valid but is applicable to the utilization of historical Vietnam tactics and lessons learned from them to formulate reasonable resolutions to the Iraq War. In a collection of essays analyzing the similarities and differences of the Vietnam and Iraq Wars, ed. David Ryan demonstrates that the two wars are very similar in public sentiment…. [read more]


History of Espionage Class Reading Essay

… History Of Espionage Class Reading Study Guides

Jeffrey Burds, Chapter 19 of World of the Shadows: An International History of Espionage (The Golden Age of Soviet "Illegals")

This chapter opens with a quote from Stalin, who in 1937 questioned the prevailing belief that bourgeoisie states would refrain from sending "spies, wreckers, saboteurs and assassins" into socialist states.

Chapter 19 then moves to a discussion of the so-called "Cambridge Five," a group of five British nationals who spied for the Soviets during WWII.

Donald Maclean (1915-1983), Foreign Office secretary, Paris, Washington, Cairo, London.

Guy Francis de Moncy Burgess (1910-1963), BBC broadcaster, agent in MI6, secretary to Deputy Foreign Minister

Harold Adrian Russell ("Kim") Philby (1912-1988), journalist, agent in MI6, "The Third Man"

Anthony F. Blunt (1907-1983),…. [read more]


Iran's Nuclear Ambitions a Canadian Essay

… Having in view the massive influence that Iran has in its region regarding the security of the oil supply chain, a positive or negative change in its regime creates price fluctuations and severe uncertainty due to the fact that it can disrupt the international oil networks

The risk of a traditional war with Iran, or worse, a nuclear one, requires not only a very good cooperation among all states that have a stake in this matter, but also an efficient method of containment. As war is not an option, containment seems like the best option. The economic measures against Iran have also been put into practice by Canada, following Prime Minister Harper's statement in July 26, 2010 announcing the sanctions that Canada is imposing on…. [read more]


Powers and Rights Assessment

… S. federal court system and wage litigation warfare? What is the background and current status of this issue?

The chances of this depend on whether or not a successful act of terror actually occurred. If one did occur, the U.S. court system basically requires that the person or persons would get the chance to face their accusers, which means a case in the U.S. federal court system would involve courts in the general local where the terror occurred. So far this has not been allowed because the public responds dramatically to the idea of extending rights in this manner. Accordingly, the chances are that our people would have to use the military tribunals.

4) What is a military tribunal? Has the United States used military…. [read more]


Ethnic Conflict in Xinjiang an Application of Internal Security Dilemma Term Paper

… Ethnic Conflict in Xinjiang: An Application of Internal Security Dilemma

There has been much discussion on this issue and from different points-of-view. An important study conducted on the Xinjiang and the internal security dilemma has been conducted by Jiaxing Xu, "The Ethnic Security Dilemma and Ethnic Violence: An Alternative Empirical Model and its Explanatory Power" (2012) in which the role of ethnic violence and is discussed as a possibility of explaining the ethnic security dilemma. Another important resource for this case study is Michael Edward Brown's "The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict" in which he theorizes the aspects of internal conflicts and connection with ethnic groups and security dilemmas. Also, given that the subject is complex in its nature, it is important to also consider…. [read more]


Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom Essay

… The debate over the issue of security and preemptive strikes doctrine as opposed to the right to privacy and the right to a private life have taken into account the increased necessity of both. However, while the Republicans argue for the supremacy of the Patriot Act, no matter the costs involved, the Democrats, although not dismissing entirely the idea of actions against terrorists on the homeland, do consider the right to privacy as being crucial in the development of a normal and democratic society.

FISA represents the acronym for Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, a Cold War piece of legislation that regulates the foreign electronic surveillance techniques used by the U.S. intelligence agencies. More precisely the 1978 Act "establishes a legal regime for foreign intelligence surveillance…. [read more]


Just and Unjust USA War Against Afghanistan Term Paper

… Terrorism

There are a number of ways to interpret terrorist attacks in the modern world. The Bush administration has chosen a particular perspective that is intended to justify the employment of the United States military as a tool for rooting out terrorism in general. However, there are many difficulties with the logical backing for such a position; the way terrorism is understood, and the sources of terrorism have been largely misconstrued. Many people have put forward criticisms of the White House's outlook -- some from particularly visible individuals -- and an equal number of alternative approaches to terrorism have been offered. but, fundamentally, terrorism needs to be understood as a means of waging warfare; usually adopted by those who possess significant strategic and militaristic shortcomings.…. [read more]


Targeted Killing Research Paper

… Targeted killing has become an essential tool used in the conduct of foreign policy especially in the practice of the Middle East given the substantial number of killings of the terrorist attacks. The common practice of targeted killing in the framework of the asymmetrical confrontation with the terrorist threat has determined great debates in terms of the morality and ethic nature of the practice. Aside from the discussions on the legitimacy of targeted killings under international law, one of the most significant issues related to targeted killing focuses on the way in which such a practice can be considered as moral and ethically justifiable in the political practice.

From the point-of-view of the state politics, targeted killing may be a moral and ethical approach to…. [read more]


Pros and Cons of the Cha and Kang Perspectives Essay

… ¶ … Cha and Kang

The Pros and Cons of the Cha and Kang Positions

North Korea's leaders have demonstrated puzzling, erratic, and irrational political and military behavior in the eyes of U.S./South Korean political scientists and policy makers. For this reason, a debate over the wisdom of approaching policy toward the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) is relevant. Both Victor Cha and David Kang repudiate an extreme policy such as intimidation, coercion, or pure isolation with respect to DPRK. Both feel that this would only heighten the North's motivation to explode or lash out. Some form of engagement is their chosen suggestion for controlling diplomatic policy, though they differ in how this engagement should look. We can see both advantages…. [read more]


Attack on U.S. Marine Compound in Beirut Airport in 1983 Internationalism Term Paper

… American Middle East Unilateralism

Attack on U.S. Marine Compound in Beirut Airport in 1983

In 1983, 241 United States Marines were killed in Beirut, Lebanon (CBS News, 2003). On the world stage, the United States, under the Reagan administration, stood accused of attempting to stand alone against the world, unilateralism, and had lost many of its supporters in the United Nations because of foreign policy that, according to UN representatives, reflected its unilateralism (Johansen, Robert, 1986, p. 610). The United States stood criticized for its invasion of Grenada, and for its attempts to unilaterally bring about political change in the world (Johansen, p. 610).

In 1981, Israel destroyed the Iraqi nuclear reactor near Baghdad in a preemptive attack.(33) There was general condemnation in the United…. [read more]


Army Structure From 3-Brigade Division Term Paper

… With the Division-86 system change, the Army also published a Training and Doctrine Command guide in order to execute successful implementation. On October 1, 1982, the Command published tables of organization and equipment in order to implement this second attempt at achieving the heavy division concept. The tables, which outlined both armored division and mechanized infantry, set out five variations for deployment. The different cases involved the assignment of either five or six armored and four or five mechanized infantry battalions to an armored division; additionally, each mechanized infantry division was regimentally equipped with both five armor and five mechanized infantry battalions.

Institutional variations also covered the integration of varying equipment, including M60 tanks, M113 armored personnel carriers, the new M1 Abrams tanks, and Bradley…. [read more]


Woodrow Wilson and WWI Research Paper

… S. about submarine warfare, and the Zimmerman Telegram, which discussed Mexico and how Germany would help that country fund a war against the U.S. To recover three of the U.S. states - Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona - and return them to Mexico.

Those two things combined appeared to be too much for Wilson to take. While he may not have wanted to go to war, sometimes what a person wants and what he or she realizes is best or needed are clearly not the same. With that in mind, Wilson made the choice that it was time for the U.S. To enter the war. One must keep in mind that Wilson had plenty of time to study and learn about the war. It was…. [read more]


Violence in Ender's Game Term Paper

… Violence in Ender's Game

Ender's Game, a science fiction novel by Orson Scott Card, takes place during a time of intergalactic and inter-species warfare. Mankind has been attacked by the alien buggers twice in the past, and the entire planet is involved in gearing up for the Third Invasion. Neither the story, nor the violence that is such a major part of it, begin with the bugger wars, however. Instead, the story begins with Ender, a six-year-old school child, and shows how violence is a part if his world, even as a normal (or somewhat normal-seeming) little boy. Part of Ender's philosophy includes seeing violence as a necessary evil in certain situations, and Card seems to share the same beliefs as those he puts into…. [read more]


Civil War American Indian Term Paper

… ¶ … conflict between Native Americans and colonists was inevitable from the beginning. The insurgence of colonialism from the 17th to the 18th century led to the complete transformation of the Eastern American frontier from wilderness to colonial settlements. As a result, the "Indian Civil Wars" between the colonists and the various Indian nations represented some of the bloodiest conflicts in American history. This conflict, which occurred concurrently with the American revolutionary war eventually led to the destruction of the Indian Nations west of the Mississippi. Although often discussed within history books as massacres and genocide, a real examination of the Indian wars upon standards of a "just war" has been lacking. The following analysis will look to understand the conflicts between Native Americans and…. [read more]


Terrorism Term Paper

… For the person heading up the relief effort, the key to this negotiation event is to be calm, low-key, and recognize that the warlord needs to get something in return for letting the trucks through. Simply giving the supplies over to the terrorists would be a big mistake, but some compromise must be approached.

Preemption: George W. Bush, while he was president, used preemption, which the Brookings Institution suggests was not a good idea. "A broad-based doctrine of preemption carries serious risks," the Brookings Institution asserts. In fact elevating the preemptive approach to a "policy doctrine" can bring "negative consequences" because it opens up the image that the U.S. "…is too quick to use military force and to do so outside the bounds of international…. [read more]


Declines of American Hegemony Term Paper

… American Primacy: Good for America and the World?

After the end of World War II, the United States emerged as the most powerful nation on earth. Many foreign policy strategists at the time advocated a plan to prevent any rival from acquiring the same level of power, and thus maintain American primacy in the world. Nonetheless, most political scientists consider post-war era as a bipolar one, dominated by the United States and the Soviet Union. The U.S.S.R., however, disintegrated in early 1990s, and the questions regarding American primacy became a centerpiece of political debates. Terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, gave further impetus to the idea that American primacy was good in a new volatile world. Many foreign policy theorists and political commentators began to…. [read more]


Politics International Trade-Offs Term Paper

… Liberals might also argue that rogue states are more likely to be reformed if they are not decimated by invasions and other aggression. Constructivism would take a similar point, arguing against a single state blindly trying to force its political structure on all other nations in the name of freedom. A constructivist would be especially horrified at the way in which current American policy does not take into much consideration the native culture and sociology of the nations it is preemptively attacking. Rather than suggest acting unilaterally to wipe out theoretical enemies in a search for supreme power, constructivism would likely suggest attempting to understand the enemy culture, and work out the boundaries and relationships that can be had between the cultures.

If, as might…. [read more]


Counter Measurers and Neutralization of Weapons of Mass Destruction Research Paper

… Countermeasures and Neutralization of Weapons of Mass Destruction

A common challenge impacting most government officials is, understanding how to neutralize WMD related threats. This is because tools and tactics are continually changing to counter what is being used by terrorist organizations. In this research project, we are looking at those strategies that are effective in mitigating the risks from these weapons. This is achieved through studying real world ideas and applications. Then, we are analyzing how to implement the latest solutions in order to enhance detection and enforcement. The combination of these factors allows us to introduce tools that will improve countermeasures and the neutralization of WMD materials. This is the point when these ideas can be used to boost safety.

Table of Contents

Introduction…. [read more]


Alexander the Great Term Paper

… Alexander the Great

There is not much more that can be said about Alexander the Great. He has been the subject of countless books, several movies, and hundreds of years of speculation. People have varying opinions about Alexander. Many doubt that he should be referred to as Alexander the Great, because he destroyed so many civilizations and cultures that had prospered for years before his reign. Others believe that he deserved the moniker because he expanded the Greek empire into territories far beyond those it controlled prior to his reign. In fact, Alexander was credited with conquering the known world. Therefore, even though opinions vary, there is little doubt that Alexander the Great had a tremendous impact on the world, and that his impact continues…. [read more]


Increasing Threat of Cyber Terrorism Research Paper



Data Mining

The World Wide Web can be considered to be a colossal digital library, singly offering billions of pages of largely- free data, a large portion of which greatly interests terrorist groups. Using the internet, terror outfits can acquire various details concerning counterterrorism measures and terror targets (e.g., transport facilities, public places, seaports, nuclear power stations, and airports). Dan Verton’s Black Ice: The Invisible Threat of Cyberterrorism (2003) cites that the al- Qaeda functions with the aid of huge data pools loaded with information on likely American targets. They utilize the Internet for collecting intelligence on targets, particularly crucial economic nodes. Further, contemporary software facilitates their analysis of the structural deficits in any facility and prediction of the cascading effect of…. [read more]


U S Trade Deficit Any Solutions Research Paper

… Even households that can afford to save are de-incentivized to do so because of low interest rates set by the Fed. Low rates, in fact, simply encourage people to borrow more'and according to Fox borrowing too much is the root of the problem. Sovereign wealth funds of all nations from the U.S. to China require having an investment vehicle that produces a suitable return. If saving is akin to investing, where should the money go? The U.S. stock market is currently at all-time highs (thanks to central bank intervention and unconventional monetary policy such as quantitative easing from 2008 to 2013) but, again, who does this really benefit if not the already wealthy class? The average American, middle-class worker reaps no rewards from a market…. [read more]


Nuclear Revolution and Causes of World War I As Indicated by Van Evera Essay

… ¶ … cause of WW1 was, "The Cult Of The Offensive." This was a very popular phenomenon all over Europe in the years before the outbreak of WW1, and Van Evera defined this phenomenon as the tendency of the militaries to give the offensive a glorified status and take on more offensive military tactics, which goes hand in hand with the assumptions of the elites that there is an added advantage that goes with the offense in warfare. In the words of Van (2001), five main dangers are likely to develop whenever the offense is very strong. All these played very relevant roles in the crisis of 1914:

More hostile foreign policies are adopted by states to avert new dangers that appear whenever the offense…. [read more]


Combatting Future Terrorism Term Paper

… He therefore notes that the prison departments have a noble duty of promoting positive influence with a lot of zeal as well as facilitating the transition of prisoners back to the mainstream society with great innovation. These correctional facilities within the country can act as a special and effective venue for ensuring that the convicted terrorists are de-radicalized and also the spreading of the network of the terrorists is stopped.

The use of airplanes as weapons of terror has been the latest trend and indeed was the tool that was used by the terrorists in the fatal 9/11 attack on the U.S.A. Indeed even before the attack using the planes, Rodney Stitch who was a specialist in air travel safety suggested that the cockpit doors…. [read more]


Iran Instability Thesis

… ]

Rise in occurrences of terrorism

It was back in 1979 when Islamic Revolution was complete and since then Iran has grown consistently to be among those countries that actively support terrorism and terrorist cells across the world. Tehran is one the major states in Iran that is reputed to have equipped, educated, monetarily supported, stimulated, prepared, and otherwise encouraged a large number of terrorist groups through the years. Iran has been known to support not just terrorist cells in the Persian Gulf region, but have also been known to support additional terrorist cells and groups in the regions of Lebanon, Palestine, Bosnia and Philippines amongst other places. This encouragement and backup has sustained to stay strong in recent times as well: the U.S. administration…. [read more]


War in Iraq Was Necessary Term Paper

… ¶ … War in Iraq Was Necessary

The years 2002-2003 marked several changes for Iraq. During this time, the United Nations (UN) Security Council reevaluated Iraq's existing sanctions and replaced them with "smart sanctions," thus allowing more goods to reach civilians and preventing equipment entering the country from being put to military use. The Bush administration criticized the UN's enforcement of these sanctions and, in response, the UN strengthened its restrictions on Iraq. Weapons inspectors returned to Iraq, finding eleven undeclared empty chemical warheads and two illegal Al-Samoud missiles. As a result of these discoveries, the U.S., Britain, and Spain sought a military resolution; whereas France, Germany, and Russia sought tougher inspections as a final chance for peace. Finally, on March 19th, 2003, President Bush…. [read more]

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